Holocaust Timeline

1918 - 1997

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1918
Nov 11 - World War One ends with German defeat.

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1919
April 28 - League of Nations founded.
June 28 - Signing of Treaty of Versailles.

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1921
July 29 - Adolf Hitler becomes leader of National Socialist 'Nazi' Party.

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1923
Nov 8/9 - The Beer Hall Putsch.

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1925
July 18 - Hitler's book "Mein Kampf" published.

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1926
Sept 8 - Germany admitted to League of Nations.

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1929
Oct 29 - Stock Market on Wall Street Crashes.

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1930
Sept 14 - Germans elect Nazis making them second largest political party in Germany.

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1932
Nov 8 - Roosevelt elected President of the United States.

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1933
Jan 30 - Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany, a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000.
Feb 22 - 40,000 SA and SS men are sworn in as auxiliary police.
Feb 27 - The Reichstag burned by Nazis to create crisis atmosphere.
Feb 28 - Emergency powers granted to Hitler as a result of the Reichstag fire.
March 21 - First concentration camp opened at Oranienburg outside Berlin.
March 22 - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, followed by Buchenwald near
Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück for women.
March 23 - Enabling Act passed by German Parliament gives Hitler dictatorial powers.
April 1 - Nazis boycott of Jewish owned shops and businesses.
April 11- Nazis issue a decree defining a non-Aryan as "anyone descended from non-Aryan, especially Jewish, parents or grandparents. One parent or grandparent classifies the descendant as non-Aryan...especially if one parent or grandparent was of the Jewish faith."
April 26 - The Gestapo is born, created by Hermann Göring in the German state of Prussia.
May 10 - Nazis burn books in Berlin and throughout Germany.
In June - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp.
July 14 - Nazi party declared the only legal party in Germany.
Nazis pass Law to strip Jewish immigrants from Poland of their German citizenship.
In July - Nazis pass law allowing for forced sterilization of those found by a Hereditary Health Court to have genetic defects.
In Sept - Nazis establish Reich Chamber of Culture, then exclude Jews from the Arts.
Sept 29 - Nazis prohibit Jews from owning land.
Oct 4 - Jews are prohibited from being newspaper editors.
Oct 14 - Germany quits League of Nations.
Nov 24
- Nazis pass a Law against Habitual and Dangerous Criminals, which allows beggars, the homeless, alcoholics and the unemployed to be sent to concentration camps.

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1934
Jan 24 - Jews are banned from the German Labor Front.
May 17 - Jews not allowed national health insurance.
June 30 - The Night of Long Knives occurs as Hitler, Göring and Himmler conduct a purge of the SA (storm trooper) leadership.
July 20 - The SS (Schutzstaffel) is made an independent organization from the SA.
July 22 - Jews are prohibited from getting legal qualifications.
June 30 - The "Night of the Long Knives."
July 25 - Nazis murder Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss.
Aug 2 - German President von Hindenburg dies.
Hitler becomes Führer of Germany.
Aug 19 - Adolf
Hitler receives a 90 percent 'Yes' vote from German voters approving his new powers.

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1935
March 16 - Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription.
May 21 - Nazis ban Jews from serving in the military.
June 26 - Nazis pass law allowing forced abortions on women to prevent them from passing on hereditary diseases.
Aug 6 - Nazis force Jewish performers/artists to join Jewish Cultural Unions.
Sept 15 - German Jews stripped of rights by Nuremberg Race Laws.

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1936
Feb 10 - The German Gestapo is placed above the law.
In March - SS Deathshead division is established to guard concentration camps.
March 7 - German troops occupy the Rhineland.
May 9 - Mussolini's Italian forces take Ethiopia.
June 17 - Heinrich Himmler is appointed chief of the German Police.
July 8 - Civil war erupts in Spain.
In Aug - Nazis set up an Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortions (by healthy women).
Aug 1 - Olympic games begin in Berlin. Hitler and top Nazis seek to gain legitimacy through favorable public opinion from foreign visitors and thus temporarily refrain from actions against Jews.
Oct 1 - Franco declared head of Spanish State.

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1937
In Jan-- Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, and from being accountants or dentists. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances.
June 11 - Soviet leader Stalin begins purge of Red Army generals.
Nov 8 - 'Eternal Jew' travelling exhibition opens in Munich.

 

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1938
March 12/13 - Germany announces 'Anschluss' (union) with Austria.
Nazi troops enter Austria, which has a population of 200,000 Jews, mainly living in Vienna.
In March - After the Anschluss, the SS is placed in charge of Jewish affairs in Austria with Adolf Eichmann establishing an Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna.
Himmler then establishes Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz.

April 22 - Nazis prohibit Aryan 'front-ownership' of Jewish businesses.
April 26 - Nazis order Jews to register wealth and property.
June 14 - Nazis order Jewish owned businesses to register.
In July - At Evian, France, the U.S. convenes a League of Nations conference with delegates from 32 countries to consider helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but results in inaction as no country will accept them.
July 6 - Nazis prohibited Jews from trading and providing a variety of specified commercial services.
July 23 - Nazis order Jews over age 15 to apply for identity cards from the police, to be shown on demand to any police officer.
July 25 - Jewish doctors prohibited by law from practicing medicine.
Aug 11 - Nazis destroy the synagogue in Nuremberg.
Aug 12 - German military mobilizes.
Aug 17 - Nazis require Jewish women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names on all legal documents including passports.
Sept 27 - Jews are prohibited from all legal practices.
Sept 30 - British Prime Minister Chamberlain appeases Hitler at Munich.
Oct 5 - Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red "J."
Oct 15 - German troops occupy Sudetenland; Czech government resigns.
Oct 28 - Nazis arrest 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expel them back to Poland which refuses them entry, leaving them in 'no-man's land' near the Polish border for several months.
Nov 7 - Ernst vom Rath, third secretary in the German Embassy in Paris, is shot and mortally wounded by Herschel Grynszpan, the 17 year old son of one of the deported Polish Jews. Rath dies on November 9, precipitating Kristallnacht.
Nov 9/10 - Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass.
Nov 12 - Nazis fine Jews one billion marks for damages related to Kristallnacht.
Nov 15 - Jewish pupils are expelled from all non-Jewish German schools.
Dec 3 - Law for compulsory Aryanization of all Jewish businesses.
Dec 14 - Hermann Göring takes charge of resolving the "Jewish Question."

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1939
Jan 24 - SS leader Reinhard Heydrich is ordered by Göring to speed up emigration of Jews.

Jan 30 - Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech.
Feb 21- Nazis force Jews to hand over all gold and silver items.
March 15/16 - Nazis seize Czechoslovakia (Jewish pop. 350,000).
March 28 - Spanish Civil war ends.
April 19 - Slovakia passes its own version of the Nuremberg Laws.
April 30 - Jews lose rights as tenants and are relocated into Jewish houses.
In May - The St. Louis, a ship crowded with 930 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba, the United States and other countries and returns to Europe.
May 22 - Nazis sign 'Pact of Steel' with Italy.
July 4 - German Jews denied the right to hold government jobs.
July 21- Adolf Eichmann is appointed director of the Prague Office of Jewish Emigration.
Aug 23 - Nazis and Soviets sign Pact.
Aug 25 - Britain and Poland sign Mutual Assistance Treaty.
Aug 31 - British fleet mobilizes; Civilian evacuations begin from London.
In Sept - Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "The Jewish people ought to be exterminated root and branch. Then the plague of pests would have disappeared in Poland at one stroke."
Sept 1 - Nazis invade Poland (Jewish pop. 3.35 million, the largest in Europe). Beginning of SS activity in Poland.
Sept 1 - Jews in Germany are forbidden to be outdoors after 8 p.m. in winter and 9 p.m. in summer. Sept 3 - England, France, Australia and New Zealand declare war on Germany.
Sept 4 - Warsaw is cut off by the German Army. British Royal Air Force attacks German Navy.
Sept 5 - United States proclaims neutrality; German troops cross Vistula river in Poland.
Sept 10 - Canada declares war on Germany; Battle of the Atlantic begins.
Sept 17 - Soviets troops invade eastern Poland.
Sept 21- Heydrich issues instructions to SS Einsatzgruppen (special action squads) in Poland regarding treatment of Jews, stating they are to be gathered into ghettos near railroads for the future "final goal." He also orders a census and the establishment of Jewish administrative councils within the ghettos to implement Nazi policies and decrees.
Sept 23 - German Jews are forbidden to own wireless (radio) sets.
Sept 27 - Warsaw surrenders to Nazis; Reinhard Heydrich becomes leader of new Reich Main Security Office (RSHA).
Sept 29 - Nazis and Soviets divide up Poland. Over two million Jews reside in Nazi controlled areas, leaving 1.3 million in the Soviet area.
In Oct - Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany.
Oct 6 - Proclamation by Hitler on the isolation of Jews.
Oct 12 - Evacuation of Jews from Vienna.
Oct 12 - Hans Frank appointed Nazi Gauleiter (governor) of Poland.
Oct 26 - Forced labor decree issued for Polish Jews aged 14 to 60.
Nov 23 - Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10.
Nov 8 - Assassination attempt on Hitler fails.
Nov 30 - Soviets invade Finland.
In Dec - Adolf Eichmann takes over section IV B4 of the Gestapo dealing solely with Jewish affairs and evacuations.
Dec 14 - Soviet Union expelled from League of Nations.

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1940
In Jan - Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "...The time is near when a machine will go into motion which is going to prepare a grave for the world's criminal - Judah - from which there will be no resurrection."
Jan 8 - Rationing begins in Britain.
Jan 25 - Nazis choose the town of Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland near Krakow as site of new concentration camp.
Feb 12 - First deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland.
March 12 - Finland signs peace treaty with Soviets.
March 16 - Germans bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland.
April 9 - Nazis invade Denmark (Jewish pop. 8,000) and Norway (Jewish pop. 2,000).
April 30 - The Lodz Ghetto in occupied Poland is sealed off from the outside world with 230,000 Jews locked inside.
May 1 - Rudolf Höss is chosen to be kommandant of Auschwitz.
May 10 - Nazis invade France (Jewish pop. 350,000), Belgium (Jewish pop. 65,000), Holland (Jewish pop. 140,000), and Luxembourg (Jewish pop. 3,500). Winston Churchill becomes British Prime Minister.
May 15 - Holland surrenders to Nazis.
May 26 - Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins.
May 28 - Belgium surrenders to Nazis.
June 3 - Germans bomb Paris; Dunkirk evacuation ends.
June 10 - Norway surrenders to Nazis; Italy declares war on Britain and France.
June 14 - The Nazis enter Paris.
June 16 - Marshal Pétain becomes French Prime Minister.
June 18 - Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich; Soviets begin occupation of Baltic States.
June 22 - France signs Armistice with the Nazis.
June 23 - Hitler tours Paris.
June 28 - Britain recognizes Gen. Charles de Gaulle as Free French leader.
In July - Eichmann's Madagascar Plan presented, proposing to deport all European Jews to the island of Madagascar, off the coast of east Africa.
July 1 - German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic.
July 5 - French Vichy government breaks off relations with Britain.
July 10 - Battle of Britain begins.
July 17 - The first anti-Jewish measures are taken in Vichy France.
July 23 - Soviets take Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
Aug 3-19 - Italians occupy British Somaliland in East Africa.
Aug 8 - Romania introduces anti-Jewish measures restricting education and employment, then later begins "Romanianization" of Jewish businesses.
Aug 13 - German bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England.
Aug 15 - Air battles and daylight raids over Britain.
Aug 17 - Hitler declares blockade of British Isles.
Aug 23/24 - First German air raids on Central London.
Aug 25/26 - First British air raid on Berlin.
Sept 3 - Hitler plans Operation Sealion, the invasion of Britain.
Sept 7 - German Blitz against England begins.
Sept 13 - Italians invade Egypt.
Sept 15 - Massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester.
Sept 16 - United States military Conscription Bill passed.
Sept 27 - Tripartite (Axis) Pact signed by Germany, Italy and Japan.
Oct 3 - Vichy France passes its own version of the Nuremberg Laws.
Oct 7 - Nazis troops invade Romania (Jewish pop. 34,000).
Oct 12 - Germans postpone Operation Sealion until Spring 1941.
Oct 22 - Deportation of 29,000 German Jews from Baden, the Saar, and Alsace-Lorraine into Vichy France.
Oct 28 - Italy invades Greece.
In Nov - Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia become Nazi Allies.
In Nov - The Krakow Ghetto is sealed off containing 70,000 Jews.
Nov 5 - Roosevelt reelected as U.S. president.
Nov 10/11 - Torpedo bomber raid cripples Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy.
Nov 14/15 - Germans bomb Coventry, England.
Nov 15 - The Warsaw Ghetto, containing over 400,000 Jews, is sealed off.
Nov 20 - Hungary joins Axis Powers.
Nov 22 - Greeks defeat Italian 9th Army.
Nov 23 - Romania joins Axis Powers.
Dec 9/10 - British begin Western Desert Offensive in North Africa against the Italians.
Dec 29/30 - Massive German air raid on London.

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1941
In 1941 - Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, states, "I ask nothing of the Jews except that they should disappear."
In Jan - Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "Now judgment has begun and it will reach its conclusion only when knowledge of the Jews has been erased from the earth."
In Jan - A pogrom in Romania results in over 2,000 Jews killed.
Jan 22 - Tobruk in North Africa falls to British and Australians.
Feb 11 - British forces advance into Italian Somaliland in East Africa.
Feb 12 - German General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli, North Africa.
Feb 14 - First units of German 'Afrika Korps' arrive in North Africa.
Feb 22 - 430 Jewish hostages are deported from Amsterdam after a Dutch Nazi is killed by Jews.
In March - Hitler's Commissar Order authorizes execution of anyone suspected of being a Communist official in territories about to be seized from the Soviets.
March 1 - Himmler makes his first visit to Auschwitz, during which he orders Kommandant Höss to begin massive expansion, including a new compound to be built at nearby Birkenau that can hold 100,000 prisoners.
March 2 - Nazis occupy Bulgaria (Jewish pop. 50,000).
March 7 - British forces arrive in Greece. German Jews ordered into forced labor.
March 11 - President Roosevelt signs Lend-Lease Act.
March 26 - The German Army High Command gives approval to RSHA and Heydrich on the tasks of SS murder squads (Einsatzgruppen) in occupied Poland.
March 27 - Coup in Yugoslavia overthrows pro-Axis government.
March 29 - A 'Commissariat' for Jewish Affairs is set up in Vichy France.
April 3 - Pro-Axis regime set up in Iraq.
April 6 - Nazis invade Yugoslavia (Jewish pop. 75,000) and Greece (Jewish pop. 77,000).
April 14 - Rommel attacks Tobruk.
April 17 - Yugoslavia surrenders to Germany.
April 27 - Greece surrenders to Germany.
May 1 - German attack on Tobruk repulsed.
May 10 - Deputy Führer Rudolph Hess flies to Scotland.
May 10/11 - Heavy German bombing of London; British bomb Hamburg.
May 14 - 3,600 Jews arrested in Paris.
May 15 - Operation Brevity the British counter-attack in Egypt.
May 16 - French Marshal Petain issues a radio broadcast approving collaboration with Hitler.
May 24 - Sinking of the British ship Hood by the Bismarck.
May 27 - Sinking of the Bismarck by the British Navy.
Summer - Himmler summons Auschwitz Kommandant Höss to Berlin and tells him, "The Führer has ordered the Final Solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, have to carry out this order...I have therefore chosen Auschwitz for this purpose."
In June - Nazi SS Einsatzgruppen begin mass murder.
June 4 - Pro-Allied government installed in Iraq.
June 8 - Allies invade Syria and Lebanon.
June 14 - USA freezes German and Italian assets in America.
June 22 - Nazis invade the Soviet Union (Jewish pop. 3 million) as Operation Barbarossa begins.
June 28 - Germans capture Minsk.
June 29/30 - Romanian troops conduct a pogrom against Jews in the town of Jassy, killing 10,000.
In July - As the German Army advances, SS Einsatzgruppen follow along and conduct mass murder of Jews in seized lands.
In July - Ghettos established at Kovno, Minsk, Vitebsk and Zhitomer. Also in July, the government of Vichy France seizes Jewish owned property.
July 3 - Stalin calls for scorched earth policy.
July 10 - Germans cross the River Dnieper in the Ukraine.
July 12 - Mutual Assistance agreement between British and Soviets.
July 14 - British occupy Syria.
July 17 - Nazi racial 'philosopher' Alfred Rosenberg is appointed Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Territories to administer territories seized from the Soviet Union.
July 21 - In occupied Poland near Lublin, Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational.
July 25/26
- 3,800 Jews killed during a pogrom by Lithuanians in Kovno.
July 26 - Roosevelt freezes Japanese assets in United States and suspends relations.
July 31 - Göring instructs Heydrich to prepare for Final Solution.
In Aug - Jews in Romania forced into Transnistria. By December, 70,000 perish.
In Aug - Ghettos established at Bialystok and Lvov.
Aug 1 - United States announces oil embargo against aggressor states.
Aug 12 - Roosevelt and Churchill sign Atlantic Charter.
Aug 20 - Nazi siege of Leningrad begins.
Aug 26 - The Hungarian Army rounds up 18,000 Jews at Kamenets-Podolsk.
Sept 1 - Nazis order German Jews to wear yellow stars.
Sept 3 - First experimental use of Zyklon-B gas in gas chambers at Auschwitz.
Sept 6 - The Vilna Ghetto is established containing 40,000 Jews.
Sept 17 - Beginning of general deportation of German Jews.
Sept 19 - Nazis take Kiev.
Sept 27/28 - 23,000 Jews killed at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.
Sept 29/30 - SS Einsatzgruppen murder 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar near Kiev.
In Oct - 35,000 Jews from Odessa shot.
Oct 2 - Operation Typhoon begins as German Army advances on Moscow.
Oct 16 - Germans take Odessa.
Oct 23 - Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.
Oct 24 - Germans take Kharkov.
Oct 30 - Germans reach Sevastopol.
In Nov - SS Einsatzgruppe B reports a tally of 45,476 Jews killed.
Nov 13 - British ship Ark Roy sunk off Gibraltar by U-boat.
Nov 20 - Germans take Rostov.
Nov 24 - Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Nazis will use it as a model ghetto for propaganda purposes.
Nov 27 - Soviet troops retake Rostov.
Nov 30 - Near Riga, a mass shooting of Latvian and German Jews.
Dec 5 - German attack on Moscow abandoned.
Dec 7 - Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor; Hitler issues Night and Fog decree.
Dec 8 - United States and Britain declare war on Japan.
Dec 8 - In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taken there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the engine exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from the Reich to Lodz.
Dec 11 - Hitler declares war on United States. Roosevelt then declares war on Germany saying, "Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty and civilization." The U.S.A. then enters the war in Europe and will concentrate nearly 90 percent of its military resources to defeat Hitler.
Dec 12 - The ship "Struma" leaves Romania for Palestine carrying 769 Jews but is later denied permission by British authorities to allow the passengers to disembark. In Feb. 1942, it sails back into the Black Sea where it is intercepted by a Soviet submarine and sunk as an "enemy target."
Dec 16 - During a cabinet meeting, Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, states - "Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourselves of all feeling of pity. We must annihilate the Jews wherever we find them and wherever it is possible in order to maintain there the structure of the Reich as a whole..."
Dec 16 - Rommel begins retreat to El Agheila in North Africa.
Dec 19 - Hitler takes complete command of German Army.

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1942
In Jan - Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Bunker I (the red farmhouse) in Birkenau with the bodies being buried in mass graves in a nearby meadow.
Jan 1 - Declaration of the United Nations signed by Allied nations.
Jan 13 - Germans begin U-boat offensive along east coast of USA.
Jan 20 - SS Leader Heydrich holds Wannsee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."
Jan 21 - Rommel's counter-offensive from El Agheila begins.
Jan 26 - First American forces arrive in Great Britain.
Jan 31 - SS Einsatzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed.
In March - In occupied Poland, Belzec extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with permanent gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but will later substitute Zyklon-B.
March 17 - The deportation of Jews from Lublin to Belzec.
March 24 - The start of deportation of Slovak Jews to Auschwitz.
March 27 - The start of deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz.
March 28 - Fritz Sauckel named Chief of Manpower to expedite recruitment of slave labor.
March 30 - First trainloads of Jews from Paris arrive at Auschwitz.
In April - First transports of Jews arrive at Majdanek.
In April - Japanese-Americans in USA sent to relocation centers.
April 20 - German Jews are banned from using public transportation.
April 23 - German air raids begin against cathedral cities in Britain.
In May - In occupied Poland, Sobibor extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with three gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines, but will later substitute Zyklon-B.
May 8 - German summer offensive begins in the Crimea.
May 18 - The New York Times reports on an inside page that Nazis have machine-gunned over 100,000 Jews in the Baltic states, 100,000 in Poland and twice as many in western Russia.
May 26 - Rommel begins offensive against Gazala Line.
May 27 - SS leader Heydrich is mortally wounded by Czech Underground agents in Prague.
May 30 - First 1000 bomber British air raid, on Cologne, Germany.
In June - Mass murder of Jews by gassing begins at Auschwitz extermination camp.
In June - Gas vans used in Riga.
June 1 - Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, Romania ordered to wear yellow stars. June 4 - Heydrich dies of his wounds.
June 5 - Germans besiege Sevastopol.
June 5 - SS report 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.
June 10 - Nazis liquidate the town of Lidice in reprisal for Heydrich's assassination.
June 11 - Eichmann meets with representatives from France, Belgium and Holland to coordinate deportation plans for Jews.
June 21 - Rommel captures Tobruk.
June 25 - Eisenhower arrives in London.
June 30 - Rommel reaches El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt.
June 30 - At Auschwitz, a second gas chamber, Bunker II (the white farmhouse), is made operational at Birkenau due to the number of Jews arriving.
June 30 and July 2 - The New York Times reports via the London Daily Telegraph that over 1,000,000 Jews have already been killed by Nazis.
Summer - Swiss representatives of the World Jewish Congress receive information from a German industrialist regarding the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews. They then pass the information on to London and Washington.
July 1-30 - First Battle of El Alamein.
July 2 - Jews from Berlin sent to Theresienstadt.
July 3 - Germans take Sevastopol.
July 5 - Soviet resistance in the Crimea ends.
July 7 - Himmler grants permission for sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.
July 9 - Germans begin drive towards Stalingrad in the USSR.
July 14 - Beginning of deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.
July 16/17 - 12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy Internment Camp located outside the city. A total of approximately 74,000 Jews, including 11,000 children, will eventually be transported from Drancy to Auschwitz, Majdanek and Sobibor.
July 17/18 - Himmler visits Auschwitz-Birkenau for two days, inspecting all ongoing construction and expansion, then observes the extermination process from start to finish as two trainloads of Jews arrive from Holland. Kommandant Höss is then promoted. Construction includes four large gas chamber/crematories.
July 19 - Himmler orders Operation Reinhard, mass deportations of Jews in Poland to extermination camps.
July 22 - First deportations from Warsaw Ghetto to the new concentration camp, Treblinka. Also, beginning of the deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz.
July 23 - Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw. The camp is fitted with two buildings containing 10 gas chambers, each holding 200 persons. Carbon monoxide gas is piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but Zyklon-B will later be substituted. Bodies are burned in open pits.
In Aug - The start of deportations of Croatian Jews to Auschwitz.
Aug 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery takes command of Eighth Army in North Africa.
Aug 12 - Stalin and Churchill meet in Moscow.
Aug 17 - First all-American air attack in Europe.
Aug 23 - Massive German air raid on Stalingrad.

Aug 26-28 - 7,000 Jews arrested in unoccupied France.
Sept 2 - Rommel driven back by Montgomery in Battle of Alam Halfa.
Sept 9 - Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried, 107,000 corpses, to prevent fouling of ground water.
Sept 13 - Battle of Stalingrad begins.
Sept 18 - Reduction of food rations for Jews in Germany.
Sept 26 - SS begins cashing in possessions and valuables of Jews from Auschwitz and Majdanek. German banknotes are sent to the Reichs Bank. Foreign currency, gold, jewels and other valuables are sent to SS Headquarters of the Economic Administration. Watches, clocks and pens are distributed to troops at the front. Clothing is distributed to German families. By Feb. 1943, over 800 boxcars of confiscated goods will have left Auschwitz.
Oct 5 - Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.
Oct 5 - A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder.
Oct 14 - Mass killing of Jews from Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine.
Oct 18 - Hitler orders execution of all British Commandos taken prisoner.
Oct 22 - SS put down a revolt at Sachsenhausen by a group of Jews about to be sent to Auschwitz.
Oct 25 - Deportations of Jews from Norway to Auschwitz begin.
Oct 28 - The first transport from Theresienstadt arrives at Auschwitz.
In Nov - The mass killing of 170,000 Jews in the area of Bialystok.
Nov 1 - 'Operation Supercharge' Allies break Axis lines at El Alamein.
Nov 8 - Operation Torch begins U.S. invasion of North Africa.
Nov 11 - Germans and Italians invade Southern France.
Nov 19 - Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad begins.
In Dec - Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered. The camp is then dismantled, plowed over and planted.
Dec 2 - Professor Enrico Fermi sets up atomic reactor in Chicago.
Dec 10 - The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.
Dec 13 - Rommel withdraws from El Agheila.
Dec 16 - Soviets defeat Italian troops on the River Don in the USSR.
Dec 17 - British Foreign Secretary Eden tells the British House of Commons of mass executions of Jews by Nazis; the Nazis are "now carrying into effect Hitler's oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe."U.S. declares those crimes will be avenged.

Dec 28 - Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin.
Dec 31 - Battle of the Barents Sea between German and British ships.

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1943
In 1943 - The number of Jews killed by SS Einsatzgruppen passes one million. Nazis then use special units of slave laborers to dig up and burn the bodies to remove all traces.
Jan 2/3 - Germans begin withdrawal from Caucasus.
Jan 10 - Soviets begin offensive against Germans in Stalingrad.
Jan 18 - First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Jan 23 - Montgomery's Eighth Army takes Tripoli.
Jan 24 - At Casablanca conference, Roosevelt and Churchill issue demand for unconditional German surrender.
Jan 27 - First bombing raid by USA on Germany, at Wilhelmshaven.
Jan 29 - Nazis order all Gypsies arrested and sent to extermination camps.
Jan 30 - Ernst Kaltenbrunner succeeds Heydrich as head of RSHA.
In Feb - The Romanian government proposes to the Allies the transfer of 70,000 Jews to Palestine, but receives no response from Britain or the U.S.
In Feb - Greek Jews are ordered into ghettos.
Feb 2 - Germans surrender at Stalingrad in the first big defeat of Hitler's armies.
Feb 8 - Soviet troops take Kursk.
Feb 14-25 - Battle of Kasserine Pass between U.S. 1st Armored Division and German Panzers in North Africa.
Feb 16 - Soviets retake Kharkov.
Feb 18 - Nazis arrest 'White Rose' leaders in Munich.
Feb 27 - Jews working in Berlin armaments industry are sent to Auschwitz.
In March - The start of deportations of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz, lasting until August, totaling 49,900 persons.
March 1 - In New York, American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the U.S. government into helping the Jews of Europe
March 2 - Germans begin withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa.
March 14 - The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated.
March 15 - Germans recapture Kharkov.
March 16-20 - Battle of Atlantic climaxes with 27 merchant ships sunk by German U-boats.
March 17 - Bulgaria states opposition to deportation of its Jews.
March 20-28 - Montgomery's Eighth Army breaks through the Mareth Line in Tunisia.
March 22 - Newly built gas chamber/crematory IV opens at Auschwitz.
March 31 - Newly built gas chamber/crematory II opens at Auschwitz.
April 4 - Newly built gas chamber/crematory V opens at Auschwitz.
April 6/7 - Axis forces in Tunisia begin withdrawal toward Enfidaville as American and British forces join.
April 9 - Exterminations at Chelmno cease. The camp will be reactivated in the spring of 1944 to liquidate ghettos. In all, Chelmno will total 300,000 deaths.
April 19 - Waffen SS attacks Jewish resistance in Warsaw ghetto.
April 19-30 - The Bermuda Conference occurs as representatives from the U.S. and Britain discuss the problem of refugees from Nazi-occupied countries, but results in inaction concerning the plight of the Jews.
In May - SS Dr. Josef Mengele arrives at Auschwitz.
May 7 - Allies take Tunisia.
May 13 - German and Italian troops in North Africa surrender to Allies.
May 16 - Jewish resistance in Warsaw ghetto ends.
May 16/17 - British air raid on the Ruhr.
May 19 - Nazis declare Berlin to be Judenfrei (cleansed of Jews).
May 22 - Dönitz suspends U-boat operations in the North Atlantic.
June 10 - 'Pointblank' directive to improve Allied bombing strategy issued.
June 11 - Himmler orders liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland.
June 25 - Newly built gas chamber/crematory III opens at Auschwitz. With its completion, the four new crematories at Auschwitz have a daily capacity of 4,756 bodies.
July 5 - Germans begin last offensive against Kursk.
July 9/10 - Allies land in Sicily.
July 19 - Allies bomb Rome.
July 22 - Americans capture Palermo, Sicily.
July 24 - British bombing raid on Hamburg.
July 25/26 - Mussolini arrested and Fascist government falls; Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies.
July 27/28 - Allied air raid causes firestorm in Hamburg.
In Aug - Exterminations cease at Treblinka, after an estimated 870,000 deaths.
Aug 2 - Two hundred Jews escape from Treblinka extermination camp during a revolt. Nazis then hunt them down one by one.
Aug 12-17 - Germans evacuate Sicily.
Aug 16 - The Bialystok Ghetto is liquidated.
Aug 17 - U.S. daylight air raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt in Germany; Allies reach Messina, Sicily.
Aug 23 - Soviet troops recapture Kkarkov.
In Sept - The Vilna and Minsk Ghettos are liquidated.
Sept 8 - Italian surrender announced.
Sept 9 - Allied landings at Salerno and Taranto.
Sept 11 - Germans occupy Rome, after occupying northern and central Italy, containing in all about 35,000 Jews.
Sept 11 - Beginning of Jewish family transports from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz.
Sept 12 - Germans rescue Mussolini.
Sept 23 - Mussolini reestablishes Fascist government.
In Oct - The Danish Underground helps transport 7,220 Danish Jews to safety in Sweden by sea.
Oct 1 - Allies enter Naples, Italy.
Oct 4 - SS Reichsführer Himmler gives speech at Poznan (Posen) and talks openly about the Final Solution.
Oct 13 - Italy declares war on Germany; Second U.S. air raid on Schweinfurt.
Oct 14 - Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, fifty will survive. Exterminations then cease at Sobibor, after over 250,000 deaths. All traces of the death camp are then removed and trees are planted.
Oct 16 - Jews in Rome rounded up, with over 1,000 sent to Auschwitz.
In Nov - The Riga Ghetto is liquidated.
In Nov - The U.S. Congress holds hearings regarding the U.S. State Department's inaction regarding European Jews, despite mounting reports of mass extermination.
Nov 3 - Nazis carry out Operation Harvest Festival in occupied Poland, killing 42,000 Jews.
Nov 4 - Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "It is actually true that the Jews have, so to speak, disappeared from Europe and that the Jewish 'Reservoir of the East' from which the Jewish pestilence has for centuries beset the peoples of Europe has ceased to exist. But the Führer of the German people at the beginning of the war prophesied what has now come to pass."
Nov 6 - Russians recapture Kiev in the Ukraine.
Nov 11 - Auschwitz Kommandant Höss is promoted to chief inspector of concentration camps. The new kommandant, Liebehenschel, then divides up the vast Auschwitz complex of over 30 sub-camps into three main sections.
Nov 18 - Large British air raid on Berlin.
Nov 28 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Teheran Conference.
Dec 2 - The first transport of Jews from Vienna arrives at Auschwitz.
Dec 16 - The chief surgeon at Auschwitz reports that 106 castration operations have been performed.
Dec 24-26 - Soviet troops launch offensives on Ukrainian front.

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1944
Jan 3 - Soviet troops reach former Polish border.
Jan 6 - Soviet troops advance into Poland.
Jan 17 - First attack toward Cassino, Italy.
Jan 22 - Allies land at Anzio.
Jan 24 - In response to political pressure to help Jews under Nazi control, Roosevelt creates the War Refugee Board.
Jan 25 - Diary entry by Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, concerning the fate of 2.5 million Jews originally under his jurisdiction - "At the present time we still have in the General Government perhaps 100,000 Jews."
Jan 27 - Leningrad relieved after 900-day siege.
In Feb - Eichmann visits Auschwitz.
Feb 15-18 - Allied planes bomb Monte Cassino destroying landmark monastery.
Feb 16 - Germans counter-attack against Anzio beachhead.
March 4 - Soviet troops begin offensive on Belorussian front; First major daylight bombing raid on Berlin by Allies.
March 15 - Second Allied attempt to capture Monte Cassino begins.
March 18 - British drop 3000 tons of bombs during air raid on Hamburg, Germany.
March 19 - Nazis occupy Hungary (Jewish pop. 725,000). Eichmann arrives with Gestapo "Special Section Commandos."
March 24 - President Roosevelt issues a statement condemning German and Japanese ongoing "crimes against humanity."
April 5 - A Jewish inmate, Siegfried Lederer, escapes from Auschwitz-Birkenau and makes it safely to Czechoslovakia. He then warns the Elders of the Council at Theresienstadt about Auschwitz.
April 6 - Nazis raid a French home for Jewish children.
April 7 - Two Jewish inmates escape from Auschwitz-Birkenau and make it safely to Czechoslovakia. One of them, Rudolf Vrba, submits a report to the Papal Nuncio in Slovakia which is forwarded to the Vatican, received there in mid June.
April 8 - Soviet troops begin offensive to liberate Crimea.
April 14 - First transports of Jews from Athens to Auschwitz, totaling 5,200 persons.
In May - Himmler's agents secretly propose to the western Allies to trade Jews for trucks, other commodities or money.
May 8 - Rudolf Höss returns to Auschwitz, ordered by Himmler to oversee the extermination of Hungarian Jews.
May 9 - Soviet troops recapture Sevastopol.
May 11 - Allies attack Gustav Line.
May 12 - Germans surrender in Crimea.
May 15 - Beginning of deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz.
May 15 - Germans withdraw to Adolf Hitler Line.
May 16 - Jews from Hungary arrive at Auschwitz. Eichmann arrives to personally oversee and speed up the extermination process. By May 24, an estimated 100,000 have been gassed. Between May 16 and May 31, the SS report collecting 88 pounds of gold and white metal from the teeth of those gassed. By the end of June, 381,661 persons - half of the Jews in Hungary - arrive at Auschwitz.
May 25 - Germans retreat from Anzio.
In June - A Red Cross delegation visits Theresienstadt after the Nazis have carefully prepared the camp and the Jewish inmates, resulting in a favorable report.
June 5 - Allies enter Rome.
June 6 - D-Day: Allied landings in Normandy.
June 9 - Soviet offensive against Finnish front begins.
June 10 - Nazis liquidate the town of Oradour-sur-Glane in France.
June 12 - Rosenberg orders Hay Action the kidnapping of 40,000 Polish children aged ten to fourteen for slave labor in the Reich.
June 13 - First German V-1 rocket attack on Britain.
June 22 - Operation Bagration the Soviet summer offensive begins.
June 27 - U.S. troops capture Cherbourg.
Summer - Auschwitz-Birkenau records its highest-ever daily number of persons gassed and burned at just over 9,000. Six huge pits are used to burn bodies, as the number exceeds the capacity of the crematories.
In July - Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg arrives in Budapest, Hungary, and proceeds to save nearly 33,000 Jews by issuing diplomatic papers and establishing 'safe houses.'
July 3 - 'Battle of the Hedgerows' in Normandy; Soviets capture Minsk.
July 9 - British and Canadian troops capture Caen.
July 18 - U.S. troops reach St. Lô.
July 20 - German assassination attempt on Hitler fails.
July 24 - Soviet troops liberate first concentration camp at Majdanek where over 360,000 had been murdered.
July 25-30 - Operation Cobra begins in Normandy; U.S. troops break out west of St. Lô.
July 28 - Soviet troops take Brest-Litovsk. U.S. troops take Coutances.
Aug 1 - Polish Home Army uprising against Nazis in Warsaw begins; U.S. troops reach Avranches.
Aug 4 - Anne Frank and family arrested by Gestapo in Amsterdam, Holland, then sent to Auschwitz. Anne and her sister Margot are later sent to Bergen-Belsen where Anne dies of typhus on March 15, 1945.
Aug 6 - The last Jewish ghetto in Poland, Lodz, is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz.
Aug 7 - German counter-attack toward Avranches begins.
Aug 12 - German counter-attack fails.
Aug 15 - The Allied invasion of Southern France, Operation Dragoon begins.
Aug 19 - Resistance uprising in Paris.
Aug 19/20 - Soviet offensive in Balkans begins with attack on Romania.
Aug 25 - Liberation of Paris.
Aug 29 - Slovak Uprising begins.
Aug 31 - Soviet troops take Bucharest.
Sept 1-4 - Verdun, Dieppe, Artois, Rouen, Abbeville, Antwerp and Brussels liberated by Allies.
Sept 4 - Finland and Soviet Union agree to cease-fire.
Sept 13 - U.S. troops reach Siegfried Line.
Sept 26 - Soviet troops occupy Estonia.
Oct 2 - Warsaw Uprising ends as Polish Home Army surrenders to Germans.
Oct 7 - A revolt by Sonderkommando (Jewish slave laborers) at Auschwitz-Birkenau results in complete destruction of Crematory IV.
Oct 10-29 - Soviet troops capture Riga.
Oct 14 - Allies liberate Athens; Rommel commits suicide.
Oct 15 - Nazis seize control of the Hungarian puppet government, then resume deporting Jews, which had temporarily ceased due to international political pressure to stop Jewish persecutions.
Oct 17 - Eichmann arrives in Hungary.
Oct 21 - Massive German surrender at Aachen.
Oct 28 - The last transport of Jews to be gassed, 2,000 from Theresienstadt, arrives at Auschwitz.
Oct 30 - Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz.
Nov 8 - Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen.
Nov 20 - French troops drive through 'Beffort Gap' to reach Rhine.
Nov 24 - French capture Strasbourg.
Nov 25 - Himmler orders the destruction of the crematories at Auschwitz.
Late 1944 - Oskar Schindler saves 1200 Jews by moving them from Plaszow labor camp to his hometown of Brunnlitz.
Dec 4 - Civil War in Greece; Athens placed under martial law.
Dec 16-27 - Battle of the Bulge in the Ardennes; At Malmedy, during the battle, Waffen SS murder 81 U.S. prisoners of war.
Dec 26 - Patton relieves Bastogne.
Dec 27 - Soviet troops besiege Budapest.

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1945
In 1945 - As the Allies advance, the Nazis conduct death marches of concentration camp inmates away from outlying areas.
Jan 1-17 - Germans withdraw from the Ardennes.
Jan 6 - Soviets liberate Budapest, freeing over 80,000 Jews.
Jan 14 - Invasion of eastern Germany by Soviet troops.
Jan 16 - U.S. 1st and 3rd Armies link up after month long separation during Battle of the Bulge.
Jan 17 - Soviet Troops Liberate Warsaw.
Jan 18 - Nazis evacuate 66,000 from Auschwitz.
Jan 26 - Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz.
By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons, including 1,500,000 Jews, have been murdered there.
Feb 4-11 - Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Yalta.
Feb 13/14 - Dresden destroyed by firestorm after Allied bombing raids.
March 6 - Last German offensive of the war to defend oil fields in Hungary.
March 7 - Allies take Cologne and establish a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen.
March 30 - Soviet troops capture Danzig.
In April - Allies discover stolen Nazi art and wealth hidden in salt mines.
April 1 - U.S. troops encircle German troops in Ruhr; Allied offensive in North Italy.
April 4 - Ohrdruf camp is liberated, later visited by General Eisenhower.
April 10-12 - Allies liberate Buchenwald and Belsen concentration camps.
April 12 - President Roosevelt dies. Truman becomes President.
April 15 - Approximately 40,000 prisoners freed at Bergen-Belsen by the British, who report "both inside and outside the huts was a carpet of dead bodies, human excreta, rags and filth."
April 16 - Soviet troops begin final attack on Berlin; Americans enter Nuremberg.
April 18 - German forces in Ruhr pocket surrender.
April 21-23 - Soviets troops reach Berlin.

April 28 - Mussolini captured and hanged by Italian partisans; Allies take Venice.
April 29 - U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau concentration camp.
April 30 - Soviet troops reach the Reichstag in Berlin; Adolf Hitler commits suicide
in his Berlin bunker.
April 30 - Americans free 33,000 inmates from concentration camps.
May 2 - German troops in Italy surrender. Theresienstadt taken over by the Red Cross.
May 5 - Mauthausen liberated.
May 7 - Unconditional surrender of all German forces to Allies signed by Gen. Jodl at Reims.
May 8 - VE (Victory in Europe) Day.
May 9 - Hermann Göring captured by members of U.S. 7th Army.
May 23 - SS Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide; German High Command and Provisional Government imprisoned.
June 5 - Allies divide up Germany and Berlin and take over government.
June 26 - United Nations World Charter of Security signed in San Francisco.
July 1 - U.S., British, and French troops move into Berlin.
July 16 - First atomic bomb test in Mexican desert; Potsdam Conference begins.
July 26 - Atlee succeeds Churchill as British Prime Minister.
Aug 6 - First atomic bomb dropped, on Hiroshima, Japan.
Aug 8 - Soviets declares war on Japan and invade Manchuria.
Aug 9 - Second atomic bomb dropped, on Nagasaki, Japan.
Aug 14 - Japanese agree to unconditional surrender.
Aug 15 - VJ (Victory over Japan) Day.
Sept 2 - Japanese sign surrender agreement on USS Missouri, Tokyo Bay.
Oct 24 - United Nations is officially born.
Nov 20 - Nuremberg war crimes trials begin.

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1946
March 11 - Former Auschwitz Kommandant Höss, posing as a farm worker, is arrested by the British. He testifies at Nuremberg, then is later tried in Warsaw, found guilty and hanged at Auschwitz, April 16, 1947, near Crematory I. "History will mark me as the greatest mass murderer of all time," Höss writes while in prison, along with his memoirs about Auschwitz.
Oct 16 - Hermann Göring commits suicide two hours before the scheduled execution of the first group of major Nazi war criminals at Nuremberg. During his imprisonment, a (now repentant) Hans Frank states, "A thousand years will pass and the guilt of Germany will not be erased." Frank and the others are hanged and the bodies are brought to Dachau and burned (the final use of the crematories there) with the ashes then scattered into a river.
Dec 9 - 23 former SS doctors and scientists go on trial before a U.S. Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Sixteen are found guilty, with 7 being hanged.


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1947

Sept 15 - Twenty one former SS Einsatz leaders go on trial before a U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Fourteen are sentenced to death, with only 4 (the group commanders) actually being executed. The other death sentences are commuted.

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1960

May 11 - Adolf Eichmann is captured in Argentina by Israeli secret service.

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1961

April 11 - August 14 - Adolf Eichmann is put on trial in Jerusalem for crimes against the Jewish people, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Found guilty and hanged at Ramleh on May 31, 1962. A fellow Nazi reported Eichmann once said "he would leap laughing into the grave because the feeling that he had five million people on his conscience would be for him a source of extraordinary satisfaction."

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1997

May 7 - More than fifty years after the end of World War II, a new chapter of Holocaust history is unfolding. Evidence is emerging of the complicated financial transactions between the Nazis and the European countries and businesses that profited by the genocide. Released on May 7, 1997, a United States study, directed by Commerce Undersecretary Stuart Eizenstat, describes "one of the greatest thefts by a government in history."

The Eizenstat report on U.S. and Allied efforts to recover and restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by Germany during World War II.

The Eizenstat report shows that between January 1939, and June 1945, Nazi Germany transferred $400 million (equivalent to $3.9 billion in today's dollars) worth of looted gold to the Swiss National Bank, in exchange for foreign currency and materials vital to Germany's war machine.

The Eizenstat report also documents that gold, jewelry, coins and melted down dental fillings of concentration camp victims were taken, mixed with plundered bank gold, and resmelted into gold bars that were traded to other countries.

There are still many unresolved issues related to the unlawful taking of property, including real estate and works of art, from the victims of the Holocaust. For example, the city of Paris possesses a number of apartments seized from deported Jews. The Louvre Museum owns pieces of art which were confiscated from Jews by the Nazis. Many of these Jews were sent to the camps and never returned to claim their property.

Belgium and the Netherlands have recently demanded to know what happened to the gold that was taken from their treasuries by the invading German army.

A March 1997 lawsuit accused seven existing insurance companies that conduct business in the United States today of failing to honor insurance policies bought before the war. These German, French, Italian, and Austrian companies are charged with acting in bad faith and enriching themselves at the expense of Holocaust victims.

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