(Oct. - Nov.)
THE DAY YOU WANT TO KNOW ABOUT
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1 Cheshvan - Rosh
- 1512 B.C.E.:
were smitten with the (fifth) plague of Dever.
2936 - 826 B.C.E.:
Hamelech (King Solomon) finished building the first Beit Hamikdash (Holy
Temple) but waited almost 12 months for the Chanukat HaBayit / dedication ceremonies to begin on
8 Tishrei (Yalkut Shimoni Melachim 184).
Cheshvan 5031- October 18, 1270:
Christian Crusades (the seventh and last) ceased with a treaty signed by King
Louis XI and the Berbers.
Cheshvan - 1334:
Kasimir III of Poland renews Jewish privileges.
Cheshvan - 1542:
Birth of R' Chaim Vital.
5461 - October 14, 1700:
Yehuda Hachasid landed in Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) with hundreds of disciples. Rav
Yehuda Hachasid died 3 days later. A shul was built on land he had purchased for that purpose,
and was named for him. The Muslims destroyed the shul in 1720. It was rebuilt in
1837 and destroyed by the Arabs again in 1948. Though it has been rebuilt and rededicated on March 15, 2010, it still retains its name as the Churva.
5694 - October 21, 1933:
Albert Einstein arrived in the US as a refugee from Nazi Germany.
5746 - October 16, 1985:
Ground-breaking ceremonies were held for the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC. Two milk cans containing soil and ashes from concentration camps were symbolically buried on the site. The museum was dedicated in April 1993, with speeches by President Bill Clinton, Chaim Herzog and Elie Wiesel. The museum cost approximately $168 million to build, funded with more than 200,000 private donations. The museum attracts 2 million visitors annually.
- October 14, 2001:
Israeli tourism minister Rechavam Ze’evi, Hy”d, became the first Israeli minister to be assassinated in a terrorist attack.
1 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Shmuel Di Modina, the Maharashdam, zt"l, (1545).
(others have it as 2 Cheshvan 5350 /1589)..
HaRav Yissachar Dov Ber, zt”l, the Velbrozher Rebbe, author of Avodat Yissachar (1877).
HaRav Menachem Mendel Hager of Vizhnitz, zt”l, the Tzemach Tzaddik. (5590 / 1830 – 5645 / 1884). He was the son-in-law of Rebbe Yisrael Friedman of Ruzhyn. Although he became the Rebbe at the young age of 24, he attracted thousands of followers and was the most important heir of his father, and founded the Vizhnitz dynasty. He was famous for his enthusiastic prayer, generosity for charity and love for Eretz Yisrael. In his older years he endeavored to emigrate there. He had two sons, Reb Boruch and another, Reb Yaakov Dovid, who died during his lifetime. His son-in-law was the son of Rabbi Yehoshua Rokeach of Belz, Reb Shmuel of Sokal. His Torah thoughts were published under the title Tzemach Tzaddik. He is buried in Vizhnitz. His son Reb Boruch took his place becoming the second Rebbe of Vizhnitz.
HaRav Akiva Meir, zt”l, Velbrozher Rebbe, the Divrei Haam, son of the Avodat Yissachar (1918).
HaRav Yosef Engel, zt"l, Rav of Krakow and Vienna (5619 / 1859 - 5680 / 1919). Born in Austrian Poland, his rebbe refused to teach him any longer when he reached the age of 12, and between that age and his marriage at 19, he wrote eleven sefarim. Among his sefarim were Gilyonei Hashas, Shiv’im Panim LaTorah, Lekach Tov, Asvan D’Oraysa, and Beit HaOtzar, a Talmudic encyclopedia. His only child, Miriam, married the heir to the leadership of the Kotzker chassidim, but he abdicated that position in order to remain near his father-in-law, Rav Yosef. At age 46, Rav Yosef left his wealthy father-in-law’s home and, for the first time, and had to seek a living. He found a position as one of several rabbinical judges in Krakow. During World War I, Rav Yosef fled with hundreds of other Rabbis to Vienna, where he died. He wrote over 100 Sefarim in Halacha and Kaballah. During his lifetime he published only 20 of them and the rest remained in manuscript, a portion of which have been published posthumously.
HaRav Yisrael Shapira (Spira), zt"l, the Bluzhover Rebbe (5650 / 1890 - 5750 / 1989). He was the son of Rebbe Yehoshua (from his second marriage). Rabbi Yisrael Spira was born in the Galician town of Reischa. From his early youth, it was obvious that he was destined for greatness. At the age of 13 he received both the crown of Torah and the crown of teaching, being given Semicha by the Maharsham, the Rav of Brezhan, who testified to the magnitude of his Torah understanding.
Rabbi Yisrael Spira was the beloved grandson of the Rav' Tzvi Elimelech, the author of Tzvi LaTzaddik. who was a grandson of the Bnei Yissaschar, Rav Tzvi Elimelech of Dinov. When the Tzvi LaTzaddik ascended to the Torah on the Shabbat of his Bar Mitzvah and came to the verse in the Haftora, “Israel in whom I glory,” his holy grandfather turned to him and repeated it with the cantillation. His diligence in Torah study knew no bounds, and was extremely studious in serving G-d.
After his marriage, Rabbi Yisrael Spira became the Rav of the small town of Istrik, near Sanok. This soon became a place to which many turned to ask him questions in Halacha, as well as to seek his advice. After the death of his father in 5691 / 1931, he was crowned as Rebbe in his place and continued the glorious Dinov-Bluzhev dynasty.
During the Holocaust, Rabbi Yisrael Spira experienced the sufferings of hell. He lost his wife, his children, and his grandchildren. Yet it was there, precisely in the valley of tears, that his holy personality stood out. He displayed goodness and kindness to his Jewish brothers, encouraging each Jew to place his trust in the Creator of the world and to await deliverance. After being saved from the Holocaust, he settled in Brooklyn, and it was there that he had a great influence on the religious community.
There are many stories of his miraculous survival, righteousness and dedication during this time and afterwards. He used to say, “The reason I remained alive was so that I could continue recounting to future generations what happened to us during those times.” He was an amazing storyteller, and his accounts and expressions, emanating as they did from a pure and holy heart, entered the hearts of his listeners, who could never forget what he said.
His divrei torah on the parashiot and Yomim Tovim were published by his talmidim in the sefer Shufra D’Yisrael in 2007.
Purim Mo'ed Katan celebrated by Jews
in Persia who escaped forced conversions.
2 Cheshvan 5542 - October 21, 1781:
Joseph II of Austria rescinds the law forcing Jews to wear a distinctive badge. The regulation had been in effect since 1267, more than 500 years.
2 Cheshvan 5666 - October 31, 1905:
Pogrom in Odessa took 300 Jewish
2 Cheshvan 5700 - October 15,
The great 124-year-old Yeshiva
in Mir, Poland was forced to close by the Nazis.Many Mirrer Talmidim fled to Lithuania, and with great nissim survived the war years in Shanghai, China.. Today, B"H, the Yeshiva is alive and
well in Yerushalayim.
2 Cheshvan 5702 - October 23,
The Nazis murdered 10,000 Jews of Vilna, Hy"d.
2 Cheshvan 5702 - October 23,
Romanian soldiers massacre 26,000
Jews of Odessa, Hy"d.
Five thousand Jews of Odessa were arrested in retaliation for an underground
operation. They were all murdered. Some were hanged in public parks. Later that
same day nineteen thousand Jews were arrested, taken to the harbor, doused with
gasoline and burned alive.
2 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Baruch Hager, zt"l, of Seret-Viznitz, the Mekor Baruch (5655 / 1895 - 5724 / 1963). Born to Rav Yisrael of Vizhnitz and Rebbetzin Hinda, a daughter of Rav Meir Horowitz of Dzikov, Rav Baruch was named after his grandfather, the Imrei Baruch of Vizhnitz, who had passed away two years earlier. In 1912, Rav Baruch married Henia, a daughter of Rav Yissachar Dov of Belz. He married a second time, to Tzyril, a daughter of Rav Eliezer Nisan of Dzikov/Tsfat, in 1923. He then became rav of Polein-Riskova, and then served as the rav of Kotzman , Romania , for nine years. He established a Talmud Torah, a Beit Yaakov school and worked extensively for Agudat Yisrael. In 1935, Rav Baruch moved to Seret, a Romanian town of about 2,000 Jews. The Ahavat Yisrael passed away soon afterwards and Rav Baruch became the Admor of Seret-Vizhnitz. It is estimated that of about 150,000 Romanian Jews exiled to Transnistria (including all those from Seret), some 90,000 perished of hunger, cold and persecution. Rav Baruch was ransomed for a huge sum in Adar of 1944 and made his way back to Romania. He finally moved to Antwerp , Belgium in 1946 together with his brother, the Imrei Chaim, and they stayed there for close to a year. He arrived in Eretz Yisrael in Sivan 1947, and set off to Haifa where he set up his court. There Rav Baruch established a yeshiva, a Talmud Torah and other Torah institutions. This laid the ground for the establishment of the famous community of Ramat Vizhnitz, built on the side of Haifa ‘s Mount Carmel , laying its foundation stone on the 3rd day of Tammuz, 1954. Sadly, Rav Baruch passed away at the age of sixty-eight before the culmination of his building project.
HaRav Elazar Simcha Wasserman, zt"l, (1900 - 5753 / 1992). Rosh Yeshiva, Ohr Elchanan, LA and Yerushalayim. The oldest son to his illustrious father, Rav Elchanan Wasserman, Hy"d, who was martyred in the Holocaust, and a nephew of Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzensky, Rav Simcha learned at Novardok for several years, beginning shortly after his Bar Mitzvah, under the Alter of Novardok. He was also very close to the Chofetz Chaim. After his last visit with him, his father sent him to Strasbourg, France, where he started a yeshiva (at the time, the only yeshiva in France). He stayed until 1938, when he moved to America. He first taught at Torah Vodaas, where he became close to Rav Shraga Feivel Mendlowitz. He worked closely with Rav Aharon Kotler in the Vaad Hatzalah during WWII. In 1944, Rav Simcha established the Bait Yehuda Day School in Detroit, the first in Michigan, , and appointed Rav Avraham Abba Freedman as a Rebbe.Their first Shavuot, they were the only two to learn all night in the Beit Midrash. When Rav Simcha left in 1953, he left Rav Avraham Abba, who stayed another 50 years. He then founded the West Coast Talmudic Seminary (WCTS), or Ohr Elchanan (named after his father) in Los Angeles. The school had 300 students at the height of its popularity. In 1979, he and his rebetzen (Rachel Fiege, daughter of the Novardok rav, Rav Meir Abowitz) fulfilled a lifelong dream by moving to Eretz Yisrael. Together with Rav Moshe Chadash, he established Yeshiva Ohr Elchanan in Yerushalayim. Rav Simcha and his rebbetzin never had children. Yet, Rav Simcha was considered by many to be a leading authority on the subject of child-rearing. After Rav Simcha's death, his wife died 10 days later.
Rav Simcha had a sixth sense about people; the story is told of him looking to purchase a used car in Los Angeles. He went to check out one particular car, and asked the owner if he could take it for a test drive. "How do I know you're not going to steal it?" the man said. Rav Simcha then asked if he could use the telephone for a minute. He called the police and reported a stolen vehicle at that very address. The police arrived, confirmed that the car was indeed stolen, and arrested the man. "How did you know?" the police asked Rav Simcha. "Simple," he said. "When I asked to take it for a test drive, he suspected that I'd steal it. Only a thief thinks that way!"
3 Cheshvan - 579 B.C.E.:
King Cyrus of Persia formally occupied
5051 - 1290:
Jews were expelled from England in the final expulsion by King Edward I.
King Edward had banned usury and forced Jews over the age of seven to wear an identifying badge. Some Jews managed to remain in England by hiding their religious identity, but thousands were forced to leave. (Years earlier, King Henry III had forced Jews to pay half the value of their property in taxes, and ordered Jewish worship in synagogue to be held quietly so that Christians would not have to hear it.) Following the expulsion, Jews would not return to England for 350 years, when the policy was reversed by Oliver Cromwell in 1655.
3 Cheshvan - 1553:
Volumes of the Talmud were burned in Venice.
5702 - October 24, 1941:
Germany occupied Kharkov and 20,000
Jews fell into Nazi hands
3 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yitzchak, son of Rav Chaim of Volozhin, zt"l, (1780 - 5609 / 1848).
HaRav Yisrael of Ruzhin, zt"l, (1797 - 5611 / 1850). Born to Reb Shalom, the Rebbe of Prohibisht (who was a son of Reb Avraham HaMalach, the son of the Maggid of Mezeritch). He was engaged to the daughter of the Rav of Berditchev at the age of seven; with the chasuna taking place six years later. When Reb Yisrael turned sixteen his older brother, Reb Avraham (who had succeeded their father), was niftar, leaving no children. He was then succeeded by Reb Yisrael.
When word reached the Rebbe that the Russian Czar intended to build a big church in the Old City of Yerushalayim, the Rebbe summoned Reb Nisan Bak who lived in Yerushalayim. Reb Nisan arrived there a few days ahead of the Russians and succeeded in buying the plot of land. The Czar was forced to buy a different plot of land, known today as the Russian Compound. The shul was known as the "Reb Nisan Bak Shul" and stood until 1948 when it was destroyed by the Arabs. Following the orders of the Czar, the Rebbe was locked up in the Kiev dungeons. The Rebbe spent 22 months locked in a small dark and damp cellar. A few days after the Rebbe was freed he fled Russia and settled in the town of Sadiger.
He had six sons. The Rebbe’s oldest son, Reb Shalom Yosef, was niftar less than a year after his father and was succeeded by his son Reb Yitzchak, who became the first Bohusher Rebbe. The Ruzhiner’s second son, Reb Avraham Yaakov, took his father’s place in Sadiger. He had two sons, the eldest, Reb Yitzchak, was the first Boyaner Rebbe and the younger son, Reb Yisrael, was rebbe in Sadiger. The third son of the Ruzhiner was Reb Dov Ber who was rebbe in Lieov and the fourth son, Reb Menachem Nachum, was rebbe in Sthefanesht. The fifth son was Reb Dovid Moshe, the Chortkover Rebbe, and the sixth son was Reb Mordechai Shraga, the Husyatiner Rebbe. The Ruzhiner also had four daughters. The third daughter, Miriam, was married to Reb Menachem Mendel of Vishnitz, founder of the Vishnitzer dynasty.
HaRav Eliezer Horowitz of Dzikov, zt"l, (5621 / 1860)
HaRav Yosef Zundel of Salant (Lithuania), zt"l, (1786 - 5626 / 1865), teacher of R’ Yisrael Salanter. He learned under Rav Chaim Volozhiner, then after his petira in 1821, he would make trips to learn with Rav Akiva Eiger. He moved to Eretz Yisrael in December 1837. He was the father-in-law of Rav Shmuel Salant.
HaRav Yehuda Leib of Kapust, zt"l, (5627 / 1866)
HaRav Eliyahu Horoshovsky, zt"l, (5644 / 1883), Rav of Drohbitz and author of Pnei Eliyahu and Ezor Eliyahu.
HaRav Yitzchak Zelig Morgenstern, zt"l, the Sokolover Rebbe (1864 - 5700 / 1939). Born in Kotzk, he was the great - grandson of the Kotzker Rebbe. He became Rav of Sokolov, a town near Shedlitz, at the age of 30, and established the Yeshiva Beit Yisrael there. In 1905, he succeeded his father as the Rebbe of Pilov. After a visit to Eretz Yisrael in 1924, he exhorted his followers to leave the Diaspora and settle the land. After the outbreak of World War II, he moved to Otwock, a village outside Warsaw. His eldest son, the Rabbi of Wengrov was stabbed to death by the Germans, Hy'd.
HaRav Yisrael Hager of Radowitz-America, zt"l, (5636 / 1876 - 5703 / 1942) - not be confused with Rav Yisrael Hager of Vizhnitz, the Ahavas Yisrael. The son of Rav Moshe of Radowitz, a descendant of the Torat Chaim of Kossov, founder of the Kossov-Vizhnitz dynasty. Harav Moshe was the son of Harav Yosef Alter of Radowitz, who later settled in Eretz Yisrael and was buried in Haifa. Harav Moshe also moved to Eretz Yisrael, where he settled in Tzfat.
Following his petirah, his son Harav Yisrael succeeded him as Rebbe in Radowitz.
He settled in America in 5673 / 1913 and founded Beit Midrash Bnei Yisrael and a yeshiva named Torat Chaim in honor of his illustrious grandfather. He also worked hard to help support his father's yeshiva in Tzefat and sponsored an orphanage there. Additionally, he helped publish his father's sefer, Vayikach Moshe. He was buried in the Beth David Cemetary in Long Island, where an ohel was built on his kever.
HaRav Shabsi Sheftel Weill, zt"l, Rav of Simani, Hungary (5704 / 1943).
HaRav Avraham Aba Zions, zt"l, (1911-1995). Born in Brisk, Poland. His father passed away when Rav Aba was just nine-years-old. His mother would bring him to one of the talmidei chachomim in Brisk to have him tested every week. When Rav Aba was twelve-years-old, he was sent him to learn at the yeshiva of Rav Moshe Sokolovsky, author of Imrei Moshe. Rav Aba was very close to the Imrei Moshe until the latter’s petirah in 1931, and he assisted with the publishing of the Imrei Moshe’s sefer on Masechet Beitzah, “Melechet Yom Tov.” After a few years, Rav Aba went to Kaminetz to learn by Rav Baruch Ber Lebowitz. In or about the year 1936, Rav Aba returned to Brisk, starting a Talmud Torah there. Shortly after the outbreak of the war, Rav Aba escaped to Vilna. He was instrumental in the printing of Rav Baruch Ber’s sefer Birchat Shmuel. From there he joined the Mirrer Yeshiva bochurim as they traveled to Kobe, Japan, and eventually to Shanghai, China. After the war, Rav Aba came to New York and accepted a position as Rav of Congregation Knesset Israel in The Bronx, where he served for 28 years.
HaRav Mordechai Miller, zt"l, principal of Gateshead Seminary (1920-2000); one of the closest students of Rav Eliyahu Dessler. Rav Miller held a postgraduate degree in law. He had a promising future in the professional world. His uncle had a law firm in London and with his great talents he would have been given a good position. But he gave it all up in order to spend his life al haTorah ve’al ho’avodoh.
HaRav Shimon Groner, zt"l, Mashgiach, Yeshiva Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin (1932-2005). Born in Brownsville, NY, Reb Shimon went to Chaim Berlin, where the Rosh Yeshiva, Rav Yitzchak Hutner treated Shimon like a son. Upon his marraige in 1959 to Nechama Dubba Fishbein he continued his learning in the Kollel Gur Aryeh of Chaim Berlin. He taught the seventh and ninth grades in Yeshiva Ohr Yisrael of Forest Hills and from there was called by Rav Hutner to help found the Mesivta Chaim Berlin in Flatbush. After four years, he became a maggid shiur in the beit medrash, and in 1978 was appointed mashgiach ruchni, a post he held for his remaining 27 years.
4 Cheshvan 4926
The Rambam (Maimonides) reached Yerushalayim,
six months after his arrival in Eretz Yisroel. He and his family celebrated
the date as a private holiday. (Some date it on the 5th or 6th of Cheshvan).
4 Cheshvan -
180 Jews killed in Munich, Hy"d.
4 Cheshvan -
October 17, 1483:
Tomas de Torquemada, ym"s, was appointed Inquisitor General
Jews of Spain had been forced to convert to Christianity, and the Inquisition was designed to uncover those who were continuing to practice their Judaism in secret (called Conversos or Marranos). Those who never confessed were burned at the stake; those who did confess were strangled first. Torquemada believed that as long as the Jews remained in Spain, they might influence the tens of thousands of Jews who had converted to Christianity. It was on his recommendation that the remainder of the Jewish community -- 200,000 people -- was expelled from Spain in 1492. An estimated 32,000 were burned at the stake, and Torquemada's name became a byword for cruelty and fanaticism in the service of religion. The order of expulsion was not officially voided by the government of Spain until 1968.
4 Cheshvan 5302
Algerian Jews celebrate Purim
Edom, "Red Purim" in which the Jewish community in Algiers was
saved from the navy of Karl V and the Spanish Admiral Doria who tried to capture
the Algerian coast.
4 Cheshvan 5595
- November 6, 1834:
Austria's Jews were forbidden to
have the first names of Christian saints.
4 Cheshvan 5702
- October 25, 1941:
Romanian soldiers massacred 26,000
Jews in Odessa, Hy"d.
4 Cheshvan 5704 -
November 2, 1943:
The Nazis liquidated the Riga ghetto. Hy"d.
4 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Shlomo Yitzchak of Tarnopol, zt”l, (5652 / 1891).
HaRav Yoav Yehoshua Weingarten of Kintzk, zt”l, (1845 - 5683 / 1923), the Chelkat Yoav.
His foundation in learning was established by Rav Zev Nachum Borenstein, the Agudat Eizov, but his rav muvhak was his son, Rav Avraham Borenstein, the Avnei Nezer, who was only 6 years his elder. In 1883, Rav Yoav accepted the positions of Rav and Rosh yeshiva in Litomirsk. In 1889, he became Rav of Gustinin, and founded a yeshiva there. From 1894 until his petira, he served as Rav in Kintzk. In 1894, he published Chlkat Yoav. He also published a sefer called Kava Dekesheisa, 103 unanswered kushyos on Shas intended to whet the minds of bnei yeshiva. After the petira of the Avnei Nezer, Rav Yoav accepted the authority of his son, the Shem MiShmuel. After his own petira, his only son, Rav Meir succeeded him as Rav of Kintzk. His son held the post for 27 years until he and his entire family were murdered.
HaRav Kalonimus Kalman Shapira, Piacezna Rebbe, author of Chovot Hatalmidim and Aish Kodesh, and Tzav V'zeiruz, zt"l, (1889 - 5704 / 1943). His father, Rav Elimelech of Grodzisk, was a direct descendant of the Maggid of Kozhnitz and of the Noam Elimelech of Lizhensk. He was named Kalonimus Kalman after his maternal grandfather, the Maor Vashemesh. In 1905, he married Rachel Chaya Miriam, the daughter of Rav Yerachmiel Moshe Hopsztajn of Kozhnitz. She helped him prepare his drashas and seforim, even adding pertinent insights of her own. After the Warsaw Ghetto uprising was crushed in Nissan 1943, Rav Kalonimus Kalman was taken to the Trevaniki work camp near Lublin. where he was shot to death, Hy"d. (Others have him murdered in the gas chambers of Treblinka).
HaRav Yaakov Yitzchak Dan Landau of Strikov-Kiniev, Hy”d, (5642 / 1882 – 5704 / 1943). The son of HaRav Elimelech Menachem Mendel Landau of Strikov, he was murdered by the Nazis..
In 5672/1912, Reb Yaakov Yitzchak was appointed Rav in Kiniev, near Ostrovtza.
After the petira of his father on 19 Shevat 5696/1936, Reb Yaakov Yitzchak was named Strikover Rebbe. However, he remained in Kiniev, a small town with just a few dozen Yidden, for it was close to the Rebbe Reb Meir Yechiel Halevi of Ostrovtza.
Later, when a fire broke out and burned down the entire town, Reb Yaakov Yitzchak moved to Zgerzh, the city where his father held court at the end of his life. There he founded Yeshivat Beit Aharon, where tens of outstanding bachurim learned. Reb Yaakov Yitzchak himself gave a shiur in the yeshiva. The yeshiva also published a Torah journal called Beit Aharon.
Reb Yaakov Yitzchak was active in Agudat Yisrael, and participated in the third Knessiah Gedola in Marienbad.
ith the outbreak of World War II, Reb Yaakov Yitzchak and his family fled Zgerzh after the Nazis took over the Rebbe’s home and the yeshiva building, and settled in Warsaw. Many thought then that what the Nazis did in the smaller cities they wouldn’t dare do in the large cities like Warsaw, but they were soon proven wrong. Reb Yaakov Yitzchak was taken to the Warsaw ghetto, where he was active in Ezrat Torah, the organization that tried to help the talmidei chachamim in the ghetto.
When many Yidden were transported to the death camps and only those who had jobs were allowed to remain, the Strikover Chassidim arranged for the Rebbe to work in a factory that produced uniforms. Later the accursed Nazis began to send away even those with jobs. Then the Rebbe and his family were transferred to a bunker.
This was during Pesach 5703 / 1943. He lifted the spirits of those who were in the bunker, saying that the yeshua was near. The entire Pesach Reb Yaakov Yitzchak ate only sugar powder, for there was no other food kosher for Pesach. He even brought a sefer Torah into the bunker. The others in the bunker implored Reb Yaakov Yitzchak to cut off his beard, but he refused.
On Shevi’i shel Pesach night, during Kiddush, the Rebbe broke down in tears. The next morning, the Nazis found the bunker and sent all the Yidden they found there to Lublin. There they went through a selektzia; some were sent to Maidanek and some to Warsaw to work in the Schultz factory. The Rebbe was returned to Warsaw to work, but from there they were all sent to Treblinka.
In Cheshvan 5704 / 1943, the camp was taken over by the German SS and they killed most of the Yidden. Hashem yinkom damam.
The Rebbe and his son Harav Tuviah, son-in-law of Harav Avraham of Slonim, were killed al kiddush Hashem on 4 Cheshvan. Hashem yinkom damam.
Another son, Harav Avraham Landau, zy”a, managed to make his way to Eretz Yisrael, where he rebuilt Strikover Chassidus, first in Tel Aviv and later in Bnei Brak.
HaRav Yaakov Halberstam, zt”l, (5728 / 1967), Tchakava Rav
HaRav Aryeh Leib Gurwicz (Gurwitz), zt"l, (1906 - 5743 / 1982), Rosh Yeshiva of Gateshead Yeshivah. He was born Leib Kushelevsky in the small town of Malat, Poland. After Leib had learned in the Mir for eight years, the rosh yeshiva, Rav Eliezer Yehuda Finkel, and the mashgiach ruchani, Rav Yeruchom Levovitz, recommended that he travel to study under the Brisker Rav. He later married the daughter of Rav Elya Lopian, and became Rosh Yeshiva of Gateshead. He authored Roshei She’arim (a compilation of some shiruim which he delivered in the yeshiva), Arza Devei Rav (which contains hundreds of chiddushim on Shas). His sefer Meorei She’arim was printed posthumously by his talmidim, and consists of mussar and hashkafic talks that Rav Gurwicz gave over the years.
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Cheshvan 3427 -333 B.C.E.:
Jews massacred in Beit Shean by the Greeks, Hy"d.
5 Cheshvan 4174 - 423 B.C.E.:
Pogrom against Alexandria's Jews
and their expulsion from the city by the Christian rabble incited by Bishop
5 Cheshvan - 1272:
Pope Gregory X condemns the libel of Jews for ritual murder.
5 Cheshvan - 1298:
200 Jews massacred in Germany, Hy"d.
5 Cheshvan 5228 - 1467:
Jews in Landau, Germany, were ordered to
wear the yellow badge.
5 Cheshvan 5681 - October 17, 1920:
Hebrew became one of the official
languages of the courts in Eretz Yisroel under the British Mandate.
5 Cheshvan 5704 - November 3, 1943:
Eighteen thousand Jews were murdered in the Majdanek concentration camp. Fourteen thousand were from Lublin, Poland, and the rest were inmates from various other occupied areas, H"yd.
5 Cheshvan 5736 - October 10, 1975:
Israel formally signed the Sinai disengagement pact with Egypt. The agreement called for Israel to withdraw from the Sinai passes captured in the 1973 Yom Kippur War, leaving them as a demilitarized zone monitored by American and United Nations observers. Israel had previously withdrawn from the Sinai in 1956, and would eventually withdraw permanently in 1982 following the Camp David agreement between Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin.
5 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Moshe Berdugo, zt"l, (5491 / 1730), son of Rav Avraham. Rav Moshe resided in western Morocco and was known as the Rosh Mashbir.
HaRav Meshulam Zalman Chassid of Frankfurt, zt”l, (5551 / 1790).
HaRav Avraham Yosef Rice, zt"l, (5623 / 1862), the first ordained Rabbi in America and pioneer of the Baltimore Jewish community and founder of one of the first Hebrew schools in the U.S.
HaRav Tzvi Hirsch Kalischer, zt"l, (5555 / 1795 - 5635 / 1874), author of Ma’aznayim L’Mishpat and other seforim.
He expressed views, from a religious perspective, in favour of the Jewish re-settlement of Eretz Yisroel, which predated Theodor Herzl and the Zionist movement. He was one of the founders of the Chovevei Tzion movement, and in his 1862 book Derishat Tziyon veHevrat Eretz Noshevet he claimed that Jewish settlement in Eretz Yisroel could be the beginning of the redemption. He frequently had to defend these views against rabbinic opponents in both Europe and Eretz Yisrael who insisted that the Jewish people would have to wait for the Messiah without taking any action to hasten its deliverance.
He was born in Lissa in the Prussian Province of Posen (now Leszno in Poland). he received his education from Jacob of Lissa and Rabbi Akiva Eiger of Posen. A strong opponent of Reform Judaism, Kalischer also acquired knowledge of philosophy and other secular subjects. After his marriage he left Lissa and settled in Thorn, a city on the Vistula River, then in Prussia and now Toruń, in northern Poland, where he spent the rest of his life.
In Toruń, he took an active interest in the affairs of the Jewish community, and for more than forty years held the office of Rabbinatsverweser ("acting rabbi"), serving without salary. His wife, by means of a small business, provided their meager subsistence.
Kalischer traveled through Germany asking wealthy and influential Jews to aid Jewish settlement projects in Eretz Yisrael. His influence inspired the founding of several settlement societies, and in 1864 he was responsible for the establishment of the Central Committee for Settlement in Eretz Yisrael in Berlin. Kalischer first interested the Alliance Israelite Universelle in aiding agriculture in Erez Yisrael, an interest which led to the opening of the Mikve Yisrael Agricultural School in 1870. In reply to the argument from various quarters in Eretz Yisrael that conditions were not propitious for the establishment of agricultural settlements, he proposed that the settlers organize guard units whose members would combine farm work with defense against attack. Tirat Tzvi, a religious kibbutz in the Bet She'an Valley, is named for him.
In his youth he wrote Even Bochan, a commentary on several juridical themes of the Shulchan Aruch Choshen Mishpat (Krotoschin, 1842), and Sefer Moznayim la-Mishpat, a commentary, in three parts on the whole Choshen Mishpat (parts i. and ii., Krotoschin and Königsberg, 1855; part iii. still in manuscript). He also wrote: Tzvi L'Tzadik, on the Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De'ah, published in the new Vilna edition of that work; the Sefer ha-Brit on the Chumash; the Sefer Yetzi'at Mitzrayim on the Haggadah; Chiddushim on several Talmudical treatises; etc. He also contributed largely to Hebrew magazines, as Ha-Maggid, Tziyyon, Ha-'Ibri, and Ha-Lebanon.
..HaRav Alexander Zusha Friedman, Hy”d, (5657 / 1897 - 5704 / 1943), author of Maayanah shel Torah. His father was Harav Aharon Yehoshua Friedman. At three years old, the child was fluent in the entire sefer Bereishit. He continued to excel while learning in the local Sochatchover yeshivah.
At the age of 17, Reb Alexander Zusha married and moved to Warsaw, where he began his career of public service. Active in Zeirei Agudat Yisrael, he edited its journal, Digleinu. In 5685 / 1925 he was elected secretary of Agudat Yisrael, and a year later he was elected to the Board of the Warsaw Jewish community as a representative of the Agudah. He founded the Chorev Talmud Torah Network, which he headed, and set up training seminars for chareidi educators. He was also a board member of the flagship Beit Yaakov Seminary in Cracow.
He wrote a sefer called Kesef Tzaruf on the klalim of the Gemara. In his introduction he explains that “since foreign winds began to blow in our camp, which have tried to erase the Torah study completely … The need arises to help educate a generation which is not so knowledgeable. But if we do indeed step forward in organizing our educational institutions, we have not done anything to satisfy the biggest drawback felt in the educational world, and that is: the lack of appropriate educational literature in our spirit… So … I decided to fill this lack and have written an educational reference guide to bring the students with a proper understanding of the Torah a comprehensive knowledge of the foremost topics in Gemara.”
Reb Alexander Zusha is best known for his monumental Maayanah shel Torah (Der Torah Kvall), in which he gathered the teachings of Gedolei Yisrael on the Torah. He wrote the divrei Torah in clear language, understandable even to non-scholars.
At the beginning of the War, Reb Alexander Zusha was appointed representative of Orthodox Jewry to the Joint Distribution Committee (the “Joint”), and labored to help the Jews in Europe. He was arrested and held hostage by the Nazis along with other Jewish activists, but ultimately was released.
In those horrifying circumstances, when his own life depended on others, Reb Alexander Zusha initiated the establishment of soup kitchens and children’s “playgroups” which actually served as clandestine Talmudei Torah. Through this initiative, thousands of children managed to learn Torah. In Lublin and Cracow as well, chadarim were created along the lines he initiated in Warsaw.
In Elul 5701 / 1941, the Nazis allowed the Jews to establish schools in the ghetto. Reb Alexander Zusha’s Talmudei Torah received official recognition and was eligible for support from the Joint and the Judenrat. At that point he was able to set up and fund the famous yeshiva in the Warsaw Ghetto where more than 400 bachurim learned.
A few months later, in the summer of 5702 / 1942, deportations from the Warsaw ghetto began. The Nazis ordered the Judenrat to send to the death camps all the residents of the ghetto besides Judenrat employees and factory workers. Reb Alexander Zusha found refuge in the Schultz factory, repairing shoes and boots. However, that summer his wife and only child — a daughter, born 11 years after their marriage — were sent to Treblinka, where they were killed al Kiddush Hashem.
Losing his wife and daughter did not discourage Reb Alexander Zusha from continuing his sacred work in the Warsaw Ghetto. Most of the day he was busy repairing boots in the workshop, but in his spare time, Reb Alexander Zusha was busy working on behalf of the klal. He also dedicated many of his working hours to learning; those sitting near him heard him murmuring Gemara and Mishnayot.
Many activists worked to find a way to rescue Reb Alexander Zusha from the Warsaw ghetto. Among them was the famous Swiss askan Reb Chaim Yisrael Eis, who labored tirelessly to improve the welfare of Jews in Europe through his contacts with diplomats and the Red Cross. Reb Chaim Yisrael used his influence with the Paraguayan consul to issue a passport to Reb Alexander Zusha. It is not known whether the passport arrived but was returned to the sender, or if it was never sent, but it was among the papers confiscated by police in Zurich from the home of Reb Chaim Yisrael, and unfortunately did not reach its intended destination.
Thus, Reb Alexander Zusha was taken to the Trawniki camp, near Lublin, in Adar 5703 / 1943, and murdered there on 5 Cheshvan 5704 / 1943. Hashem yinkom damo.
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6 Cheshvan 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:
Nevuchadnetzar killed King Tzidkiyahu's sons before his eyes, subsequently blinding him. (See Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 580:2)
6 Cheshvan 3427 - 355 B.C.E.:
The Yevanim carried out a mass slaughter of the Jews of Beit She'an.
6 Cheshvan 4174 - 413:
The Jews of Alexandria Egypt were expelled by Christian masses.
6 Cheshvan 4926 - 1165:
The Rambam arrived in Yerushalayim (6 months after arriving in Eretz Yisrael) and celebrated his arrival as a private Yom Tov. (See 4 Cheshvan).
6 Cheshvan - 1210:
By orders of King John, Jews of England were imprisoned until they paid the enormous sum of 66,000 marks as a tax. Abraham of Bristol, who refused to pay his “share” (10,000 silver marks) had a tooth pulled every day until he agreed to pay. He lost seven teeth before he was able to raise the funds.
Cheshvan 5127- 1366:
The King of Siciliy forbade decorating the outside of Shuls.
[some say this event occurred on 28 Tishrei]
6 Cheshvan 5570 - October 16, 1809:
Birth of R’ Yisrael Salanter (1809-1883)
Cheshvan 5704 - November 4, 1943:
100 Jews of Florence, Italy, were deported
to extermination camps.
Cheshvan 5709 - November 8, 1948:
First census by the State of Israel counts 712,000
Jews and 68,000 Arabs. (others 69,000).
A vigorous influx of Jews would arrive the next few years, when 750,000 Jewish refugees fled from Arab countries. Subsequently, Israel has witnessed the dramatic homecoming of Jews from Ethiopia, the former Soviet Union, and dozens of other lands. The population of Israel currently stands at 6.5 million, of which 18% is Arab.
6 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Shmuel Chaim, zt”l, (5202 / 1441), author of Shemen Hamishcha.
HaRav Yehudah HaChasid, zt"l, (5461 / 1700), leader of a large Ashkenazi aliya , and founder of the Churva shul in Yerushalayim, 3 days after his arrival in Eretz Yisroel. The shul in the old city of Yerushalayim known as the Churva was originally named for him.(See 8 Cheshvan).
HaRav Yitzchak Eliyahu Igra of Tismenitz, zt”l, (5544 / 1784 - 5564 / 1803).
Born in in Tismenitz, his father was the famed Harav Meshulam Igra, zt”l, Rav of Pressburg and author of She’eilot U’Teshuvott Igrah Ramah. His father commented about him, “He has a sharper mind than I have.”
In 5662 / 1802, Reb Yitzchak Eliyahu married the daughter of Harav Yissachar Berish Falk, the Rav of Hanover. Reb Yissachar Berish was the son of Harav Aryeh Leib Falk, the author of Pnei Aryeh on the Torah and a sefer she’eilot u’teshuvot by the same name, who was in turn the son of Harav Yaakov Yehoshua Falk, the Pnei Yehoshua, zt”l.
Although the Noda BiYehudah had been niftar some years earlier, by 17 Iyar 5553/1793 the community of Prague had not yet appointed a new Rav to succeed him. Harav Meshulam Igra told them that his son would be a worthy successor. It is astounding that Harav Meshulam Igra thought so highly of his son that he would recommend him as Rav of a city of the stature of Prague, with a predecessor like the Noda BiYehudah — especially as this son was just 18 years old at the time!
Sadly, just 14 months after his marriage, Reb Yitzchak Eliyahu was niftar at the age of 20.
HaRav Shlomo Dovid Yehoshua Weinberg, Hy”d, (5704 / 1943), the Admor Hatzair of Slonim.
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HaRav Yechiel Menachem Singer, zt”l, of Alexander-America, (5749 / 1988).
Last Jew comes home (2nd Temple Era)
During the Second Temple Era (circa 230 BCE), Cheshvan 7 was the date on which the Jew most distant from the Beit HaMikdash / Holy Temple -- who resided on the banks of the Euphrates River, a 15-day journey's distance from Yerushalayim / Jerusalem -- arrived at his homestead upon returning from the Sukkot pilgrimage. All Jews would wait for this before beginning to pray for rain.
Cheshvan 7 thus marked the return to everyday activities following the spirituality of the festival-rich month of Tishrei.
In Eretz Yisrael the verse "V'sein
Tal U'matar" is recited in the Amidah, from this day until Pesach.
Cheshvan - 1483:
Although in January, 1482, Pope Sixtus IV had denounced the Inquisition as cruel, in 1483 he gave into Ferdinand’s pressure and extended the authority of the Inquisition to Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia. This consolidated the Inquisition into one central body under Torquemada, ym"s. (See 4 Cheshvan).
Cheshvan 5639 - November 3, 1878:
Jews began to prepare the ground
at Petach Tikva for a new settlement.
. 7 Cheshvan 5702 - October 28, 1941:
Dr. Erhard Wetzel, director of the Office of Racial Questions of the Ministry of Eastern Territories, suggested the introduction of gassing camps to deal with Jews in Latvia, Riga, Minsk and Belorussia.
Cheshvan 5702 - October 28, 1941:
10,000 Jews of the Kovno ghetto were taken
out for execution. The Nazis murdered them all in two days. Hy'd.
Cheshvan 5704 - November 5, 1943:
Jewish children under the age of
12 were taken from Shavl, Lithuania and executed. Hy'd
7 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits.
HaRav Avraham Meiseles, zt”l, (5360 / 1599), mechutan of the Rema.
HaRav Shimon Deutsch of Dobormil, zt”l, (5562 / 1801), author of Nachlat Shimon.
HaRav Yehudah Tzvi Eichenstein of Rozdol, zt”l, (1791 - 5608 / 1847), author of Daat Kedoshim. The son of Rav Moshe of Sambor and son-in-law and successor of Rav Zvi Hirsch of Zidachov, he became the Rebbe of Rozdol and was considered one of the leading kabbalists of his generation.
HaRav Nosson Dovid Rabinowitz of Shidlovtza (Shidlova), zt”l, (5626 / 1865).
HaRav Tzvi Hersh Labl of Tomashov, zt”l, (5559 / 1799. – 5632 / 1871), talmid of Harav Menachem Mendel of Kotzk. Born in Bilgoray, his father was Reb Yisrael, one of the leaders of the kehilla. Reb Tzvi Hersh learned in the yeshiva in Tarnigrad, together with the Divrei Chaim of Sanz, under Harav Yosef Horowitz, the brother of the Chozeh of Lublin. He married the daughter of Reb Yaakov of Tomashov. After his marriage, Reb Tzvi Hersh resided in Tomashov, and there he got to know Harav Menachem Mendel Morgenstern, who was later Rebbe in Kotzk. Under his influence Reb Tzvi Hersh became a Peshischa chassid, and the two were among the leading chassidim of the Rebbe Reb Bunim in Peshischa. After the petira of the Rebbe Reb Bunim in 5587 / 1827, Reb Tzvi Hersh was among those who chose Reb Menachem Mendel as his successor.
When Reb Menachem Mendel moved from Tomashov to Kotzk, Reb Tzvi Hersh moved with him, as he was one of his closest chassidim. He was the Rebbe’s right-hand man, and nothing in the court could be done without his consent. When the Kotzker Rebbe was sick, Reb Tzvi Hersh sent out letters that the chassidim should daven on his behalf.
In 5619 / 1869, after the petira of the Kotzker Rebbe, Reb Tzvi Hersh was among the first of those who appointed Harav Yitzchak Meir, the Chiddushei Harim, as the new Rebbe. Reb Tzvi Hersh would journey to the court of the Chiddushei Harim, and later to the Rebbe Reb Henoch of Alexander, and after the latter’s petira to the Sfat Emet.
He was zocheh to be buried near his Rebbe, Reb Menachem Mendel of Kotzk
HaRav Yehoshua Schwartzberg, zt”l, (5666 / 1905), Rav of Zarik and author of Divrei Yehoshua.
HaRav Yerachmiel Tzvi of Biala-Shedlitz, zt”l, (1878 or 1877 - 5666 / 1905), son of the Divrei Binah (Rav Yitzchak Yaakov Rabinowitz of Biala). His son was Rav Yechiel Yehoshua Rabinowitz, born in 1900. The Biala-Shedlitz Rebbe was niftar only five years later.
HaRav Dovid of Sevorn, zt”l, (5675 / 1914).
HaRav Yosef Yehudah Leib Bloch, zt”l, (5790 / 1929), Rosh Yeshivat Telshe.
HaRav Yehudah Meir Shapira of Lublin, zt"l, (1887 - 5694 / 1933), the founder and driving force behind the Daf Yomi movement, a program of daily Talmud study. Today, tens of thousands of Jews study the "daily daf," and every seven-and-a-half years a "siyum" (completion) of the Talmud is held with large celebrations worldwide. His father, Rav Yaakov Shimshon Katz of Shatz, Romania, was a descendent of Rav Pinchas Koretz, a disciple of the Baal Shem Tov. His mother, Margala, was the daughter of Rav Shmuel Yitzchak Schor, author of Minchat Shai, and a descendent of the author of Tevu’at Shor. He was also a descendent of Rav Bechor Shor of Orleans, one of the Baalei Tosefot. He was married in 1906 and took his first appointment, Rav of Galina, in 1911. In 1921, he became Rav of Sanok, then in 1924 Rav of Piotrkov. It was while there that he wrote his sefer Or HaMeir. In 1923, he began the first cycle of Daf Yomi, having shared this idea at the first Knessiah Gedolah of Agudath Yisrael the previous year. That first cycle began on Rosh Hashana in 1923 and was completed 2702 days later on Tu B'shvat in 1931. Rav Shapira represented the Jews in the Polish Senate, and in 1930, he built the grand Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva in Poland, a building which remains standing till today. Sadly, Rav Shapira passed away at the young age of 46. His remains were later re-interred to a cemetery in Yerushalayim.
HaRav Yehudah Meir Shapira
HaRav Yisrael Weltz, zt”l, (5734 / 1973), Rav of Budapest and author of Teshuvot Divrei Yisrael. In 1927, he published a compendium of halachot and customs called Chok L'Yisrael on Shabbat Erev Pesach. His father-in-law was Rav Chaim Ephraim Baloity (b. 1877), who was a student of the Shevet Sofer and whose many responsa were printed in the rabbinical journals Tel Talpiot and ve-Yelaket Yosef.
HaRav Simcha Elberg, zt”l, (1915 - 1995), editor of HaPardes journal.
Chairman on the executive board of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis for 25 years. He was also on the executive committee of Agudat Israel of America. Born in Poland and ordained in Warsaw. During World War II, he escaped to Shanghai, where he studied at the Mir Yeshiva. He came to New York in 1947 and served as editor of HaPardes, the rabbinic law journal published by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis. He also was the author of multivolume books on rabbinic law and Talmudical concepts as well as a historical bibliography of prewar Poland.
Mr Joseph Rosenberger, z”l, (5757 / 1996). Founder of all Shatnes Laboratories.
In his last will he wrote:
”Due to the fact that I spent all my years educating the Jewish public about the mitzvah of Shatnes & therefore couldn’t learn enough Torah. I am requesting the public to at least learn Torah for my neshama, which I will consider as repayment for my years of devotion.” If you are unable to learn Misnayot or Gemara, kindly say Tehillim for my Neshama – Yosef ben Moshe Halevi.
5446 - November 5, 1685:
shul in America dedicated (Surinam).
The shul of Brachah v'Shalom on the Jodensavanne (the Jews' Savannah) in the Dutch colony of Surinam was dedicated. This was the first shul in the Western Hemisphere.
5481 - November 9, 1720:
The shul of Rabbeinu
Yehudah HaChasid in Yerushalayim with its 40 Sifrei Torah was set ablaze and burned
down by Arabs, marking the tragic end of his group's ascent to Eretz Yisrael. It
was rebuilt in 1837 and
used until 1947.
The Jordanians destroyed the rebuilt shul in 5708/1948. It was rebuilt again in 2010. (Today the site is known
as the Churva.)
5683 - October 30, 1922:
Benito Mussolini becomes Premier of Italy. Though initially pro-Zionist and on good terms with the Jewish population, he is later prodded by Hitler to adopt anti-Semitic policies.
5702 - October 29, 1941:
lives were lost to Nazi mass executions of Kovno's Jewish community, Hy"d. (See 7 Cheshvan).
8 Cheshvan 5725 - October 14, 1964:
Episcopal Church cleared Jews of the charge of deicide..
8 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Meir of Narbonne (HaMeili), zt”l, (1190-1263), author of Sefer HaMeorot (halachic material on Berachot, Chullin, and Seder Moed). Died in Toledo, Spain.
Rabbeinu Yonah (ben Avraham) the chassid of Girondi (Gerona) France zt”l, (1200  - 5024 / 1263). The Ramban's mother and Rabbeinu Yonah's father were siblings. Many years later, the Ramban's son, Rav Shlomo, married the daughter of Rabbeinu Yonah. Thus, the two great rishonim were mechutanim as well as first cousins. He was a student of Rav Shlomo ben Avraham Min Ha'Har. Rabbeinu Yonah was an outspoken critic of the Rambam / Maimonides' writings, particularly his "Moreh Nevuchim / Guide for the Perplexed." When King Louis XIV of France, "Saint" Louis," burnt all the copies of Maimonides' books and copies of the Talmud in Paris in the Square of the Louvre, Rabbeinu Yonah, felt that these events were a sign that he and the other opponents of the Rambam were seriously wrong. He took this tragedy as a sign of heavenly rebuke against him; and as a way to repair the damage, he undertook to write his famous work “Shaarei Teshuvah,” (Gates of Repentance), in which he outlined the methods of doing Teshuvah, and he traveled from place to place preaching about the need to back away from matters which cause division among the Jewish People. Among his students are the Rashba and Ra'ah. [Others cite his yahrtzeit as 11 or 28 Cheshvan]
HaRav Menachem Nachum Kaplan (Nachumke) of Horodna, Lithuania, zt"l, (1811 - 5640 / 1879). When he was nine years old, he lived in the home of Reb Yehuda Leib Ganker and learned with this wealthy man every morning. Later, he wandered through Lithuania until he came to Amshina, where he studied under Rav Avraham Kahane. Eventually, he was accepted to the Mirrer yeshiva and became close to its mashgiach, Rav Yisrael Heller. He married the daughter of wealthy man, but after a number of years, his father-in-law died. Poverty-stricken, Reb Nachumke took a job as a shamash in the Chevra Shas Beis Midrash in Horodna. However, his fame spread, and many throughout eastern Europe came to observe him and learn from him. Among those was the Chofetz Chaim, then only 15 years old.
HaRav Meshulam Shaltiel, zt”l, (1870-1926). Born in Sofia, he moved to Yerushalayim while still very young.
HaRav Yaakov Rosenheim, founder of Agudat Yisrael, zt"l, (1870 - 5726 / 1965).
HaRav Moshe Yosef HaKohen Tawil, zt”l, (1977), zaken rabbanei Aram Soba (Aleppo, Syria). Founded the Degel HaTorah yeshiva with Rav Shlomo Zafrani.
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Cheshvan 3828 - 67 C.E.:
The Jews totally destroyed a major legion of the Roman army of Cestius Gallus in Yerushalayim,
1 1/2 years before Churban Bayit Sheini. The day was celebrated as a Yom Tov.
9 Cheshvan 4926 - October 17, 1165:
The Rambam left Yerushalayim to visit and daven at the Meorat HaMachpelah, (the Cave of the Patriarchs), the holy Jewish burial site in Chevron / Hebron. He declares the
day a Yom Tov for his family and makes a seudat hoda'ah.
Cheshvan 5088 - 1327:
A severe earthquake
hits the Galil (Tzefat).
Cheshvan 5520 - October
A severe earthquake
hits the Galil (Tzefat).
Cheshvan 5628 - November
A great earthquake
shook Tzefat, killing hundreds.
Cheshvan 5697 - October
The Berlin-Rome Axis is formed between the fascist governments of Germany and Italy.
Cheshvan 5755 - October
Yitzchak Rabin, Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat, ym"s, are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Cheshvan 5755 - October
Cpl. Nachshon Wachsman was kidnapped by terrorists from Hamas on his way home from a one-day IDF training course and held hostage in Bir Naballah for a period of 6 days. He was murdered today during an IDF attempt to rescue him. Also killed was Captain Nir Poraz, commander of the squad attempting to rescue Nachshon.Hy"d.
9 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Rabbeinu Asher ben Yechiel, the Rosh, zt”l, (1250 - 5088 / 1327). Rav Asher’s family traced its lineage to Rabbeinu Gershon. The life and influence the "Rosh", straddled the two great spheres of the Jewish diaspora of his time, the Ashkenazic (Franco-German) and the Sephardic (Spanish-Mediterranean) communities. Born in Western Germany, Rav Asher studied under the famed Tosafist Rav Meir of Rotenburg, fathered eight sons, (one of whom wrote a groundbreaking work of Jewish law, "The Tur"), and authored one of the earliest codifications of Jewish law.
In mid-life, after 10 years as the successor of Rav Meir and the leader of German Jewery, he fled the persecutions of medieval Christian Europe, settling in Spain where Jews prospered materially and Jewish learning flourished in the Spanish Golden Age. Though a penniless exile and newcomer, Rav Asher's genius and erudition quickly earned him a position of prestige and influence. In 1304 he was invited to serve as the spiritual leader of the Jews of Toledo, where he established a Talmudic academy and transplanted the Ashkenazic Tosafists' system of Talmudic interpretation and analysis. He also introduced the traditionalism and piety of the early Ashkenazic "Chassidim" (reversing the secularist trends in certain segments of Sephardic Jewry). The Rosh was one of the three primary rishonim on whom Rav Yosef Karo relied for the “Shulchan Aruch” (Code of Jewish Law), giving great weight to the Rosh's opinions. Rabbeinu Asher passed away in Toledo, Spain.
HaRav Yosef Yehuda Leib Bloch, zt"l, (1860 - 5691 / 1930). Born in Rusein, he succeeded his father-in-law, Rav Eliezer Gordon, as Rosh Yeshiva of the Telshe Yeshiva. Telz is one of the oldest towns in Lithuania, situated in the north-western part of Lithuania on the shores of Lake Mastis, and was already mentioned in the chronicles of a Crusader Order in 1320. Jews settled in Telz at the beginning of the 17th century. 2,500 people lived in Telz in 1797, of them 1,650 were Jews (66%). By 1870 Telz had 6,481 residents, including 4,399 Jews. Reb Yosef Leib already began studying under Reb Leizer at the age of 15, in Kelm and married Reb Leizer’s daughter at the age of 21. Reb Yosef Leib initiated many innovations. In 1894, he attempted to introduce Mussar to the yeshiva’s curriculum, and in 1897 he brought Rav Yehuda Leib Chasman zt”l to serve as the yeshiva’s Mashgiach.
HaRav Shimon Shkop of Grodno, zt"l, the Shaarei Yosher (1860 - 5700 / 1939). Born in Turz, Poland, Rav Shimon studied in Mir at the age of 12, and then Volozhin at the age of 15, with Rav Chaim Soloveitchik. He was brought to Telshe in 1885 by his uncle, Rav Leizer Gordon. Rav Shimon’s brother-in-law, Rav Shlomo Zalman Abel, was one of the three founders of the Telshe Yeshiva. He taught at Telshe for 18 years. He succeeded Rav Alter Shmuelevicz as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Shaarei Torah in Grodno, from 1920 to 1939, transforming it into one of the finest yeshivot in Poland and beyond. In 1929, Rav Shimon Shkop came to America to raise funds for the yeshiva, and accepted R’ Dov Revel’s invitation to serve as rosh yeshiva of Yeshiva Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchanan in New York. However, at the request of the Chofetz Chaim, Rav Shkop returned to Europe after six months. In 1939, the Soviet Red army marched into Grodno during the Asseret Yemei Teshuva. Most of the talmidim fled to Vilna,
but Rav Shimon Shkop was too old and sick to travel and remained behind with a few talmidim. He passed away a month later. Rav Shimon Shkop was the author of Shaarei Yosher.
HaRav Yehuda Horowitz, zt”l, (1981), the Stutchiner Rebbe.
HaRav Dovid Tzion Laniado of Aram Soba (Aleppo, Syria), zt"l, (year??), author of LeKodshim Asher Ba'Aretz.
10 Cheshvan 1656 - 2106 B.C.E.:
Metushelach / Methuselah ben Chanoch was niftar a week before the Mabul began. (According to some he passed away on 11 Cheshvan). On this day Noach, his wife, and his sons and
their wives entered the Tayva / Ark. It wasn't until seven days later, however, that the intense rains began for 40 days and 40 nights. The delay was to allow a proper mourning period for Metushelach, the righteous grandfather of Noach who had just died at the age of 969 years, history's oldest human being. Noach and his family (and the animals) would remain on the Tayva for over a year, until the flood waters had sufficiently subsided.
10 Cheshvan 2321 - 1441 B.C. E.:
Yahrtzeit of Gad, son of Yaakov Avinu and
Zilpah, (Some say the 23rd of Cheshvan). He was born on this date in 2196 - 1566 B.C.E.
10 Cheshvan - November 17, 1278:
Six hundred and eighty Jews were
arrested and sent to the Tower of London for "coin clipping." This
was a very serious charge in the Middle Ages as it involved cutting the edges
off of a (gold or silver) coin and melting down the excess for profit. Many
prominent community leaders were among those imprisoned. Two hundred and ninety-three
of them were sentenced to death and hanged, Hy"d. The "luckier" ones had
all of their property confiscated.
10 Cheshvan 5601 - November 6, 1840:
The Sultan of Turkey forbids ritual charges
10 Cheshvan 5621 - October 26, 1860:
The Jews of Sweden are allowed to acquire
10 Cheshvan 5710 - November 2, 1949:
The Weizman Science Institute opened
its doors for the first time in Rechovot, Israel.
10 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Metushelach ben Chanoch, grandfather of Noach (1656 - 2106 B.C.E.:). See above.
Gad, son of Yaakov Avinu and Zilpah, (2321 - 1441 B.C. E.:) (Some say the 23rd of Cheshvan). He was born on this date in 2196 - 1566 B.C.E.
HaRav Yechiel Michel of Krakow, zt"l, author of Seder Gittin (5421 / 1660)
HaRav Aryeh Leib of Stanislov, zt"l, author of Nachlat Aryeh (5510 / 1749).The city of Stanisławów was founded in the year 1654 by the Hetman (commander) and Starosta (County Administrator) of the Halicz region, Jedrzej Potocki, and was named after his son Stanisław. Armenians and Jews were invited and promised, in the founding charter of the city of May 7, 1654, the right to settle in the city and the right to establish a house of prayer on the land that was given to them. In a special charter from September 17, 1662, Jedrzej Potocki granted the Jews Żydzi talmudowi) the right to settle permanently in the city and the right to engage in commerce and crafts in the same measure as "the members of the Polish, Ruthenia and Armenian nations." In 1732, the Jewish population was 1,470 souls from among a total population of 3,321
HaRav Meir, Rav of Lelov and of Ostroha, zt"l, author of Meir Nesivim (5550 / 1789).
HaRav Avraham Oppenheim, zt"l, author of Eishel Avraham on Shulchan Aruch (5587 / 1826). [Not to be confused with Rav Avraham Dovid Wahrman of Butchatch, author of a sefer with the same name - see 30 Tishrei.]
HaRav Yosef Meir, zt"l, (5592 / 1831), Rav of Golina.
HaRav Yitzchak Schick of Karlin, zt"l, the Keren Orah (5612 / 1851)
HaRav Meir Shapit of Kobrin, author of Nir L'Yerushalmi (5633 / 1872).
Harav Shmuel Zanvil Klapfish, zt”l, Rav n Warsaw,(5585 / 1825 - 5662 / 1901). Born in Nemirov, as a young boy, his family moved to Warsaw. He was a talmid of Harav Moshe Yehudah Leib Silberberg, the Zayit Raanan, and received semicha from Harav Chaim Davidson, Rav of Warsaw. He married the daughter of Harav Mordechai, known as Reb Mottele, a Rav in Warsaw. After the petira of Harav Nosson (Reb Noske) Spiegelglass of Warsaw in 5633 / 1873, Reb Shmuel Zanvil was appointed his successor.
Reb Shmuel Zanvil headed a yeshiva in Warsaw, from which many leading talmidei chachamim emerged. He delivered a daily shiur of seven hours’ duration. Later, when the responsibility of Rav took more of his time, his shiur was only (!) four hours long. Reb Shmuel Zanvil purposely located the yeshiva far from his home, so as not to be disturbed with she’eilot while saying shiur.
Many leading Gedolim addressed their she’eilot to Reb Shmuel Zanvil, among them the Chiddushei Harim, zt”l, who knew Reb Shmuel Zanvil from his days in Warsaw; Harav Yoshe Ber, the Brisker Rav, zt”l; and Harav Dov Berish Meizlish, zt”l.
He wrote chiddushei Torah on many masechtot and also many halachic teshuvot, but they were never printed. His son was Harav Mordechai, Rav in Warsaw. His sons-in-law were Harav Shlomo Dovid Kahana, Harav Chaim Yehudah Leib Yudkowski and Harav Abba Chaim Miklishanski, all of whom served as Rabbanim in Warsaw; and Harav Chaim Fein, Rav in Radzin.
HaRav Dov Beirish Weidenfeld, the Tchebiner Rav (5641 / 1881- 5726 / 1965).His maternal grandfather was the seventh link in an unbroken chain of poskim beginning with the Shach. Beirishel's paternal grandfather was a disciple of R' Yaakov Loeberbaum, author of Nesivot HaMishpat. His father, founder of the Kochav MiYaakov Yeshiva, was his primary teacher until he was niftar in 1894, just two weeks prior to Reb Beirishel's Bar Mitzvah. Thereafter, he became a student of his two older brothers, Rav Yitzchak of Horimlov (where Beirishel was also born) and Rav Nachum of Dombrova. At the age of 19, Rav Beirish married Rebbetzin Yachat, the daughter of Rav Yisrael Yosef Kluger of Tchebin. At the age of 24, he received semicha from Rav Yitzchak Shmelkish, the Beit Yitzchak. He refused many offers to serve as a Rav and made his living as a merchant, with.his wife administering a modest coal business to support him. In 1923, after 20 years of learning, he assumed the title of the Tchebiner Rav to replace the Rav when he passed away. He founded a Yeshiva to which students came from all over Poland. Along with his wife and youngest daughter, the Rav was deported to Sverdelovsk, Siberia, in late 1940. He continued to write Torah novella even in Siberia, on scraps of paper and wood. With the dissolution of the labor camp, the Rav escaped to Buchara. The Tshebiner Rav arrived on the eve of Pesach, 1946, in Yerushalayim, which he was to call home for the rest of his life, settling in the Shaarei Chessed neighborhood. His responsa were collected in the sefer Doveiv Meisharim. His son-in-law and successor as Rosh Yeshiva of Kochav MiYaakov was Rav Baruch Shimon Schneersohn.
11 Cheshvan 1656 - 2106 B.C.E.:
Yahrtzeit of Methuselach / Methuselah, (age 969) son of Chanoch / Enoch. Methuselach, the longest-lived human being of all time, died exactly seven days before the beginning of the Mabul / Great Flood. Methuselach was Adam's great-great-great-great-great-grandson and Noach's grandfather. (See 10 Cheshvan).
11 Cheshvan 2208 - 1554 B.C.E.:
Yahrzeit of Rachel Imeinu, during the birth of her son Binyamin.
(According to the Vilna Gaon, she was 36 years old, according to Sefer Hayashar, 45).
Rachel had previously given birth to Yosef / Joseph, following years of being childless. Yaakov Avinu buried her by the roadside in Bethlehem, where "Rachel weeps over her children, for they are gone [in exile]" (Yirmiyahu / Jeremiah 31:14). Today, Kever Rachel / Rachel's Tomb serves as a place of pilgrimage and prayer, as it has for more than 35 centuries, and is regarded as Judaism third-holiest site.
11 Cheshvan 2208 - 1554 B.C.E.:
Birthday of Benyamin, born to Yaakov
Avinu and Rachel.
(Also his Yahrtzeit 2317 - 1445 B.C.E.)
11 Cheshvan 5046 - 1285:
180 Jews were killed in Munich, Germany, Hy"d.
11 Cheshvan 5734 - November 6, 1973:
New York City
elected its first Jewish Mayor, Abraham D. Beame.
11 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Metushelach ben Chanoch, grandfather of Noach (1656 - 2106 B.C.E.:)
(See above and 10 Cheshvan)
Rachel Imeinu (2208 / 1554 BCE), during the birth of her son Binyamin. According to the Vilna Gaon, she was 36 years old; according to Sefer Hayashar, 45). See above.
Binyamin ben Yaakov Avinu (2317 / 1445 B.C.E.:)
HaRav Moshe, zt”l, (5453 / 1692), Rav of Kratishin, son of the Shach.
HaRav Menachem Nachum Twersky of Chernobyl, zt"l, (5490 / 1730 - 5558 / 1797). Rav Nachum was a disciple of the Baal Shem Tov and a student of the second leader of the Chassidic movement, Rav DovBer of Mezeritch. He was the founder of the Chernobyl dynasty of Chassidic Rebbes. He authored Meor Einayim and Yismach Lev. He was succeeded by his son, Mordechai, the descendents of which are the Skverer Chasidim, the current Rebbe of whom is Rav Dovid Twersky of New Square, NY. (Others 5548 / 1787)
HaRav Yaakov Ginzburg, zt”l, (5575 / 1814), Dayan in Prague.
HaRav Avraham Coriat of Mugador, zt”l, (5606 / 1845). The Coriat family was a famous family of Rabbis in Morocco, and Rav Avraham was one of the Torah leaders in Mugador, Morocco. He authored the Sefer Brit Avot.
HaRav Avraham Elimelech Weinberg, zt"l, founder of Slonimer Chassidut (5564 / 1804 - 5644 / 1883), a disciple of Rav Noach of Lechovitz, and author of Be'er Avraham on Mechilta, Yesod Ha'avodah, and Chessed L'Avraham. In 1815, with the guidance of Rav Chaim of Voloshin he founded a Yeshiva in Solonim called Anaf Eitz Chaim. In 1858 the Chassidim united behind him and he became the Admor. He was active in the spread of the Chasidic movement in Lithuania and was a main organizer of support for the religious communities in the Holy Land.
HaRav Avraham Mordechai Landau, zt”l, of Alik, (5645 / 1884), author of Gedulat Mordechai.
Harav Avraham Shlomo Halevi Epstein, zt”l, (5678 / 1917), the Ozhorover Rebbe.
Harav Chaim Yaakov Teitelbaum, zt”l, of Limnov, (5694 / 1933).
HaRav Pesach Pruskin, zt "l, Rav and Rosh Yeshiva in Kobrin (5639 / 1879 - 5700 / 1939). Born to his widowed mother (he was named after his father, who died several months prior to his birth), he grew up in the home of his mother's grandfather, Rav Pinchas Michael (Rav in Antipole). In his teens, he joined the yeshiva of the Chofetz Chaim in Radin. He later went to Slobodka and spent a year at Kelm. When the Alter of Slobodka selected Slutsk, a large city in White Russia, to place one of his yeshivot, he dispatched Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer as Rosh Yeshiva, with fourteen talmidim - among them Pesach "Kobriner." The 14 (known as the “yad hachazakah — the mighty arm” (“yad” has the numerical value of 14) served as the nucleus of the new yeshiva. Rav Pesach became mashgiach in Slutsk. In 1911, he became Rav of Amtsislav (also called Mistsislav) and also opened a yeshiva there. When the Bolsheviks took over Russia, and his native city of Kobrin was incorporated into Poland by the Soviet-Polish treaty of Riga, 1922, he escaped the Communist rule to Kobrin where he became Rav and opened another yeshiva. Among his talmidim was HaRav Moshe Feinstein (in Shklov and Mistislav). Reb Pesach was active in Agudat Yisrael, attending most of the Knessiot Gedolot. He was among the first to recognize the value of the Beit Yaakov movement.
In 1931, in the early years of the Great Depression, Reb Pesach visited the United States to raise funds for his yeshiva. On his visit to St. Louis he made so favorable an impression that he was offered the position of Rav Hakollel, Chief Rabbi. He refused, expressing gratitude for the offer but explaining, “I can guarantee that my children will remain Torah Yidden in America, but I can’t guarantee the same for my grandchildren.”
His son, Harav Avraham Pruskin, escaped to America with some of his father’s written shiurim, which were published posthumously by Reb Pesach’s grandson, Rav Nosson Zachovsky of Bnei Brak, under the title Shiurei Maran Rav Pesach MiKobrin.
HaRav Yehudah Leib Chasman, zt"l, Mashgiach of Yeshivat Chevron (1869 - 5696 / 1935). He learned in Kelm under Rabbi Simcha Zissel Ziev, in Volozhin under the Netziv as well as that of the Rabbi Chaim Halevi Soloveichik of Brisk. In 1897, he was brought to serve as the Telz yeshiva's Mashgiach. He established the independent Yeshiva in Shtutshin in 1908. In 1912, he was rabbi of Shtutsin. In his last years, he was the spiritual director of the Slabodka Yeshiva in Chevron and in Yerushalayim. In 1926, he became mashgiach at Chevron. Author of Ohel Yohel..Among his talmidin was Rav Shlomo Schwadron.
HaRav Nosson Tzvi Finkel, zt"l, Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Mir Yerushalayim, (1943-5772 / 2011). Rav Nosson Tzvi was born in Chicago, Illinois on March 12, 1943 to Reb Eliyahu Meir Finkel. and was named after his elte-zaida, (great-grandfather), the Alter of Slabodka, Rav Nosson Tzvi Finkel.
Rav Nosson Tzvi later married the daughter of Rav Beinish Finkel, who was the son of Rabbi Eliezer Yehudah Finkel, rosh yeshiva of Yeshivas Mir. Rav Nosson Tzvi’s wife was a second cousin of his. His brother is Rav Gedaliah Finkel, a Maggid Shiur in the yeshiva.
Rav Nosson Tzvi became rosh yeshiva of Yeshivat Mir-Yerushalayim in 1990 following the petira of his father-in-law, Rav Beinish. He also served as a member of the Moetzet Gedolei Hatorah in Eretz Yisroel.
In his later years, Rav Nosson Tzvi suffered from Parkinson’s disease and demonstrated inspiring levels of bitachon and strength. When once asked by a student why he never took drugs to calm the Parkinson’s disease he suffers from, he answered that when inquiring about the drugs, his doctor had told him that it would have an effect on his memory. “I’d rather be ill my whole life than to forget even one word of the holy Torah.”
Rav Nosson Tzvi was a living example of mesirut nefesh for Torah and the Ribono Shel Olam. Books have been written about Rav Nosson Tzvi’s devotion to his talmidim and to Yeshivat Mir, whose budget of millions of dollars was shouldered by Rav Nosson Tzvi, who undertook yearly trips abroad to raise funds for the yeshiva, despite his debilitating condition. There were few individuals of our dor who inspired as many people as Rav Nosson Tzvi did with his mere presence, his smile, his emunah and bitachon, and his astonishing gevurah in light of his circumstances.
Just as inspiring to many of his talmidim and others in the Torah world was Rav Nosson Tzvi’s humble upbringing. He grew up as a child in Chicago, an American kid - backpack, baseball cap, and all - and went on to become one of the most venerated roshei yeshivot of our generation, garnering the respect of the gedolei hador and the masses for his yediot haTorah, his ahavat haTorah, his hasmadah, his ahavat Hashem, his ahavat Yisroel, and his boundless love and dedication for the thousands of talmidim of Yeshivat Mir-Yerushalayim, which, under his stewardship, grew into one of the largest - if not the largest - makom Torah in the world. Also, under his leadership, Yeshivat Mir opened branches in various locations, including Brachfeld in Modiin Illit.
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12 Cheshvan 5059 -
The Rindfleisch massacres
claimed 2000 Jewish lives in South Germany, Hy"d. 470 in Rothenberg ob der Tauber, over 700 in Nuremberg, and over 800 in Wurzburg. Among the Jews murdered were Rav Yechiel ben Menachem HaKohen and Mordechai ben Hillel in Nuremberg.
12 Cheshvan 5526 -
October 27, 1765:
The last public Auto da Fe is held in Portugal. The ceremony, accompanied by vitriolic sermons, announces the punishments of those Christians, and Jewish converts to Christianity, who were accused of backsliding. Many victims are subsequently burned at the stake.
12 Cheshvan 5699 -
November 6, 1938:
Father Charles Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest in Detroit, begins his weekly anti-Semitic broadcasts over national radio. He also formed the Christian Front in New York City which carried out anti-Semitic street meetings and boycotted Jewish businesses.
12 Cheshvan 5736 -
October 17, 1975:
The United Nations
voted to equate Zionism with Racism. Israel's Ambassador to the UN, Chaim Herzog, noted the irony of the vote
coming (on the English calendar) exactly 37 years after Kristallnacht. The UN Secretary General at the time was Kurt Waldheim, later accused of war crimes while serving as a Nazi officer. The "Zionism is racism" canard is easily refuted by Israel's open and democratic character -- with Arabs serving in parliament, as well as Israelis of all skin colors. Upon the airlift of Ethiopian Jews to Israel, William Safire noted: "For the first time in history, thousands of black people are being brought to a country -- not in chains but in dignity, not as slaves but as citizens."
This infamous proclamation was officially
retracted 16 years later in December 1991.
12 Cheshvan 5756 -
November 5, 1995:
Yitzchak Rabin, Commander-in-Chief of the IDF during the Six Day War and later Prime Minister of Israel, was assassinated after attending a rally promoting the Oslo peace process.
12 Cheshvan 5760 -
October 22, 1999:
Holocaust survivors smiled, shouted "Bravo!" and wept when France's highest court upheld the conviction of Maurice Papon, the former Vichy official (secretary general for police of the Prefecture of Bordeauxin Vichy France), who fled the country rather than face prison for his role in sending over 1600 Jews to Nazi death camps. Papon was caught in Switzerland and deported the following day. The court ruled that Papon lost his right of appeal by failing to report to prison as required before Thursday's hearing. He was sentenced to 10 years and served just three years. He died in 2007..
12 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Moshe Kremer, zt"l, Av Beit Din in Vilna, grandfather of the Gr”a.(1648). His surname, “Kremer” is derived from the Yiddish word for storekeeper. He owned a store, which his wife ran. And as a result, he always insisted on no being paid for his rabbanut (others 5448 / 1687).
HaRav Zev Wolf Kitzes, zt”l, (5548 / 1787), a disciple of the Baal Shem Tov. (others 5549 / 1788).
HaRav Yisrael Dov Ber, zt”l, of Stefanesh, (5612 / 1851)
HaRav Nachum Levi of Shadik, zt"l, Yerushalayim (5571 / 1811 - 5626 / 1865). Reb Nachum was a talmid of Harav Shlomo Zalman Lifshitz, Rav of Warsaw and author of Chemdat Shlomo, whom he quotes in his sefarim. In 5604/1844, he moved to Eretz Yisrael and became one of the leading Rabbanim in Yerushalayim. He was renowned for his prishut; he fasted from one Shabbat to the next and sat all day adorned in tallit and tefillin, teaching talmidim.
He never ate alone. When he wasn’t fasting, or when he broke his fast, he always brought home a poor man to eat with him.
Reb Nachum’s chiddushim on Bava Metzia and his she’eilot u’teshuvot were published under the name Avnei Kodesh.
His sons were Harav Shlomo Zalman Baharan and Harav Dovid Baharan (Baharan is an acronym for “ben Harav Nachum”). The Baharan family built Meah Shearim. His son-in-law was Harav Yehudah Bergman.
He died in the cholera plague of 1865, which took hundreds of lives.
The Yeshivot HaRan network of 18 yeshivot and kollelim is named for him and is headed by his great-grandson, Rav Tzvi Weissfish.
Harav Aharon Singer of Mattersdorf, zt”l, (5629 / 1868), author of Tiferet Aharon.
HaRav Yaakov Chaim, zt"l, the son of Rabbi Yosef Chaim zt’’l, the “Ben Ish Chai.” ( 5681 / 1920).
HaRav Ben Tzion Hazan, zt"l, one of the founders of the Porat Yosef yeshiva, ( 5712 / 1951).
HaRav Yehuda Tzadka, zt"l, Rosh Yeshiva of Porat Yosef (1909 - 5752 / 1991). Born in Yerushalayim, Rav Yehuda was a great-great grandson of Rav Tzadka Chutzin, author of Tzedaka U’misphat. His mother, Simcha, was the Ben Ish Chai’s niece. The Tzadka family lived in the Beit Yisrael neighborhood of Yerushalayim. When he was 12 years old, Yehuda Tzadka enrolled in the Porat Yosef Yeshiva in the Old City. where he became a close talmid of Rav Ezra Attia. At the age of only 27 years, he was appointed to teach at the yeshiva. Among Reb Yehuda’s first students was Rav Ovadia Yosef. In time, Rav Yehuda became the menahel ruchani, and with the petira of Rav Ezra Attia in 1970, he was appointed Rosh Yeshiva.
13 Cheshvan 4971 - 1210:
English Jews were imprisoned by King
13 Cheshvan 5314 -1553:
Cardinal Peter Caraffa, head of the
Inquisition under Pope Julius III and the future Pope Paul IV, burned Jewish
Sifrei Kodesh and many copies of the Talmud in the plaza of the city Venice, after burning Sifrei Kodesh
in Rome the previous Rosh Hashana.
13 Cheshvan 5521 - October 23, 1760:
The first Siddur was printed in the United States.
13 Cheshvan 5700 - October 26, 1939:
Anne Frank was deported from Auschwitz
to Bergen Belsen, where she was murdered by the Nazis 5 months later.
13 Cheshvan 5700 - October 26, 1939:
Nazis prohibit Shechita in Poland on “humanitarian” grounds.
13 Cheshvan 5701 - November 14, 1940:
German planes destroy most of the English town of Coventry.
13 Cheshvan 5705 - October 30, 1944:
Anne Frank was deported from Auschwitz
to Bergen Belsen, where she was murdered by the Nazis 5 months later.
13 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yehuda Hachassid, author of Sefer Chassidim, zt"l, (1150 - 4978 / 1217). He was born in Speyer (Shapira) and died in Regensburg. His father, Shmuel, was a saintly and renowned Rosh Yeshiva in Speyer, and Rav Yehudah studied under him. He also wrote Sefer Gimatriot and was one of the main teachers of the ‘Chassidei Ashkenaz’. Among his students were the Or Zarua and the Semag. His contemporaries said of him: "Had he lived in the times of the prophets, he would have been a prophet; in the time of the tannaim, he would have been a tanna; in the time of the amoraim, an amora ...’
HaRav Pinchas Horowitz, zt”l, Rav of Fulda and Dayan of Prague (5414 / 1653).
A talmid of Harav Yehoshua Hakohen Falk, the author of the Sma. His first post was as Rav and Dayan in Prague; then he served as Rav in Fulda, returning later to Prague where he lived for the rest of his life. Rav Pinchas also headed a yeshiva, where he taught many talmidim. Among them was Harav Yosef Shamash from Wermaiza (Worms), who related that his rebbi said the Sma told him the following:
Following the churban of the first Beit Hamikdash, many Jews settled in Wermaiza. After 70 years, when many jews began to return to Eretz Yisrael, they asked the golim of Wermaiza to return as well. The people who had settled there answered, “You can live in your Yerushalayim, the big city, while we will stay here in our small Yerushalayim.” This was the reason, said the Sma, that the inhabitants of the city of Wermaiza were subject to so much pain and tribulation over the centuries.
HaRav Yosef Kahana, zt"l, ( 5531 / 1770), father of the Ketzot HaChoshen.
HaRav Baruch of Kosov, zt"l, (1782). Disciple of the Maggid of Mezritch and of Rav Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk; author of Yesod HaEmunah and Amud HaAvoda.(others 5542 / 1781).
Harav Shloime Alter, zt”l (5695 / 1934). Father of the Sfat Emet.
HaRav Haim Nahum Effendi, zt"l, (1872-1960), Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Egypt (1925-1960). He was witness both to a vibrant community of 80,000 Jews living in Egypt and also to the community’s disintegration after 1948 when government hostility, violence, economic restrictions, confiscation and deportation caused most Jews to leave. Born near Izmir in Turkey, he was sent by his parents to learn in a yeshiva in Tverya and later went to a French Lycee for his secondary education, obtaining a degree in Muslim law in Constantinople. He also attended the Sorbonne’s School of Oriental Languages, where he perfected his linguistic abilities and also studied history and philosophy. In 1923, Rabbi Nahum received an invitation from Moise Cattaoui Pacha, head of the Jewish community in Cairo, to become the Chief Rabbi of Egypt and was appointed to serve as a Senator in the nation’s Legislative Assembly.
HaRav Tzvi Shraga Grossbard, zt"l, (1916-1993) was born in Visan, Lithuania. His father, Rav Aharon Zev, was an outstanding talmid of the Chafetz Chaim. When Tzvi Shraga was still a youngster, his father was brutally beaten to death by Lithuanian thugs because he refused to inform on a fellow Jew. At the age of nine Tzvi Shraga joined Yeshivat Sha’arei Torah in Grodna. At age 14, Rav Tzvi Shraga entered Grodna’s yeshiva gedola and formed a close bond with the famed Rav Shimon Shkop. Afterwards, he became one of Rav Baruch Ber Lebowitz’s select students in Yeshivat Kaminetz, and at the beginning of the Second World War he studied for a year and a half under Rav Daniel Movshovitz in Yeshivat Kelm. In 1941, Rav Tzvi Shraga left Europe for Eretz Yisrael. There, he joined the Lomza yeshiva in Petach Tikvah headed by his uncle, Rav Abba Grossbard. Rav Tzvi Shraga also became the head of Tel Aviv’s beit mussar and developed a strong friendship with mussar giant, Rav Eliyahu Dessler who was then spiritual mashgiach of the Ponovezh Yeshiva. The two men studied b’chavrusa each week in Rav Tzvi Shraga’s home. In 1967 Rav Tzvi Shraga Grossbard became the director of Chinuch Atzmai and he remained at its helm for 25 years.
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14 Cheshvan 5380 - October 22, 1619:
Jews of Prague, having miraculously
escaped annihilation during the Thirty Years War, set this day as a commemorative
fast day, concluding with a festive meal in the evening..
14 Cheshvan 5649 - October 19, 1888:
The Jewish settlement of Gederah
was attacked by its Arab neighbors.
14 Cheshvan 5678 - October 30, 1917:
Final British Government approval
for Balfour Declaration, calling for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in historic Israel. The declaration took the form of a letter from Arthur Balfour, British Foreign Secretary, to Lord Rothschild, who had once been a member of the British Parliament. In 1922, the United States Congress formally endorsed the Balfour Declaration. In the ensuing decades, the British would slowly whittle away at their commitment -- first lopping off 80 percent of the land east of the Jordan River to create the Kingdom of Transjordan (now Jordan), and then restricting Jewish immigration and rights to purchase land to the west of the Jordan River. The volatility of the situation ultimately forced the British to withdraw from the region in 1948.
14 Cheshvan 5703 - October 25,
All Jewish men from the age of sixteen years were arrested in Norway. Two hundred
and nine Jews are shipped from Oslo to Stettin to Auschwitz.
14 Cheshvan 5755 - October 19,
A Hamas suicide bomber detonates on a bus on Dizengoff Street in Tel Aviv, killing 22 civilians (21 Jewsand one Dutch national), and injuring 56, Hy"d,
14 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yehuda Lowy, zt”l, of Prague, grandfather of the Maharal (5300 / 1539)
Harav Leib Baal Hayesurim, zt"l, at whose burial place in Tzefat people pray for yeshuot, as per his havtacha.(5597 / 1836). (Others 15 Cheshvan)
HaRav Aharon Weiss of Benedkwits, zt”l, (5611 / 1851 - 5693 / 1932), the Midrash Aharon. His father was Harav Shmuel Tzvi, Rav in Munkacs, who in his youth traveled to Reb Tzvi Elimelech of Dinov, the Bnei Yissaschar; Reb Yehudah Tzvi of Rozla; and the Sar Shalom of Belz. Later he was a chasid of Reb Yitzchak Eizik of Ziditchov. Reb Aharon’s maternal grandfather was Harav Tzvi Hirsh Estreicher of Drohobich, chasid of the Chozeh of Lublin.
Reb Aharon learned under the tutelage of his father, of his uncle, Rav Yitzchak Eizik of Svalyava, and under his elder brother, Harav Yosef Meir of Spinka, the Imrei Yosef. He was also a talmid of Harav Yitzchak Eizik of Ziditchov. At the age of 17 he was taken as a chassan by Harav Yehoshua Heshel Hakohen Fried of Kapisch, one of Hungary’s leading Rabbanim. Rav Aharon was given semichah by the Yetev Lev of Sighet; by Harav Chaim Tzvi Mannheimer, Rav of Ungvar; and by Harav Shlomo Gantzfried, authorof the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch.
At the age of 20, Reb Aharon was appointed Rav of Benedkwits, near the city of Munkacs. He opened a yeshiva there and many local bachurim thronged to him. With time, Ziditchover chasidim began to flock to his court, and Rav Aharon became known as a poel yeshuot.
In 5667 / 1907, Rav Aharon moved his court and yeshiva to the Raswigeff region of Munkacs. He was asked to serve as Dayan in Munkacs, and in 5675 / 1915 was appointed Rav of the city.
He was buried in Munkacs, where an ohel was built on his kever. In 5736 / 1976, when the local authorities decided to destroy the cemetery, lo aleinu, Rav Aharon and other Rabbanim were re-interred in Krupets.
HaRav Avraham Elimelech Perlow of Stolin-Karlin, Hy”d, (1891 - 5703 / 1942) . Born to Rav Yisrael "the Yenuka" of Stolin, Reb Avraham Elimelech married in 1912. He succeeded his father as Rebbe in 1922; most of his father's Chasidim followed him as he settled in Karlin, while his brother, Rav Dovid of Zlatipol led a flock to Stolin. In 1929, He founded a yeshiva in Luninetz. He, his Rebetzin, and his two sons were murdered by local Ukranian peasants. His actual yahrtzeit is not known. This day has been chosen as his Yom Hazikaron. A collection of his chidushei Torah have been recorded as “Kuntres Pri Elimelech” and printed in Yalkut Divrei Aharon and in Birchat Aharon.
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15 Cheshvan 2979 - 783 B.C.E.:
Yeravam ben Nevat ascended to Beit Keil in a pilgrimage that he invented, a month after Sukkot. Ido HaNavi warned him that his altar would be destroyed, and Yeravam’s hand will wither, and so it was.
15 Cheshvan 3622 - 139 B.C.E.:
Yahrtzeit of Matityahu, father of the Chasmonaim (Maccabees) and leader in their fight against the Syrian-Greeks, as recorded in the Chanukah story.
In the 2nd century before the common era, the Holy Land was ruled by the Seleucids (Syrian-Greeks) who, with the collaboration of the Jewish Hellenists, introduced pagan idols into the Beit HaMikdash / Holy Temple and set about to forcefully Hellenize the people of Israel.
Matityahu, the son of the Kohain Gadol / High Priest Yochanan, was already an old man when he picked up a sword and raised the flag of revolt in the village of Modiin in the Judean hills. Many rallied under his cry, "Who that is for G-d, come with me!" and resisted and battled the Greeks from their mountain hideouts.
After heading the revolt for one year, Matityahu died on the 15th of Cheshvan. His five sons -- the "Macabees"Yehudah, Yochanan, Shimon, Elazar and Yonatan -- carried on the battle to their eventual victory, which concluded with the rededication of the Beit HaMikdash and the miracle of the oil that burned for eight days, celebrated each year since by Jews the world over with the festival of Chanukah.
15 Cheshvan - 1407:
Mobs attack Jews of Cracow, one of the first blood libels to be recorded in Poland. The Jews try to defend themselves and ultimately take refuge in a local church which is surrounded and set afire. Any children left alive are forcibly baptized.
15 Cheshvan 5685 - November 12, 1924:
Slobodka Yeshiva opened in the eternal Jewish city of Chevron. Chevron is home
of the Jewish Patriarchs and Matriarchs and therefore a natural place for a
15-16 Cheshvan 5699
- November 9-10, 1938:
Kristallnacht - (“night of broken glass,”) referring to the thousands of windows that were broken), the
planned destruction of almost all of the 1,600 synagogues and Jewish property all over Germany. Fifty
thousand Jews were arrested and taken to concentration camps, ninety-one Jews were killed, five hundred synagogues
were destroyed, 7,500 Jewish shops were vandalized and the Jewish community of Germany was forced to pay one billion
reichmarks ($4,000,000) for the damage. Ostensibly, this was revenge for the assassination of the secretary of the German delegation in Paris by Herschel Grynszpan.
Similar violence was carried out in Austria. Kristallnacht ushered in a new phase of anti-Semitic decrees, and was for many the first major warning sign of what would become the Holocaust.
Cheshvan 5700 - October 28, 1939:
Census in Warsaw
listed 359,827 Jews.
15 Cheshvan 5700 - October 28, 1939:
All Jews living in Wloclawek, Poland were forced to wear a yellow badge.
15 Cheshvan 5701 - November 15/16, 1940:
Warsaw ghetto was sealed by the Nazis.
15 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Matityahu, father of the Chasmonaim (Maccabees) and leader in their fight against the Syrian-Greeks, as recorded in the Chanukah story. (3622 - 139 B.C.E.:) (See above).
HaRav Eliezer ben Yitzchak ibn Archa, zt"l, (5412 / 1651). Born in Tzefat, he moved to Chevron, where he served as Rav of the small Jewish population for most of his life. According to the Chida, he wrote many works including a commentary on Ein Yaakov and on Midrash Rabbah.
HaRav Tzvi Hirsh Horowitz of Tchortkov, zt"l, father of Reb Shmelke of Nikolsburg and the Baal Haflaah (5514 / 1753).
HaRav Elozor Kalir, zt"l, Rav of Kelen, author of Ohr Chodosh.(5562/1801).
Harav Leib Baal Hayesurim, zt"l, at whose burial place in Tzefat people pray for yeshuot, as per his havtacha.(5597/1836).(others 14 Cheshvan)
HaRav Shmuel Frenkel of Dorog, Hungary, zt"l, the Imrei Shefer (1881) [Others says 5642 / 1921] His father-in-law was the Belzer Rav. His great, great-grandson, Rav Yidel Frenkel, built the Imrei Shefer Shul and Yeshiva in the Har Nof area of Yerushalayim.
HaRav Chaim Pinto the Second zt"l. Born in Mogador (current Essaouira), Morocco (1939). His grandfather, Rav Chaim the First, was the great-grandson of Rav Yosef Pinto, who fled from Spain to Rome with 26 talmidim after the 1492 expulsion. However, he had to flee to Damascus after local priests trapped him into a theological debate and soundly lost. When the Jewish population of Mogador began thinning out, Rav Chaim the Second moved to Casablanca, while his son, Rav Moshe Aharon Pinto, stayed Mogador to prevent his father's shul from closing down.
HaRav Avraham Yeshaya Karelitz, the Chazon Ish. zt"l. (5638 / 1878 - 5714 / 1953). A brilliant scholar, he was educated by his father, Av Bet Din in Kossow, Poland (near Grodno). His first work on several parts of the Shulchan Aruch was published anonymously in Vilna in 1911 under the title Chazon Ish (visionary), by which name he eventually became known. He moved from Vilna to Eretz Yisrael in 1933, settling in Bnei Brak, where he was regarded as the worldwide authority on all matters relating to Jewish law and life. He devoted vast amounts of time and energy to Seder Zeraim, which deals mainly with laws pertaining to the land, to answer the many halachic problems inherent to a life in the Holy Land consistent with Torah. He had a strong influence on religious life and institutions, despite the fact that he was not head of any yeshiva. He became a halachic authority without publishing many responsa.
The Chazon Ish, Zt"l
HaRav Shlomo of Chortkov, zt"l, author of Divrei Shlomo. (5719 / 1958).
Cheshvan 5594 - October 29, 1833:
Jews, with the exception of peddlers and petty traders, are granted civil rights in Hesse-Cassel, Germany, formerly part of the kingdom of Westphalia. Emancipation is granted to the remainder of German Jews nearly 40 years later.
Cheshvan 5702 - November 6, 1941:
· 1500 Jews of Kolomyya, Galicia and 15,000 Jews of Rowno, Poland, , Hy"d, were massacred by the Nazis.
Cheshvan 5755 - October 21, 1994:
·Reb Shlomo Carlebach, z"l, the foremost Jewish songwriter in the 2nd half of the 20th century, passed away. .
16 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Zev Auerbach, zt"I, Rav of
Prague, son-in-law of the Maharshal.
(5392 / 1631).
Harav Amram Chashida, zt"l, (1790 - 5590 / 1829).
Harav Reuven Katz, zt"l, author of Degel Reuven, Rosh Yeshivah. Petach Tikvah, (5725 / 1964).
HaRav Simcha Avrohom HaKohen Sheps, zt”l, (1908-5759 / 1998), Rosh Yeshiva at Yeshiva Torah Vodaat for over 50 years. His Drashot and Shmuessen were published after his passing under the title 'Moreshet Simchat HaTorah.' In 5759, his Shiurim on Mesechta Bava Kama were printed by his family in a Sefer called Divrei Simcha.
HaRav Elazar Menachem Mann Shach, zt"l, (1900 - 5762 / 2001), Rosh Yeshiva of the famed Ponevezh Yeshiva in Bnei Brak. Born in Vaboilnick, Lithuania, he left for Ponevezh (38km away) at age 7. He learned at Slabodka under Rav Yechezkel Bernstein (Divrei Yechezkel), then under the Alter (Rav Nosson Tzvi Finkel, and developed a close relationship with Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer, whose niece Rav Shach eventually married. In 1927, he served as Rosh Mesivta at Kletzk under Rav Aharon Kotler, holding the same position at Novardok from 1932-34. In 1936 he became rosh yeshiva at the Karlin yeshiva in Luninetz. In 1939 Rav Shach first went to Vilna, where he stayed with Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinski, eventually leaving Lithuania for Eretz Yisrael in 1940. In 1951, he started his career as Rosh Yeshiva at Ponevezh under Rav Yosef Kahanemen. People came from far and wide to hear his talmudic discourses and spiritual guidance. He served as head of the Moetzet Gedolei HaTorah, chairman of Chinuch Atzmai and Va'ad HaYeshivot. He also served as advisor of the Degel HaTorah political party. Over 100,000 people attended his funeral.
Cheshvan 1656 - 2106 B.C.E.:
The rains of the Mabul (flood) began to fall (according
to Reb' Eliezer) flooding the earth and rising above the highest mountains. Only Noach and his family survived, in the Teyva / Ark built to that end by Divine command, and a pair of each animal species, who entered with him into the Teyva.
17 Cheshvan 2923 - 839 B.C.E.:
When Dovid Hamelech found out that King Shaul and seven members of his family weren't buried, he buried them. After that he davened / prayed to Hashem, and the famine that has lasted for three years came to an end.
Cheshvan 5409 - November 2, 1648:
Chmielnicki's Cossacks massacred
12,000 Jews of Narol, Podolia (Poland), Hy"d.
Cheshvan 5688 - November 12, 1927:
Josef Stalin became the undisputed ruler of the Soviet Union as Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party.
Cheshvan 5744 - October 24, 1983:
A Hezbullah terror group truck-bombed a military barracks in Beirut, murdering 241 United States Marines, and later killing 58 French soldiers in a separate attack. The notorious Imad Mugniyah, the group’s most dangerous and barbaric operative orchestrated these operations.
17 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Avraham Rappaport, zt"l, (5357 / 1596), author of Minchah Belulah.
HaRav Yakov Kopel of Tismenitz, zt"l, (5584 / 1823), a talmid of HaRav Moshe Leib of Sassov.
HaRav Menachem Mendel Hager of Kosov, zt"l, (1768 - 5586 / 1825), founder of the Vizhnitz and Kosov dynasties and author of Ahavat Shalom. The son of Rav Yaakov Koppel Chassid, Rav Menachem Mendel was a student of Rav Moshe Leib of Sassov, Rav Tzvi Hirsch of Nadvorna, and Rav Ze’ev Wolfe of Tcharne-Ostra. His grandson was Rav Menachem Mendel of Vizhnitz.
HaRav Mordechai Zev Orenstein, zt"l, (5597 / 1836), Rav of Lvov
HaRav Yehoshua Rosenfeld, zt"l, (5659 / 1898), of Kaminka.
HaRav Reuven Katz, zt"l, (1880 - 1963), Rav of Petach Tikva and author of Degel Reuven and Dudoei Reuven. His son, Rav Leizer Katz, was a rav in Passaic, New Jersey, for many years until his petira in 2001.
HaRav Meshulam Zushe Twersky, zt"l, the Chernobyler Rebbe of Bnei Brak (5677 / 1917 - 5748 / 1987). An eighth generation direct descendent of the Rav Menachem Nachum of Chernobyl, Rav Meshulam Zushe was born in Mozyr, Belarus. His father, Harav Chaim Yitzchak, was the Chernobyl-Loyav Rebbe. His mother, Rebbetzin Rechel Devorah, was the daughter of Harav Yitzchak Yeshayah Halberstam of Tchechov, the youngest son of the Divrei Chaim, zy”a. He lived and learned with his maternal grandfather, the Admor of Tchetchov. In 1959, he moved his court to Bnai Brak. He was succeeded by his son, Rav Menachem Nachum.
HaRav Tzvi Pruzansky, zt"l, (2005). He helped found the Toronto Kollel, and established, along with his friend, Rav Dovid Hersh Mayer zt”l, Yeshivat Beit Binyamin in Stamford, Ct., which was named after Rav Tzvi’s father and funded by Rav Tzvi’s brothers, ybl”c, Reb Yosef and Reb Moshe.
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18 Cheshvan 5429 - October 23, 1668:
Jews of Barbados forbidden to engage in retail trade.
18 Cheshvan 5474 - November 7, 1713:
Birth of HaRav Yechzkel Landau of Prague (1713-1776), the Noda BeYehuda.
18 Cheshvan 5699 - November 12, 1938:
Nazi leader Hermann Goering announced that in order to "solve the problem of the Jews," the African island of Madagascar was being considered as a giant ghetto for 4 million European Jews. The plan was seriously considered by Hitler in May 1940, in his discussions with Mussolini and Nazi officials. Hitler's idea was that the Jews would play the role of hostages, as a way to prevent the United States from entering the war. The Madagascar Plan was cancelled due to a British blockade. One year later, it was decided that the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" would mean extermination.
18 Cheshvan 5703 - October 29, 1942:
Nazis massacred 20 000 Jews in Pinsk, Byelorussia, Hy"d.
18 Cheshvan 5751 - November 6, 1990:
Rabbi Meir Kahana. Hy"d was assasinated in New York.
Born in 1932, Meir Kahane was a controversial American-Israeli rabbi and
activist. In 1968, he founded the Jewish Defense League in New York.
With the motto of "Never Again," the stated goal of the organization was to protect Jews from anti-Semitism in all its forms. In 1971, he moved his family to Israel, founding the Kach political party, and he was elected to the Knesset in 1984 (the Kach party was later outlawed in Israel). In 1990, after concluding a speech in a Manhattan hotel, Kahane was fatally shot by an Egyptian-born terrorist. While strangely acquitted of the murder, El Sayyid Nosair was later convicted in relation to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.
18 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Naftali Hertz of Lvov, zt”l, (5472 / 1711).
HaRav Avraham Dovid Moshe Ashkenazi of Ruhatin, zt”l, (5510 / 1749),
HaRav Yishayah Bardaky, zt"l, (1862). R’ Bardaky was born in Pinsk and taught Torah there, but he decided to settle in Eretz Yisrael after his first wife died. When the ship carrying R’ Bardaky, his son, Shmuel Akiva, and his daughter, neared the port of Akko, it was wrecked, and all the passengers were thrown into the sea. R’ Bardaky, however, was a powerful swimmer, and, with his two children on his back, he swam ashore. Upon reaching Yerushalayim, R’ Bardaky was appointed head of the Ashkenazic community. He also was appointed vice-consul of the Austrian Empire.
HaRav Yecheskel Rabinowitz, zt”l, (5671 / 1910), the Knesset Yechezkel of Radomsk.
HaRav Yaakov Friedman of Bohush-Husyatin, zt"l. (1878 - 5717 / 1956)
HaRav Raphael Baruch Toledano of Morocco, zt"l, (1890 - 5731 / 1970), author of Sephardic Kitzur Shulchan Aruch. Born in Mekenes, Morocco, one of the Torah leaders of North Africa and Israel, a member of a family of famous Rabbis, he served as the Head Rabbi in Mekenes. He taught Torah to the far-flung villages and established Yeshivot for them. In 1962 he came to Eretz Yisrael. He passed away in Bnei Brak. He is the author of Sephardic Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (Digest of Jewish Law).
HaRav Nachum Pertzovitz (Partzovitz), zt"l, Rosh Yeshivat Mir Yerushalayim (5683 / 1923 - 5747 / 1986). Born in Trakai, Poland to the Chief Rabbi Harav Aryeh Tzvi Partzovitz, who was a grandson of the posek of Vilna, Harav Shlomo Hakohen, and a son-in-law of Harav Nachum Greenhaus, after whom Reb Nachum was named.
(At the age of 9, he attended Ramailles Yeshiva in Vilna, and became close to its rosh yeshiva, Rav Shlomo Heiman). Reb Nachum learned at the famed yeshiva in Baranovitch under Harav Elchanan Wasserman and Harav Dovid Rappaport. When he reached the age of 13, the yeshivah’s administration decided that he was too advanced for their yeshiva, so he was sent to learn under Harav Baruch Ber Leibowitz in Kamenitz. When he was 15 his father, Rav Aryeh Tzvi, an alumnus of Yeshivat Mir, convinced Reb Nachum to move there and learn under the Rosh Yeshiva, Harav Eliezer Yehudah Finkel. Soon after he joined the Mirrer Yeshiva it was exiled to Shanghai, where it was saved from the horrors of the Holocaust that annihilated much of European Jewry during World War II. In Shanghai Reb Nachum continued to learn with tremendous diligence, earning the respect and admiration of the yeshiva’s Mashgiach, Harav Yechezkel Levenstein, and the acting Rosh Yeshiva, Harav Chaim Leib Shmulevitz. During this time, Reb Nachum (known as Reb Nachum Troker after his home town) is reputed to have learned daily a seder of 12 hours straight with his chavrusa, Harav Shmuel Berenbaum, zt”l, later Rosh Yeshivat Mir in Brooklyn.
After a brief stay in Toronto, Canada, following World War II, Reb Nachum moved to Eretz Yisrael and joined the newly-established Mirrer Yeshiva in Yerushalayim. He married the daughter of Harav Chaim Shmulevitz, the Rosh Yeshiva.
From 5725 / 1965, Reb Nachum served as one of the Roshei Yeshiva in Mir, delivering daily shiurim. He was known for having close personal relationships with his talmidim, encouraging their growth in Torah. Reb Nachum succeeded his father-in-law, Harav Chaim Shmuelevitz, when the latter was niftar in 5739 / 1979.
Often unwell in his later years, Reb Nachum still managed to come to the yeshiva and deliver his daily shiur; but sadly, he was niftar at the age of 65, on 18 Cheshvan 5747 / 1986. He was buried on Har Hamenuchot.
Reb Nachum’s shiurim are published as Chiddushei Rav Nachum and Shiurei Rav Nachum. Reb Nachum is survived by his two sons, Harav Tzvi Partzovitz, maggid shiur in Yeshivat Mir Brachfeld; and Harav Refael Partzovitz, maggid shiur in Yeshivat Mir in Yerushalayim. His three sons-in-law are Harav Asher Arieli, Rosh Yeshiva in Mir; Harav Yitzchak Hellman, maggid shiur in Yeshivat Mir; and Harav Chaim Mendel Brodsky, Rosh Yeshiva in Toronto.
HaRav Yisrael Dov Ber Odesser, zt"l, leader of Breslover Chassidim (1888-1994). He is best known for revealing and teaching the Na Nach Nachma mantra. Born in Tverya to a family which for generations were Karliner Chassidim. Later a follower of Breslov, his revelation of the Na Nach Nachma mantra was rejected by mainstream Breslovers for many decades. In 1980, however, a group of baalei teshuva discovered him in an old-age home in Yerushalayim and were attracted to his teachings.
HaRav Nechemiah Kibel, zt"l, (1952-2005). Born in Memphis, Tennessee, to Holocaust survivors, R’ Kibel entered the newly founded Yeshiva of the South, under Rav Meir Belsky, who was one of the first talmidim of Rav Yitzchak Hutner. He served as a magid shiur at the yeshiva in Memphis, then founded and taught at RITSS (Regional Institute for Torah and Secular Studies), Cincinnati’s Bais Yaakov in 1989. A few years later, he played a major role in the founding of Cincinnati’s Community Kollel.
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Cheshvan 2 - 3760 B.C.E.:
to the Arizal, Hevel lived for 49 days, which indicates that his brother
Kayin killed him on this date. According to Midrash Rabbah he was killed on tomorrow's date. Other opinions in Chazal are that he was killed on Erev Pesach; or that he was killed at the age of forty.
Cheshvan 5546 - October 23, 1785:
The earliest known Yiddish letter from America was sent from Philadelphia to London. Yiddish, a colloquial mixture of German and Hebrew, came to be the spoken language of much of European Jewry. Following the influx of Jewish immigrants to America, Yiddish was a language increasingly heard on the streets of New York, and in 1925 New York alone had seven daily newspapers printed in Yiddish. According to the U.S. census of 1940, 1.75 million Jews spoke Yiddish at home. Today, Yiddish words like chutzpah, klutz, schmaltz and schlep have crept into mainstream English usage.
Cheshvan 5621 - November 4, 1860:
The first Jewish neighborhood outside of the old city wall of Yerushalayim is dedicated. The site, purchased by Sir Moses Montefiore five years earlier, is known as Mishkenot Sha’ananim. Although there was initial resistance by Jews to leaving the “security” of the old city walls, it soon led to the establishment of dozens of new neighborhoods outside of the Old City.
Cheshvan 5767 - November 7, 1906:
The Chofetz Chaim completed his monumental work, the Mishnah Berurah, marking the culmination of more than three decades of toil.
Cheshvan 5701 - November 20, 1940:
U.S.census of 1940 counted 1,750,000 Jews.
19 Cheshvan 5702 - November 9, 1941:
1500 Jews from Mir, in the Grodno district of Poland, were killed by the S.S., Hy"d.
19 Cheshvan 5728 - November 22, 1967:
UN General Assembly Resolution 242 is adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. It called for the “withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict” and the “[t]ermination of all claims or states of belligerency”. It also calls for the recognition of all established states by belligerent parties (Israel, Egypt, Syria, Jordan) of each other and recognized boundaries for all parties.
19 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Naftali Yitzchak Segal, zt"l, author of Naftali Seva Ratzon (5316 / 1555)
HaRav Yitzchak Avraham Wallerstein of Minsk, zt"l, brother of the Shaagat Aryeh (5536 / 1775)
HaRav Shimshon Halevi Heller of Zhbarizh, zt"l, (5600 / 1839)
HaRav Eliyahu Rogler, zt"l, Rav of Slobodka and Kalisch (5554 / 1794 - 5610 / 1849). Born in Soginad, near Zamut, Lithuania, at the Prussian border. His father Reb Yaakov was a talmid chacham who managed to conceal his lofty ways. He ran a hotel; and after the guests were asleep, he would learn until the morning. The family descended from the Chacham Tzvi and Harav Mordechai Yaffe, the Levush.
In his youth, Eliyahu learned under his father. Shortly after his bar mitzvah, he was betrothed to the daughter of Reb Dovid Gardomer. Reb Dovid was an affluent man, who willingly undertook to support a chassan who would devote himself to learning.
Reb Eliyahu went to Volozhin, where he was a talmid of Harav Chaim Volozhiner. When he returned home, both Reb Eliyahu’s father and his father-in-law had come upon hard times and could no longer support him, so he was forced to seek a post as Rav.
His first rabbinic position was in Shott, near Kaidan. Later, in 5581 / 1821, he was appointed Rav in Rogoli and he is called by the name of this city. Three years later, in 5584 / 1824, he was offered the position of Rav in William-Pally, near Kovno. He headed a yeshiva there, attracting hundreds of bachurim. In 5600 / 1840, he was appointed Rav in Kalisch, where he remained the rest of his life.
In 5608 / 1848, Reb Eliyahu fell ill and became bedridden. He wrote a letter to the kehilla absolving them of responsibility to him and allowing them to appoint a new Rav, as he could no longer function at full capacity. He is buried near the kever of the Magen Avraham.
Many of his teshuvot were published as She’eilot U’Teshuvot Yad Eliyahu.
HaRav Moshe Michel of Biala, zt"l, (5615 / 1854), born to Rav Eliezer Fishel of Strizhov, a mekubal. After his marriage, Rav Moshe Michel settled in Zamoszh, where he and his wife were supported by her father. After the passing of his father in 1812, he became a chassid of the Chozeh of Lublin, and then Rav Bunim of Peshischa. He eventually became Rav of Biala.
HaRav Yehoshua Attiah, zt"l.
HaRav Sa’asa Hakohen of Djerba, Tunisia, zt"l, (5665 / 1904)
HaRav Avraham Tzvi Hirsch Kamai, zt"l, the last Rav of Mir (1859 - 5702 / 1942). Born in the Lithuanian town of Shkod, his family traced its ancestry back to the brother of the Vilna Gaon, Rav Avraham, author of Maalot Hatorah. His father was Rav Eliyahu Baruch Kamai, who served as Rav of of the communities of Shkod, Karelitz and Czechnovtza, following which he served as rov of Mir and as head of the town’s yeshiva. His chiddushim were published in Brit Melach. Rav Tzvi Hirsch’s wife, who was a clever and highly-educated woman, opened a pharmacy in order to support the family. Rav Tzvi Hirsch assisted her from time to time when she needed help, and he would also prepare medicines for the customers according to the prescriptions that they brought. With his father’s petira, however, he replaced him as Rav and Rosh Yeshiva in Mir.
HaRav Pinchas Epstein, zt"l, Rosh Av Beit Din of the Eida Hachareidit, (5731 / 1970).
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Cheshvan - October 23, 1396:
Jews in Austria had their civil rights suspended.
Cheshvan - 1571:
Jewish community of Ferrara, Italy miraculously escaped disaster when a violent earthquake struck.
Cheshvan 5581 - October 28, 1820:
Birth of HaRav Avraham Yaakov of Sadigura, the Sadigurer Rebbe (1820-1883), son of HaRav Yisrael of Ruzhin.
Cheshvan - November 8, 1944:
Chana Senesh was executed in Budapest.
Chana Senesh, (1921-1944), was a young Israeli woman who volunteered to parachute behind Nazi lines on behalf of the British Army. She spent three months in Yugoslavia working with partisan resistance fighters, but was caught by the Germans, when she attempted to cross the border into Hungary. She was tortured for several months, but refused to divulge any information. Chana became a symbol of idealism and self-sacrifice, an image strengthened by the stirring set of poems she left behind. She was executed by firing squad in Budapest on this day, and her remains were later brought to Israel.
20 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Avraham ben Yitzchak of Narbonne, zt"l, author of Sefer HaEshkol, father-in-law of the Raavad, Rav Avraham ben Dovid.
HaRav Avraham ben Dovid (Ravad II), zt"l, (1119- 4949 / 1198). R’ Avraham lived at the time of Rabbeinu Tam and is mentioned a few times in the Tosafot. He had the merit of having Eliyahu HaNavi appear to him, as claimed by Rav Chaim Vital in his introduction to Etz HaChaim. His son was the tzaddik Rav Yitzchak Sagi Nahor. According to some sources, he is the author of Sefer HaEshkol
HaRav Shalom of Kaminka, zt"l, (5612 / 1851)
HaRav Meshulam Yissachar Horowitz, zt"l, of Stanislav, author of Bar Levai (5648 / 1887)
HaRav Yechezkel, zt"l, the third Rebbe of Radmosk, known as the Kenesset Yechezkel of Radomsk (1864-1910)
HaRav Shlomo Zalmina Zuckerman of Rashkov, zt"l, (5681 / 1920).
Harav Yisrael Yitzchok Kalisch, Hy"d, of Skrenevitz, (5702 / 1941)
HaRav Moshe Nosson Nuta Lemberger, zt"l, the Makava Rav of Kfar Ata (5743 / 1982)
HaRav Mordechai Sharabi, zt"l, (5668 / 1908 (others 1912) - 5745 / 1984). Born in Taiz, Yemen; his father was niftar before he was born, and his mother passed away just 4 years later. He was raised by his grandfather, Rav Yefet Avraham, Rav in Sharab. Rav Mordechai’s other grandfather was Rav Salom Sharabi, the Rashash. In 1931, shortly after he married, Rav Mordechai moved to Eretz Yisrael and settled in Yerushalayim. He later founded Yeshivat Nahar Shalom in the Machane Yehuda section of the city. Although they never had children, tens of boys of the neighborhood had their meals with them and grew to become Roshei Yeshiva and Roshei Kollel. It is related that in the week of Rav Mordechai’s petira, the Baba Sali experienced a frightening premonition that much Jewish blood would be spilled, including children. He davened the entire day and fasted despite being over 90 years of age. The next morning, he announced that the gezeira was lifted, and that one of the tzadikim gave his life away
for the generation. At the time, the Baba Sali was not aware that Rav Mordechai was ill. Indeed, Rav Sharabi was niftar that week.
HaRav Mordechai Leib Zuckerman, zt"l, author of Meir Einei Yisrael (5670 / 1910 (others 1912 ) - 5764 / 2003). Born in Samagron (Smorgon), Lithuania, a city near Vilna and grew up in a home of Torah and chessed. In his youth he learned in the yeshiva in Lida, under the tutelage of Harav Yaakov Neiman, zt”l. In 1931, he moved to Radin to learn in the yeshiva of the Chofetz Chaim for eight years. During this time he became very close to the Chofetz Chaim and was among the select talmidim who would accompany the Chofetz Chaim on his daily walks. Harav Mordechai continued his learning in the yeshiva in Kelm, and it was there that he acquired his distinctive seder hayom, always adhering to a strict schedule for davening, learning Gemara and mussar, until his last day.
During the war, he arrived in the Kovna ghetto, where he took an active role in the chinuch of the children, teaching them Torah and instilling in them yirat Shamayim. This naturally made him a target of the Nazis, who especially sought him out for death. On one occasion he was found, but one of the daughters of the Dvar Avraham of Kovno begged the soldier to leave him alone since he was in the middle of davening. Miraculously, the Nazi agreed to spare Reb Mordechai’s life, but warned that he would kill him on the next occasion.
He also acted as shamash for Rav Avraham Grodzinsky, the mashgiach of Slabodka. As Rav Avraham’s talmid muvhak, he transcribed his mentor’s discourses and studied with him privately bechavrusa when Rav Avraham was hospitalized. Subsequently, the Nazis burned down that hospital and Rav Mordechai Leib was the last person to have seen Rav Avraham alive. When the Nazis decided to liquidate the entire ghetto, Rav Mordechai Leib was saved by a miracle when he hid in a pit with a few others.
After surviving the war, Reb Mordechai traveled to France where he married his Rebbetzin, a”h, and from there they sailed to Eretz Yisrael. Upon his arrival, Reb Mordechai visited the Chazon Ish, who recommended that he settle in Yerushalayim.
In 1948, he moved to Yerushalayim, settling in Givat Shaul and accepting the positions of rav of the Perushim shul and the head of Kollel Chevron there. He occupied those positions for over 50 years.
As an example of diligence and ameilut baTorah, Harav Mordechai attracted a group of lomdim and baalei mussar who sought to learn from his ways. For many years he had a steady mussar seder with Harav Shlomo Wolbe, zt”l.
As he was known for his exceptional yiras Shamayim, many came to him seeking his counsel and blessing. Harav Mordechai would receive all his visitors pleasantly, blessing them with all his heart. He had an accommodating, tolerant nature and was known never to hold a grudge.
From his youth, Harav Mordechai davened with much vigor and was careful always to daven k’vasikin. He lived a modest life, shunning luxuries, and was interested only in increasing his Torah knowledge and yirat Shamayim.
In his last months he became ill, but despite his extreme weakness, never stopped anticipating Hashem’s yeshua. During his final days he hinted at his desire to pass away on the day of Shabbat and thus, on Shabbat Parashat Vayeira, 20 Cheshvan 5764 / 2003, his pure neshama returned to its Maker.
He was buried on Har Hamenuchot in Yerushalayim.
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Cheshvan 5699 - November 15, 1938:
Following Kristallnacht, Jewish children were expelled from
German schools and universities.
Cheshvan 5713 - November 9, 1952:
Chaim Weizmann, Israel's
first President, died.
21 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits.
HaRav David ibn Abi Zimra, zt"l, (5240 / 1480 - 5334 / 1573), known by the acronym of his name, Radbaz or Ridbaz. (Some list his birth as 5230 / 1470). Arriving in Tzefat as a child after the Spanish expulsion, he emigrated to Egypt in 5274 / 1514. He served as the Chief Rabbi of Egypt for 40 years. His income, however, came through business, from which he became quite wealthy. Among his students in Cairo were Rav Yitzchak Luiria, (the Arizal) who went on to become the founder of modern Kabbalah, and Rav Betazelel Azhkenazi, the Shita Mekubetzet. In 1553, he returned to Eretz Yisrael, settling in Tzefat
The Radbaz's holiness was extraordinary. In Shem Hagedolim, the Chida cites elder Rabbanim of Yerushalayim who
attested that the Radbaz exerlenced gilui Eliyahu.
The Radbaz issued many important decisions in Jewish law, (writing over 3,000 teshuvot) including the assertion that the Ethiopian community was certainly Jewish -- a decision that gained practical application in the 20th century with the airlift of Ethiopian Jews to Israel. In addition to his teshuvot, he authored Yekar Tiferet, Keser Malchut, Metzudat David, and two sifrei kabbalah: Michtav LeDavid and Magen David.
HaRav Avraham Azulai, zt"l, author of Chessed L’Avraham (1569 - 5404 / 1643), which is often quoted in the writings of the Ari HaKodesh. Rav Avraham was the great, great-grandfather of the Chida. Born in Fez, Morocco, he eventually moved to Chevron in 1609 and became the holy city’s Chief Rabbi. (Some have his yahrtzeit on 24 Cheshvan).
HaRav Dovid Shlomo Eibshitz of Soroka, zt"l, (1755-1813), author of Levushei Serad (on halacha) and Arvei Nachal (a Torah commentary with Chasidic philosophy). In 1809, he settled in Tzefat, Israel, where he died and is buried.
HaRav Yissacher Ber of Podheitz, zt"l, son of the Pnei Yehoshua (5605 / 1844) .
HaRav Elazar HaKohen of Poltusk, zt"l. (5642 / 1881).
Son of the wealthy Rav Zev Leipziger, and son-in-law of Rav Yaakov Luberbaum, Rav of Lisa and author of the Chavat Daat and Nesivot Hamishpat.
Reb Elazar was a devoted talmid of Harav Simcha Bunim of Peshischa, Harav Menachem Mendel of Kotzk and the Chiddushei Harim of Ger. After the petira of the Chiddushei Harim, he was among those who did not transfer his allegiance to Harav Chanoch Henoch of Alexander, but instead followed Harav Avraham Landau of Tchechnov. He considered Harav Zev Wolf Hakohen of Lask his main Torah teacher, and he also studied under his renowned father-in-law. Raised in great wealth, he did not accept a rabbanut until his vast business dealings failed; then he became Rav in Makov.
He served as Rav there twice; he also served in Sochotchov, and twice in Poltosk, and his chassidim referred to him by that name. Twelve years before his petira he returned to Sochotchov, where he was niftar at the age of 90. He was eulogized by Harav Yisrael Yehoshua Trunk of Kutna and Harav Chaim Eliezer Waks of Pietrokov-Kalish. He wrote many sefarim, including Chiddushei Maharach on the Shulchan Aruch; a commentary on Pirkei Avot; Zecher Tzaddik V’yesod Olam, a eulogy on the Chiddushei Harim; and Zichron Nifla’os on the Haggadah.
His two sons were Harav Avraham, a Dayan in Warsaw; and Harav Tzvi Hirsch, an Av Beit Din in Zgierzh. His son-in-law was Harav Dovid Dov Meislish, Av Beit Din of Lask.
HaRav Moshe of Shitchelnik, zt"l, (5673 / 1912).
HaRav Betzalel (ben Avraham) Stern, zt"l, (1910 - 5749 / 1988). Born in Neihiezel, Czechoslovakia to the author of Melitzei Aish, he accepted his first rabbinic post in Seben, Transylvania, where he also headed the yeshiva. In 1954, he moved to Melbourne, Australia to serve as Rav of the Adat Yisrael community. After 14 years, he moved, primarily because most of his family lived in Eretz Yisrael, a distance too difficult to accommodate. He moved to Vienna to serve as Rav. In 1982, he moved to Yerushalayim, leaving his son, Chaim, as Rav of Vienna. He was the author of the six-volume She'eilot U'Teshuvot B'Tzel Hachochma. He was also a brother of Rav Moshe Stern.
HaRav Areyeh Leib Binah, zt"l, (5755 / 1994). Rosh Yeshiva of Netiv Meir.
HaRav Yichya Halevi Alshich, zt"l, (5757 / 1996), .head of Yemenite community.
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Cheshvan 5057 - 1296:
were barred from treating Christians in Sicily.
22 Cheshvan 5516 - October 27, 1755:
A great earthquake struck Lisbon, Portugal, destroying much of the city including the courthouse of the Inquisition.
Cheshvan 5579 - November 21, 1818:
An English Missionary
to the Russian Czar proposes establishing an independent Jewish homeland in
22 Cheshvan 5678 - November 7, 1917:
England took Gaza (where Yitzchok Avinu lived for 22 years) from the Turks.
Cheshvan 5705 - November 8, 1944:
The deportation of Budapest Jews by the Nazis, was resumed on this date. During this time, 20,000 Budapest Jews were shot by the banks of the Danube by Hungarian forces. Another 70,000 Jews were forced on a death march to Austria, of which the majority were either shot or died of starvation and exposure. Raoul Wallenberg was involved in saving some of Hungary's Jews. Out of 750,000 Jews that lived in Hungary before the war, only 30 percent survived. Hy"d.
.22 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits.
Harav Shlomo Halevl.Charif, zt"l, Rav of Lvov (5398 / 1637).
Harav:Moshe Lima, zt"l, author of Chelkat Hamechokek.(5417 / 1656). Early in the 17th century, he was hired by the city of Slonim to be its first Rav. While there, he was considered the highest authority in halacha in all of Lithuania. He later served as Rav in Brisk and Vilna.
Harav Dovid Shlomo Eibeshutz, zt"l,(1755 - 5574 / 1813), author of Levushei Serad (on halacha) and Arvei Nachal. In 1809, he settled in Tzefat, where he died and is buried.
Harav Ezriel Horowitz of Lublin , zt"l, known as the Rosh Habarzel, the “Eizener Kop” (5579 / 1818). He opposed the Chozeh when the latter arrived in Lublin.
Harav Yissaschar Dov Rokeach, zt"l, the the third Belzer Rebbe, (5614 / 1854 - 5687 / 1926). He was the leader of thousands and headed the organization Machzikei Hadat. During the First World War he fled to Hungary and returned in 1921 to Galitzia.
HaRav Uriel Dovidi, zt"l, (2005). The 14th of 14 children, 9 of whom died in childhood (while 3 others died in early adulthood). His mother, Serach, “demanded” a healthy son, talmid chacham. Rav Uriel had a photographic memory and great analytic ability, despite having had only four years of structured schooling. He lived with and learned from shieks, which helped later during the Iranian revolution. Rav Uriel lost his father at 17, and married his first cousin at 18. He became an expert in Tanach & Midrash, and wrote a Hebrew-Persian dictionary. He became a mohel, a shochet, then became a teacher. He had a large library and owned one of only three sets of Shas in Iran. Rav Uriel moved to Tehran and became one of the two main rabbis of the city. He was personally responsible for keeping shops closed on Shabbat and provided kosher food for Jews in army. When he escaped Iran in 1994, two thousand sefarim had to be left behind; only his Torah Temima was taken to Israel.
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Cheshvan 3597 - 164 B.C.E.:
Following the victory of the Maccabees, the Jews
removed stones set up in the Beit Hamikdash by gentiles during the rule of the Greeks. In Talmudic times, this day was celebrated as a holiday.
Cheshvan - 1278:
Edward I of England arrests 680 Jews for alleged counterfeiting and puts them on trial. The judges sentence 269 Jews to death by hanging, and Edward received 16,500 pounds sterling from the property of the executed Jews, Hy"d.
Cheshvan - 1526:
Following the short occupation by the Ottoman Empire of Buda, the Jews were expelled after being falsely accused of aiding the Turks against Hungary. Many Jews had left Hungary with the departing Turks with hope for a better life. Jews of Pressburg (now Bratislava) were expelled by order of Queen Maria.
Cheshvan - 1746:
During the reign of Queen Maria Theresa (1740–1780), daughter of Charles III, the Jews were expelled from Buda.
Cheshvan 5699 - November 17, 1938:
The Italian version of the Nuremberg Laws was published.
23 Cheshvan 5700 - November 5, 1939:
1800 Jews from Sierpc, Poland, were marched to Warsaw. The remaining Jews were confined in a ghetto.
23 Cheshvan 5725 - October 29, 1964:
Karmiel was founded in the Galilee in an effort to populate northern Israel.
23 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Aharon Katzenellenbogen of Brisk, zt"l, (1854), author of Minchat Aharon,published in 1772.
Harav Refael Yosef Chazan of Izmir, zt"l, the Chikrei Lev (5501 / 1741 - 5581 / 1820). He became the Rishon L’Tzion,
when he moved to Yerushalayim two years after leaving Turkey in 1811 and settling in Chevron.
HaRav Avrohom Chaim Horowitz of Linsk, zt"l. (5665 / 1904),
HaRav Yehosef Rottenberg of Kosson, zt"l, the Bnei Sheleishim, (1912) (Uthers 5672 /1911)
HaRav Moshe Midner of Slonim-Baranowitz, zt"l, (5690 / 1929), a grandson of the Yesod Ha’avodah and a talmid of Rav Chaim Brisker Soloveitchik. He was mashgiach of Yeshivat Torat Chessed. The chsaidim of Slonim used to say of him "From Moshe (of Midian) up until Mosh Midner, there was none like Moshe."
Harav Yaakov Dovid Gordon, Chief Rabbi of Norfolk, Virginia, zt"l, author of Dor V'dorshov, Zichron Yaakov, (5633 / 1873 - 5708 / 1947).
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24 Cheshvan 5695 - November 2, 1934:
Yahrtzeit of Baron Edmund de Rothschild (1845-1934).
A member of the Rothschild banking dynasty, he preferred to pursue artistic interests, acquiring an important collection of drawings and engravings that he bequeathed to the Louvre. In 1882, Rothschild became a leading proponent of the Zionist movement, buying land throughout Israel and subsidizing Jewish settlements. He financed the first new Jewish town, Rishon Letzion ("the first of Zion"), as well as Zichron Yaakov, Caesarea and some 30 other settlements. He also established Israel's wine industry when he helped Russian Jews flee pogroms in the 1880s and plant vineyards in Israel. In 1954, Rothschild's remains were re-interred to Israel. To honor his memory, his son paid for the construction of the Knesset building in Yerushalayim.
24 Cheshvan 5701 - November 25, 1940:
The refugee ship, the SS Patria, with 1,900 desperate immigrants from Romania aboard, blew up and sank in Haifa port. killing 267 Jewish refugees. The explosion was the work of the Jewish underground army, the Hagana, who had meant only to damage the ship to prevent its sailing but had miscalculated the amount of explosives needed to disable the ship. Instead, it created a large hole in the ship’s hull, and the ship sank quickly, drowning many passengers. Many say that this was no miscalculation and was deliberate murder of Jews by Jews, in an attempt to influence British immigration policy to Palestine.
24 Cheshvan 5703 - November 4, 1942:
During World War II, Axis forces retreated from El Alamein in Northern Egypt (about 66 miles west of Alexandria) back to Tunisia. This was a major victory for British forces under the leadership of Lt. General Bernard Montgomery. Of this victory, Winston Churchill said "This is not the end, this is not the beginning, nor is it even the beginning of the end, but it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning."This miraculous turn-around may have saved the Jews living in Eretz Yisrael.
24 Cheshvan 5717 - October 29, 1956:
Israel’s eight day Sinai Campaign begins in coordination with France and England. Israel invades the Sinai in response to the increase in attacks on Israel from Gaza by the Egyptian-backed Fedayeen. Under United States and Soviet pressure Israel is forced to withdraw from the Sinai.
24 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Binyamin ben Yaakov Avinu, buried near Kfar Saba.
The youngest son of our Patriarch Yaakov,
and the youngest son of our Matriarch Rachel. When Yaakov returned to Israel, and was on his way home to his father, our Patriarch Yitzchak, Rachel passed away in the childbirth of Benyamin. She called him “Ben Oni,” meaning the son of
my pain, but Yaakov named him Benyamin, the son of the south. He had ten children and named each one after his
brother Yosef who had disappeared (he was sold into slavery by his other brothers). He was 115 years old when he passed away.
HaRav Avraham Azulai, zt"l, (1570 - 5404 / 1643), the Chesed L’Avraham. Born in Fez to Rav Mordechai Azulai. In 1599, he fulfilled his life’s dream and boarded a ship for Eretz Yisrael. The only possessions he took him were the many manuscripts of his chiddushim. These were all lost at sea during a storm. In Chevron, Rav Avraham wrote his major work on Kabbalah, entitled Kiryat Arba. It is based on the teachings of the four great kabbalists: the Ramak, the Arizal, Rav Chaim Vital and Rav Avraham Galanti. Later, in Aza (Gaza), Rav Avraham composed three more sefarim: Baalei Brit Avraham, a commentary on the twenty-four books of the Tanach, and Chesed L ’Avraham, which contains kabbalistic drashot. In addition to this, he wrote Kanaf Renanim, a summary of the kavanot of the prayers according to the Arizal; Ma’aseh Chosheiv, a summary of the kavanot of the Arizal on the mitzvot; Ahavah BaTa’anugim on the Mishnah, and Hagahot l’Sefer HaLevush on the Shulchan Aruch. His great grandson was Rav Chaim Yosef Dovid Azulai, the Chida.
HaRav Gedaliah of Zalkaa, zt"l, (5524 / 1763).
HaRav Raphael Kohen of Hamburg, zt"l, (1722-1803). Rosh yeshiva in Minsk at the age of 19, Rav Raphael became Rav of Pinsk in 1763. In 1776, he became Rav of the joint community of Altoona, Hamburg, and Wandsbek (AHU). He is the author of Torat Yekusiel.
HaRav Chaim Yosef Brukstein of Pistin, zt"l, (5555 / 1795 - 5625 / 1864).
Son of Rav Yehoshua Yitzchak, Rav Chaim Yosef was raised by the Shepole Zeide, and until the age of 15 he lived in his home. Rav Chaim Yosef later drew close to the Baal HaTanya, the Berditchever Rav, Rav Dov Ber of Uleinov, Rav Aharon of Paviltch and Rav Aharon of Zhitomer.
Rav Chaim Yosef left Russia and became a Rav in Pistin, near Kossov in Galicia, where he became close to Rav Menachem Mendel of Kossov, and later to his son, Rav Chaim of Kossov. According to his son, Rav Chaim Yosef personally knew more than 100 tzaddikim. Rav Chaim Yosef, who suffered greatly from poor health and poverty, authored Tosafot Chaim on the Torah and Nishmat Chaim on Tehillim.
HaRav Dovid Twersky of Makarov, zt"l, (5663 / 1902). Son of Rav Yaakov Yitzchak of Makarov, who in turn was the son of Rav Menachem Nochum of Makarov — the son of the Chernobler Maggid. Rav Dovid married his father’s first cousin, the daughter of the Trisker Maggid. Rav Dovid was niftar in Kiev. His sons were Rav Menachem Nochum of Makarov, and Rav Nissen Yehudah Leib of Kiltz. His sons-in-law included Rav Shmuel Abba of Makarov, Rav Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Novominsk, Rav Avrohom Yaakov Panitz, and Rav Chaim Gershon Monzon.
HaRav Nachum Dov HaKohen Kreisman, zt"l, (1923-2004). Born in the town of Rakishok in Lithuania’s Ponovezh District from a famous line of rabbonim who served in the Rakishok rabbinate for nine consecutive generations, ending with HaRav Betzalel Yalovetzky. As a bochur he went to Yeshivas Telz, where he studied under Rav Eliyahu Meir Bloch. He settled in Baltimore and enrolled at Ner Yisrael, where he studied under Rav Yaakov Yitzchak Ruderman. When Rav Aharon Kotler came to Baltimore, Rav Ruderman sent two bochurim to the train station to meet him: Nachum Dov and Shmuel Kamenetsky. Noting the high caliber of the two young men Rav Kotler took them back with him to New York in preparation for starting Yeshivas Lakewood. In 1954, Rav Kreisman moved to Eretz Yisrael and married, and in 1967, he was chosen to serve as a dayan by Rav Yosef Shalom Eliashiv, Rav Betzalel Zolti, the Rav of Yerushalayim, and Rav Shlomo Shimshon Karelitz.
Makarov is located in Kievskaya, 28 km from Kiev. The earliest known Jewish community was 1765. 1897 Hasidic population (census) was 3953. The Twersky Chasidic dynasty began in Makarov with a Nachum Twersky (1805-1851). Decimated in the Holocaust, Makarov is an offshoot of the Chernobyl dynasty).
HaRav Hillel Moshe Meshel Gelbstein, zt"l, (1834-1904 or 5668 / 1907), born in Bialystok, his mother was a 12th generation descendent of the Shlah HaKodesh. At the age of 15, he traveled to Kotzk and became of chassid of the Kotzker Rebbe. After the Kotzker passed away, Rav Meshel adopted the Chidushei HaRim as his rebbe. On the 23rd of Adar of 1867, the Chidushei HaRim was niftar, and on the 13th of Nissan that same year, the Tzemach Tzedek was niftar. Considering himself orphaned, Rav Meshel moved to Eretz Yisrael and settled in Yerushalayim - he would never again sleep outside the walls of the city. His sefarim included Mishkenot Le’abir Yaakov, Ohr Leyesharim, and Ohr Zarua Latzadik.
HarRav Raphael Dovid Auerbach, Rosh Yeshiva of Shaar Shomayim, zt"l, (1869 -1945). (some have the day as 5748 / 1987),
HaRav Gedalya Moshe Goldman of Zvhil, zt"l, (5647 / 1887 - 5710 / 1949), son of Rav Shlomo (Reb Shlomke) of Zhvil. When the Soviets rose to power, he was sent to Siberia and after eight years of exile managed, in 1936, to flee to Eretz Yisrael, where he also concealed his greatness. He served as an Admor for only five years, for he died when he was only 61.
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25 Cheshvan 3413 - 349 B.C.E.:
This date is a Yom Tov cited in Megillat Taanit. A wall was erected around the area of Yam Boste. When Jews returned from Golut Bavel, the Cuthim would not let them settle in Shomron until they recaptured the area by force. This settlement ultimately led to many other cities and towns being reoccupied by Jews, creating a strong Jewish presence in the area. This group of towns was called "Arei Nevrachta," derived from the word brachah - blessing.
25 Cheshvan - 109 B.C.E.:
The Chasmonaim / Hasmoneans (led by Yochanan Hyrcanus, (a nephew of Judah the Maccabee), defeated the Samaritans in Shomron and destroyed their temple on Har / Mt. Gerizim. They conquered Samaria, the capital city of the Samarian sect. This conquest was significant because it ended some 800 years of Samarian influence in Israel. The Samarians were a schismatic movement, comprised largely of non-Jews who practiced some Jewish traditions. The conquest may have further polarized the Jews into two distinct parties: 1) the Perushim / Pharisees ("separated ones") because they sought to retain the separation of Jewish culture from the Greek influences of Hellenization, and 2) the Tzedukim / Sadducees, Jews who embraced Greek culture.
25 Cheshvan 5168 - 1407:
Mobs attack the Jewish community of Cracow.
25 Cheshvan 5701 - November 26, 1940:
The half-million Jews of Warsaw, Poland, were forced to live within a walled ghetto.
25 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Avraham Rogoler, zt"l, brother of the Vilna Gaon, author of Maalot Hatorah (1807) (Others 1788).
HaRav Yissachar Dov Groidtbart, zt”l, (5564 / 1803).
HaRav Yitzchak Yoel of Linitz, zt”l, (5588 / 1827).
HaRav Naftali Weissblum of Lizhensk, zt”l, (5525 / 1765 - 5599 / 1838). Son of Harav Elazar of Lizhensk, oldest son of the Rebbe Reb Elimelech of Lizhensk. Despite being a scion of such an illustrious family, Reb Naftali conducted himself with humility. He journeyed to courts of other famous Rebbes of his era, though he himself could have been a Rebbe. Reb Naftali was especially close with the Rebbe Reb Menachem Mendel of Kossov, the founder of the Kossov-Vizhnitz dynasty and mechaber of Ahavat Shalom. He was survived by two sons, Harav Yaakov Yitzchak of Ziditchov and Harav Meshulam Zusha of Nadvorna. Like his father, Reb Meshulam Zusha did not conduct himself as a Rebbe.
HaRav Mordechai (ben Yissacher Dov) Rokeach, zt"l, Rav of Bilgoria (Bilgoraya) (1902-1949). Brother of Harav Aharon of Belz, the fourth Belzer Rebbe. During World War II he accompanied his brother, Harav Aharon, on a daring escape out of Nazi-occupied Europe. The two reached Eretz Yisrael in Shvat 5704 / 1944 and threw themselves into rebuilding the ranks of Belzer Chassidut, which had been decimated by the Holocaust. His only son is the current Belzer Rebbe.
HaRav Elya Yurkanski, zt"l, (1908 - 5766 / 2005). Born in Minsk, he and two brothers were smuggled over the order to Poland, on a recommendation by the Chafetz Chaim; Reb Elya was not yet a Bar Mitzvah, and he would never again see his parents. He spent almost 10 years in Baranovich with Rav Elchonon Wasserman before leaving for Mir in 1929. He traveled with the yeshiva to Shanghai and eventually joined the yeshiva in New York, where he remained his entire life. He was a Rosh Yeshiva with Mir for over 55 years.
26 Cheshvan - 1478:
At the behest of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella, Pope Sixtus IV issued a Bill empowering the monarchs to establish an inquisitional tribunal to investigate charges of heresy. The Spanish inquisition - which spread to all Spanish and later Portuguese (1536) colonies and possessions - was only disbanded on July 15, 1834.
26 Cheshvan - 1497:
King Manuel of Portugal decrees this as the final deadline by which time members of the Portuguese Jewish community must leave the kingdom. Those staying behind were forcibly baptized.
26 Cheshvan 5621 - November 11, 1860:
First Jewish wedding in Argentina. (Spain had barred Jews from Argentina. 7 years after the Spanish regime
was overthrown, all restrictions were removed.)
26 Cheshvan 5680 - November 19, 1919:
The US Senate rejected to Treaty of Versailles with a vote of 55-39, short of the required two-thirds majority.
26 Cheshvan 5685 - November 23, 1924:
Herztliya was founded.
26 Cheshvan 5697 - Nov. 11, 1936:
The Peel Commission investigates the Arab riots, eventually concluding that all Arab claims are withough merit. Nontheless, the Commission encouraged partition into separate Arab and Jewish states in an (unsuccessful) effort to appease Arab objections to a Jewish state.
26 Cheshvan 5699 - Nov. 20, 1938:
First anti-Semitic attack over American radio by Father Caughlin. Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest from Michigan, and one of history's first evangelists to preach via the mass media. At its peak in the early 1930s, his radio show had a listening audience estimated at one-third of the nation. Yet Coughlin's broadcasts became increasingly anti-Semitic, expressing sympathy for Hitler and promoting The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. It was only a few weeks after Kristallnacht, when synagogues across Germany were burned, that Coughlin caused a scandal by broadcasting a diatribe in which he blamed the Jewish victims.
26 Cheshvan 5701 - Nov. 27, 1940:
The Nazis murder 12,000 Jews of Minsk, Hy"d.
26 Cheshvan 5703 - November 6, 1942:
After deporting the last of the Jews from Chelm, Poland (southeast of Lublin), the city was declared "free of Jews" by the Nazis.
26 Cheshvan 5726 - November 21, 1965:
The port of Ashdod opens for business.
26 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Shlomo Segal, zt"l, Av Beit Din Polna’ah and Lvov, he authored MiBeit Levi (1638). [Others list Rav Shlomo Charif, Rav of Lvov, 5398 / 1637]
HaRav Raphael Hakohen of Hamburg, zt"l, (1723-1803). Born in Liphland to Rav Yekusiel Ziskind, the Rav of the town, Reb Raphael was taken to learn with the Shaagat Aryeh, a relative of theirs, in Minsk, at the age of 12. At the age of 19, Rav Raphael replaced his rebbi as Rosh Yeshiva in Minsk. Four years later, he was chosen as Rav of Rakow, and later of Smilowitz.
It is told that during his hachtarah, a woman burst through the crowd towards the bimah. “I am a divorcée, and I have a din Torah with the Rosh Hakahal!” she cried out.
Immediately, Reb Refael sent his attendant to call over the Rosh Hakahal. The Rosh Hakahal refused to come. Reb Refael sent another message: If the Rosh Hakahal wouldn’t come at once, he would put him in cherem! At that, the community leaders came up to Reb Refael to say that they were proud to have him as their undisputed Rav. The “case” was set up to see how, being so young, he would cope with pressure from the Rosh Hakahal, and he passed the test with flying colors.
At one point his rebbi, the Shaagat Aryeh, settled in Smilowitz, the city where Reb Refael was Rav. It was amazing to see his humility before his own talmid, as he refused to pasken or to judge any din Torah unless Reb Refael allowed it. But Reb Refael could not tolerate such a situation, so he moved to Douckar, an hour away from Smilowitz.
In 5523 / 1763, he became Rav in Pinsk. There he wrote Torat Yekusiel on Yoreh Deah, with an appendix of halachot pertaining to agunot. Leter he became Rav in Posen, and in 1776 of the three kehillot of Atuna, Hamburg, and Wandsbeck (AH”U). He fought tenaciously against the Haskalah movement which had begun rearing its ugly head. He put in cherem both Moses Mendelssohn and those who used his translation on the Chumash. Reb Refael cited the passuk in parashas Emor, “Mashchasam bahem mum bam — For their corruption is in them, a blemish is in them” (Vayikra 22:25), saying the roshei teivos are the same as those of Moshe Ben Menachem Berlin.
The maskilim were very upset with the new Rav and his acerbic comments about their leader. They set out to fight Reb Refael with the publication of Mitzpeh Yekusiel, a so-called response to his Toras Yekusiel. Reb Refael was not deterred, and did not even issue a reply.
In 5559/1799, Reb Refael gave his last drashah in Altona, explaining that in his capacity as Rav he was sometimes forced to speak lashon hara and this he could not tolerate. After he resigned his post the Napoleonic Wars broke out, forcing Reb Refael to settle in Hamburg. He said of that war that it may be the war of Gog and Magog, and Moshiach may be coming, with the Beis Hamikdash about to be rebuilt. Since he was a kohen he dedicated himself to learning the halachot pertaining to kohanim.
He also authored Sheilot Hakohanim Torah on the avodah of the kohanim, Sh’Ut Veshav Hakohen, Mapei Lashon on the issur of lashon harah, and Daat Kedoshim, drashot in halachah and aggadah.
Harav Aryeh Mordechai Halberstam of Shinev, zt”l, (5691 / 1930).
HaRav Simcha Soloveitchik, zt"l, son of the Bait Halevi (5702 / 1941)
HaRav Aryeh Mordechai Halberstam of Shinova, zt"l, (1930)
HaRav Mordechai Zimmerman, zt"l, , renown mohel (1913-2005). Born in New York to Rav Yosef Yehoshua and Shaina Rochel Zimmerman, he attended Torah Vodaat, which his father help found. He and his two brothers were sent to Mir and Grodna in Europe. While in Europe, he met with the Chafetz Chaim. He received his ktav semicha from Rav Shimon Shkop. After his marriage, he settled in Dubuque, Iowa for 5 years, then settled in the Bronx. In the mid-1980s, he moved to Boro Park, where he became a prominent member of the Mirrer minyan.
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A Yom Tov is cited in Megillat Taanit due to the return of the use of Soless for Menachot. This was Rab' Yochanan Ben Zakkai's defeat of the Tzedoki tradition of bringing animals as a korban minchah.
27 Cheshvan 1657 - 2105 B.C.E.:
The earth finally became dry and
inhabitable after the Mabul. Noach and his family left the Tayva / Ark and set foot
on dry ground.(Bereishit / Genesis 8:14). On this day, Hashem commanded them to repopulate and resettle the earth.
27 Cheshvan 5616 - November 8, 1855:
The U.S. agrees not to protest against Swiss discrimination against American Jews, 1855.
27 Cheshvan 5717 - November 1, 1956:
During the Sinai Campaign, Rafa and Mitla Pass fall into Israeli
27 Cheshvan 5765 - November 11, 2004:
Yasser Arafat, ym”s, dies in Paris.
27 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yaakov Chaviv, zt"l, mechaber of Ein Yaakov (5270 / 1509).
HaRav David, zt"l, Rav of Lida, Magentza and
Amsterdam, mechaber of Ir Dovid, Ir Miklat and Sharvit Hazahav, (5457 / 1696).
HaRav Refael Ashkenazi of lzmir, zt"l, mechaber of Mareh Einayim (5586 / 1825).
HaRav Shmuel Hayashish, zt"l, Rav of London, (5603 / 1842).
HaRav Meir Binyamin Menachem Dunin, zt"'l,mechaber of Be'er Hasadeh (5609 / 1848).
HaRav Moshe Mordechai of Pelzovizna, zt"l, (5677 / 1916).
HaRav Dovld Friedman, Hy"'d, the Rebbe of Ployesht (5701 / 1940).
HaRav Shmuel Halevi Ashlag, zt”l, (5757 / 1996).
HaRav Yaakov Leiser, zt"'l, Pshevorsker Rebbe, also known as RebYankele of Antwerp, (5766 / 1906 - 5759 / 1998). Born in Galicia, he became a follower of the Koloshitzer Rebbe, Rav Chuna Halberstam, in 1926. He and his family were shipped to Siberia until the end of WWII. After the war, he traveled to America, Paris, and Antwerp.
He was succeeded by his only son, Rav Leibish Leiser.
28 Cheshvan - 1095:
Pope Urban II instructed Christians to retake the Holy Land from the Muslims at the Council of Claremont. This summons eventually became the First Crusade.
28 Cheshvan - 1347:
King Charles IV issued protective laws for the Jews of Strasbourg. However, just two years later 1,000 Strasbourg Jews were burned and the remainder forcibly baptized in response to well-poisoning accusations, Hy"d.
28 Cheshvan - 1532:
Solomon Molcho, Marrano mekubal, burned at the stake, Hy"d.
28 Cheshvan - 1547:
Pogrom in Asolo, Italy, killing ten of the thirty Jews of the town, Hy"d.
28 Cheshvan - 1593:
Anti-Jewish riots erupted in Bucharest, Rumania
resulting in the loss of many Jewish lives, Hy"d.
28 Cheshvan 5710 - November 20, 1949:
The Jewish population of Israel reached
Over the years, waves of aliyah from Arab countries, Russia and Ethiopia
-- combined with higher-than-average birthrates -- has pushed the
Jewish population of Israel to 5 million. It is estimated that an
additional one million Israelis live outside the country.
28 Cheshvan 5717 - November 2, 1956:
Israel liberated Gaza City. Gaza was the home of Yitzchok Avinu (Isaac the Patriarch) for 22 years. Later, when the Shevatim / tribes were allotted parcels of land, Gaza was given to Shevet / tribe of Yehuda.
28 Cheshvan 5729 - November 19, 1968:
lsrael allows thousands of refugees who fled to Jordan in the Six Day War to return.
28 Cheshvan 5735 - November 13, 1974:
Yasser Arafat, ym"s, calls for the liquidation of Israel before the General Assembly.
28 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
Rabbeinu Yonah, zt"l, the Chassid of Girondi, (5024 / 1263) (See 8 Cheshvan)
HaRav Tzvi Bochtinsch, zt"l, (5353 / 1592). An expert in the intricate halachot Shechita, bedikot, and nikkur, he authored Shechitot U'bedikot
Maharatz, and is frequently quoted in these matters by the Mahari Weill. Harav Tzvi served as the leading shochet in Cracow, in the times of the Rema, and he also had many talmidim who learned from his expertise. One of his talmidim, Rav Yaakov Shorzina from Kostelitz, attested that Harav Tzvi once had a halachic dispute with the Rema, and the Rema agreed to his ruling in the end, showing how highly his opinion was regarded by the leading poskim of his time. (Others 1692).
HaRav Zev Wolf, zt"l, Rav of Salik and author of Nachlat Binyamin, (5447 / 1686).
HaRav Eliezer Lieber of Berditchev, zt"l, (1770)
HaRav Shalom Eisen, zt"l,.(1917-1988?), Moreh Tzedek in the Beit Din of the Aida Hachareidit in Yerushalayim for over 50 years, he was a talmid of Rav Isser Zalmen Meltzer.
29 Cheshvan 4402 - 641:
With the Arab conquest of Egypt, Jews were permitted to live in Alexandria. (The Jewish community there was already
1000 years old by that time.)
29 Cheshvan 5578 - November 8, 1817:
Birth of Naftali Tzvi Yehuda Berlin, the Netziv of Volozhin.
29 Cheshvan 5717 - November 3, 1956:
Israel captured Khan Yunis, concluding
the occupation of the Gaza Strip.
29 Cheshvan 5769 - November 27, 2008:
Mumbai Terror Attacks
The city of Mumbai, India, was hit with a series of coordinated terror attacks, starting on Wednesday evening, which left close to 200 dead and scores more injured.
One of the terrorists' chosen targets was the local Chabad House, known as the "Nariman House," operated by Chabad-Lubavitch emissaries Rabbi Gavriel Noach (Gabi) and Rivkah (Rivki) Holtzberg.
In the subsequent standoff, which continued until Friday afternoon, Gabi and Rivki and several other Jews in the Chabad House – Rabbis Bentzion Chroman and Leibish Teitelbaum, Norma Schwartzblatt-Rabinowitz and Yocheved Orpaz – were killed in cold blood. Hy"d. May G-d avenge their murders.
[Gavriel ben Nachman, Rivka Bat Shimon, Aryeh Leibush ben Nachum, Ben Zion ben Chaim Zvi, Yocheved Bat Yaakov and Norma (Nechama) Bat Avrohom]
Miraculously, the Holtzbergs' two-year-old child, Moshe, was saved by his nanny.
The only terrorist captured alive was Mohammed Ajmal Amir, a Pakistani national.
29 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
HaRav Chaim Hakohen Rappaport of Ostraha, zt'l, author of Mayim Chaim (5600/1840)
HaRav Shloime Tzvi Berliner, zt"l, Rav of London, (5522 / 1762 - 5603 / 1842).
Harav Tzvi. Hersh :Meshares of Rimanov, zt"l, (5607 / 1846)
HaRav Yitzchak Eizik Chover, zt"l, author of Responsa Binyan Olam and Si'ach Yitzchak. One of his talmidim, Rav Yitzchak Kahane, wrote Toldot Yitzchak (5613 / 1852)
Harav Shimon Yehudah Phonfeder zt"l, Rav of Tokai, author of Maayenei Mayim (5633 / 1872).
R' Yisrael Bak (1797-1874), z"l, a pioneer of book printing in modern Israel. In the 16th century, six books had been printed in the northern town of Tzefat. It would be 245 years until another Hebrew book was published in the Holy Land, when Bak, a Ruzhiner Chassid, whose name is an acronym for "Bnei Kodesh" (children of holiness), moved from the Ukraine to Israel in 1831. He established a Hebrew press in Tzefat and published a Siddur and Vayikra (Leviticus) with commentaries. An earthquake destroyed his print shop in 1837, and a Druze revolt the following year destroyed his press once again. Bak then moved to Yerushalayim in 1841 where he established the first Hebrew press ever in the holy city. For more info, click here. and here.
HaRav Efraim Dov Ber Halevi Greenberger, zt"l, Rav in the Odesser Congregation for 30 years (1933).
HaRav Avraham Abish Kanner, zt"l, the Tchechover Rebbe of Haifa (5744 / 1983)
Rabbi Gavriel Noach (Gabi) and his 6-month-pregnant wife Rivkah (Rivki) Holtzberg, Rabbis Bentzion Chroman and Leibish Teitelbaum, Norma Schwartzblatt-Rabinowitz and Yocheved Orpaz – killed in cold blood in the Mumbai Terror Attacks. Hy"d, May G-d avenge their murders. (5769 / 2008). See above.
30 Cheshvan 5544 - Novenber 25, 1783:
American forces recaptured New York City from the British. This cleared the way for the return of Jews who had been forced to flee when the British captured New York City in 1776. Jewish leaders were in danger due to their public support of the American Revolution.
Perhaps the best-known was Haym Salomon, an immigrant from Poland, who worked as an undercover agent for George Washington. Salomon was arrested in 1778, accused of plotting to destroy British property in New York. Salomon was condemned to death for sabotage, but bribed his guard while awaiting execution, and escaped to Philadelphia. Salomon was an astute merchant and banker, and succeeded in accumulating a huge fortune which he used to finance the Revolution and later to save the new nation from financial collapse. When Salomon died at age 45 of tuberculosis, he was bankrupt and the U.S. government owed him $700,000 in unpaid loans. In 1975, the U.S. issued a postage stamp in his honor.
30 Cheshvan 5700 - November 12, 1939:
The chief of police of the Wartha district, Wihelm Koppe, ordered that Poznan (western Poland) become "free of Jews." The Jewish community in Poznan was over 700 years old at that time.
30 Cheshvan 5700 - November 12, 1939:
The Jews of Lodz, Poland, were ordered by the Nazis to wear yellow armbands on their sleeves.
30 Cheshvan Yahrtzeits
In most years Cheshvan has only 29 days. When this occurs the Yahrtzeits from the 30th are celebrated on the 29th.
HaRav Tzvi Hersh Hakohen of Rimanov, zt"l, (1778-1846). From the age of fifteen, Tzvi Hersh began traveling to the court of Rav Menachem Mendel of Rimanov. He became one of the Rebbe’s closest chassidim and his personal attendant; he thus became know as Rav Tzvi Hersh Mesharet. After the petira of Rav Naftali of Ropshitz (another of the closest chassidim of Rav Menachem Mendel), Rav Tzvi Hersh returned to Rimanov to accept the mantle of leadership of the chassidim. His divrei Torah were compiled and published by his son, Rav Yosef, under the name Be’eirot Hamayim. It is comprised of several sefarim, all beginning with the word Be’er. For example, the sefer Be’er Lechai Roi, contains his drushim on Chumash and the Yomim Tovim. Other teachings of his can be found in the sefer Mevasser Tov His yahrtzeit falls on the thirtieth of Cheshvan, but since Cheshvan more often has only 29 days, it is generally commemorated on the 29th.
HaRav Yaakov Betzalel Zolty, zt"l, (1920 - 1982), Ashkenazi chief rabbi of Yerushalayim, author of Mishnat Yaavetz.
HaRav Asher (Oscar) Fasman, zt"l, (1908-2003). Born in Chicago, he served as Rav in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Ottowa, Canada, before returning to Chicago. He developed Hebrew Theological College from an afternoon only school to a full-time yeshiva, bringing gedolei Torah as Roshei Yeshiva. He was president of the yeshiva from 1946 to 1964, and also served as president of the Chicago Rabbinical Council and rav of Congregation Yehuda Moshe in Lincolnwood, Illinois. His son, Rav Chaim Fasman, is Rosh Kollel in Los Angeles.
HaRav Eliezer Yehudah Waldenberg, zt"l, (1914- 2006). He was born in Yerushalayim to Rav Yaakov Gedalyahu who came to Eretz Yisrael from Kovno in the early 1900s. He learned in the Eitz Chaim Yeshiva and developed a very warm bond with Rav Isser Zalman Meltzer. Rav Waldenberg wrote his first sefer, Dvar Eliezer, when he was only 19. Upon the passing of his mother and later his father both in the 1960s, he published two separate sefarim on the halachot of mourning. Rav Waldenberg got involved with medical ethics during the period that he served as rabbi of a shul adjacent to the old location of Sha’arei Tzedek Hospital in downtown Yerushalayim. Among those who attended was Professor Avraham Steinberg, a pediatric neurologist and head of the Medical Ethics Center at Sha’arei Tzedek, as well as the editor of the Talmudic Encyclopedia. “Doctors who prayed at the synagogue, myself included, started asking him questions. Eventually, he began teaching a weekly medical ethics class for doctors and nurses.” His teshuvot were compiled in his magnum opus, a 21-volume set of responsa entitled Tzitz Eliezer. The first volume of Tzitz Eliezer was published in 1945, when he was not yet 30. In addition, he authored a book on the laws of sea travel on Shabbat called Shvisa b’Yam, a book on mourning laws called Ein Ya’acov and a book on legal issues in the modern state called Hilchot Medina. He was also a member on the Beit Din Hagadol where he sat together for many years with Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv. Rav and Rebbetzin Waldenberg merited to have one child, a son, Rav Simcha Bunim Waldenberg (1937-2005). Rav Simcha Bunim became a dayan in the Eidah Hachareidit and served as its appointed Rov of the neighborhood of Ezrat Torah. He himself was known as a posek muvhak. Tragically, Rav Simcha Bunim passed away in 2005.
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