1 Tishrei - Rosh Hashana
1 Tishrei -
Rosh Hashana, 1st Day
On Rosh Hashana, each person's allotment of life and livelihood is subject to renewal. The Talmud says that on Rosh Hashana, Hashem answered the prayers for children of Sarah, Rivka, Rachel, Leah and Chana -- were answered; on this day Sarah became pregnant with Yitzchok (Isaac), Rachel with Yosef (Joseph) and Chana with the prophet Shmuel (Samuel), respectively. (Sarah's story is the Torah reading on the first day of Rosh Hashana, and Chana's story is the Haftorah.)
We recite Tashlich.
The sixth day of Creation:
Hashem created animals that walk and crawl on the earth, and He created Adam Harishon, the first human, and Chava, the first woman. "Hashem formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." (Bereishit /Genesis 2:7) That day they were banished from Gan Eden.
1 Tishrei 1656 - 2105 B.C.E.:
(According to Rab' Eliezer) Noach dispatched a dove.from the Teivah / Ark for the third time. When the dove did not return, Noach knew that the waters had completely drained from the earth. On that day Noach removed the roof of the Teivah; but he, his family remained in the Teivah for another 57 days, until the 27th of Cheshvan.
1 Tishrei - 1958
- 1804 B.C.E.:
Birth (1958 - 1804 B.C.E.): and yahrtzeit (2086 - 1676 B.C.E.:) of Sarah Imeinu, according to some sources. Also Akeidat Yitzchak. See below.
1 Tishrei - 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.:
Sarah Imeinu was blessed by the Malach to have children.
1 Tishrei - 2086 - 1676 B.C.E.:
Yitzchok was bound on the mizbeach during the Akeidah. This prompted the petirah of his mother, Sarah Imeinu.
1 Tishrei 2173 - 1589 B.C.E.:
Yaakov Avinu received the brachot / blessings from Yitzchak Avinu (according to the Zohar, but according to Pirkei D'Rabi Eliezer it occurred on Pesach).
1 Tishrei 2200 - 1562 B.C.E.:
Rachel Imenu's tefillot were answered; she later gave birth to Yosef Hatzaddik.
1 Tishrei 2236 - 1526 B.C.E.:
Yosef Hatzaddik was freed from prison in Mitzrayim / Egypt.
1 Tishrei 2448 - 1314 B.C.E.:
The harsh slavery of the Jews in Mitzrayim / Egypt ended.
1 Tishrei 2832 - 930 B.C.E.:
The tefillah of Chana was answered; she gave birth to Shmuel HaNAvi the following year.
1 Tishrei 3049 - 713 B.C.E.:
Elisha promised his hostess, the Ishah gedolah of Shunam, that she would bear a child.
1 Tishrei - 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:
Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Gedalia was from the royal family of the Kings of Yehuda, his father was a Minister and his grandfather a Scribe for King Yoshiyahu. After his appointment to rule over the poor of the Jewish people, who remained behind in Israel after the forced exile to Babylon, he called for all the Jews who fled to surrounding nations to return to Israel and rebuild. King Belis of Amon wanted to stop the development of the Jewish settlement, and convinced Yishmael ben Nesanya to murder Gedalia and his supporters. See 2 Tishrei.This
unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting on the third day of Tishrei..
According to Radak, Gedalia was killed on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination,
the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel.
1 Tishrei - c. 360 B.C.E.:
Ezra read the Torah to the people and made a new covenant with them.
1 Tishrei - 352 B.C.E.:
Zerubavel brought the first Korban on the new Mizbeiach
1 Tishrei - 5314 - 1553:
Cardinal Caraffa (later to be Pope Paul IV), with the backing of Pope Julius III, publicly burns
the Talmud and other sifrei kodesh in Rome.
1 Tishrei 5405 - October 1, 1645:
Jews of Mogilev, Russia, were attacked during Tashlich.
1 Tishrei 5415 - September 12, 1654:
First shul services in Manhattan.
1 Tishrei 5597 - September 12, 1836:
First shul services in St. Louis.
1 Tishrei 5650 - August 17, 1890:
Birth of HaRav Yisrael Abuchatzeira, the Baba Sali (1890-1984).
1 Tishrei 5684 - September 11, 1923:
Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin instituted the "Daf Yomi," the daily regimen of Talmud study (in which the participant studies one folio a day to complete the entire Talmud in seven years)
1 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Amnon of Mainz died Al Kiddush Hashem, while composing the Rosh Hashana prayer, "Unesaneh Tokef", Hy"d. (circa 1011 or 1012 - 4771 / 2 ? ). He sanctified HaShem’s Name during the period of the Crusades in Germany when he refused to convert to Christianity and the Bishop tortured him to death in an unusually cruel way. Before his death on Rosh Hashana he asked to be brought to the Synagogue, where he created the prayer “Unesaneh Tokef” - “Now, let our Kedusha ascend to You, our G-d, Who is King. Let us tell how utterly holy this day is and how awe-inspiring.” He expired upon completing the prayer. Three days later he appeared in a dream to Rav Klonimus and taught him the entire prayer, and asked him to publicize it in the Jewish communities. Today it is a climatic part of the Machzor of both Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur.
Birth (1958 - 1804 B.C.E.): and yahrtzeit (2086 - 1676 B.C.E.:) of Sarah Imeinu, according to some sources. One of the four Matriarchs of the Jewish people, She was the wife of the Patriarch Avraham. She would bring women close to serving G-d together with her husband Avraham, who worked with the men. Although G-d promised to give the Land of Israel to their seed, Avraham and Sarah were without children until advanced old age, when she was 90 and Avraham was 100, Yitzchak was born. She was buried in the Cave of Machpela that Avraham bought from the Hitites. She lived from 1958 (1804 B.C.E.) until 2086 (1676 B.C.E.).
Yahrtzeit of HaRav Shefatia, zt"l, (886), author of the selicha, "Yisrael Nosha BaHashem,"
HaRav Yehuda Ayash, zt”l, (5460 / 1700 (1688?) – 5521 / 1760), the Mateh Yehuda.
He served as the Head of the Beit Din and the Rav of Algiers. He was known as the “Honor of the Generation,” the “Holy Pious One” and the “Rav who resembles an Angel of the Hosts of G-d.” In 1756 he came to Eretz Yisrael and settled in Yerushalayim. He stood at the helm of the Yeshiva Keneset Yisrael, and wrote Mateh Yehuda, Beit Yehuda, Lechem Yehuda and more.
HaRav Aharon Moshiach Katzenelebogen of Belz, zt”l, (1816).
HaRav Meir Yeudah Leibush ben Yechiel Michel (Malbim), zt"l. (1809 - 5640 / 1879). He was born in Volhynia and was still a child when his father died. He studied in his native town until the age of 13. He then went to Warsaw where he was known as the ‘iluy from Volhynia.' From 1838 to 1845 he was rav of Wreschen, district of Posen, and in the latter year was called to the rabbinate of Kempen, where he remained until 1860; he was thereafter known as "der Kempener." In 1860 Malbim became chief rabbi of Bucharest, Rumania. But he could not agree with the rich German Jews there who wished to introduce the Reform rite and even threatened violence in the pursuit of their aims. By intrigues they succeeded in throwing him into prison, and though he was liberated through the intervention of Sir Moses Montefiore, it was upon the condition that he leave Rumania. He became Rav of Moghilef, on the Dnieper in 1870, but his lack of subservience provoked the resentment of the richer Jews, who denounced him as a political criminal. The governor of Moghilef ordered him to leave town. Malbim then went to Königsberg as chief rabbi of the Polish community, but there he fared no better than in Bucharest and Moghilef; he was continually harassed by the German Jews. His fame and immense popularity rests upon his widely esteemed commentary to Tanach, in which he details the close relationship between the Oral and the Written Law.
HaRav Eliyahu Hamoui, zt”l, (5671 / 1911). One the the great Kabbalists of Aram Tzova, who served as the Head of the Beit Din, author of Peh Eliyahu.
HaRav Yaakov Dovid ben Ze'ev Wilovsky of Slutzk, Chicago and Tsefat, zt"l. (1845- 5674 / 1913). The Ridbaz, was one of the great European scholars to come to America. As a consequence of the halachic standards of kashrut that he attempted to impose in Chicago, he eventually had to flee for his life.
HaRav Yitzchak Cohen of Djerba, Tunisia, zt"l, (1918).
HaRav Yitzchak Meir of Kopycznitz, zt"l, (1931 or 1935). Succeed as Rebbe by his son, Rav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel.
HaRav Ezriel Yehuda Lebowitz, zt"l, Viener Rav (1991).
HaRav Shmuel Halevi Shechter, zt"l, (1915-1999). Born in Montreal, Canada, he was only five years old, when his mother passed away. During his years at Rabbi Isaac Elchonon Theological Seminary, he shared a dormitory room with Rav Avigdor Miller. Later, he traveled to Poland to learn at the Mirrer Yeshiva under Rav Yeruchom. After his marriage, he learned at Kelm. When he returned to America, he learned with Rav Aharon Kotler, first at White Plains, NY, then at Lakewood. Years later, he settled in Eretz Yisrael.
Rosh Hashana, 2nd Day
2 Tishrei 1- 3761 B.C.E.:
"Thus the heaven and earth were finished, and all their array" (Bereishit / Genesis 2:1); Shabbat Breishit, the first Shabbat of creation.
2 Tishrei - 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:
Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Gedalia was from the royal family of the Kings of Yehuda, his father was a Minister and his grandfather a Scribe for King Yoshiyahu. After his appointment to rule over the poor of the Jewish people, who remained behind in Israel after the forced exile to Babylon, he called for all the Jews who fled to surrounding nations to return to Israel and rebuild. King Belis of Amon wanted to stop the development of the Jewish settlement, and convinced Yishmael ben Nesanya to murder Gedalia and his supporters. See 1 Tishrei.This
unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting on the third day of Tishrei..
Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShanah, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. According to Radak, Gedalia was killed today, on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination,
the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel.
2 Tishrei 5420 -September 19, 1659:
The kedoshim, HaRav Tuvya and HaRav Yisroel, were murdered in a blood libel in Razino, Hy"d.
2 Tishrei 5701 - October 4, 1940:
The Vichy government
in France introduced "Statut des Juifs" (Statute on Jews), divesting Jewish refugees of their civil rights. Without any request by the Germans, the Vichy government of France began passing anti-Jewish measures, particularly on refugee Jews, prohibiting them from moving, and limiting their access to public places and most professional activities.. About 350,000 Jews lived in France at the time, more than half of whom were not French citizens. Under the terms of the armistice between France and Germany, northern France remained under German occupation. Southern France, which was not occupied by the Germans, was governed by an exclusively French administration based in the town of Vichy. The Vichy regime publicly declared neutrality in the war, but actually was active in passing antisemitic legislation and cooperated with Germany in the deportation of Jews from France.
2 Tishrei 5702 - September 23, 1941:
Experimental executions by gassing began at the Auschwitz death camp in southern Poland. The entrance to Auschwitz was cynically marked with a sign, "Work makes you free." Arriving prisoners would be subject to a "selection," often administered by Josef Mengele, where a wave of the hand decided who would be used for medical experiments, who sent to forced labor, and who murdered that day. The latter group was sent to a gas chamber pumped with Zyklon B; the bodies were then burned in the Auschwitz crematoria. Jewish leaders begged Roosevelt and Churchill to bomb the railway lines leading to Auschwitz, but the Allies never gave the plan priority. In its four years of operation, the Nazis murdered more than one million Jews at Auschwitz, Hy"d.
2 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. This
unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting.
Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShanah, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. According to Radak, Gedalia was killed today, on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination,
the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel
HaRav Yisrael Perlow, zt”l, the Yanuka of Stolin (1868-1921). The Karlin dynasty had its beginnings with Rav Aharon HaGodol of Karlin (1736-1772), a talmid of the Maggid of Mezritch. At that time, Karlin was located in Lithuania, so Karliners are known as “Lithuanian chassidim.” It was Rav Aharon’s son and successor, Rav Asher the First, who moved the court to Stolin. Rav Aharon’s great-grandson, Rav Asher the Second, was childless for many years. In 1869, his wife, Rebbetzen Devorah, was blessed with a boy, whom they named Yisrael. Reb Yisrael was only 4 years old when his father was niftar in the town of Drohobich (Galicia). The Karlin chasidim resolved to meet this lack of leadership by standing firm in their loyalty to the Karlin dynasty, and therefore proclaimed the Yenuka [Child] Yisrael to be their Rebbe. The influence of the Haskalah movement, which had first begun to be felt in Rav Aharon the Second’s days grew stronger in Rav Yisrael’s time. Rav Yisrael died far away from his native town, in a convalescent home in Homburg, Germany. He was buried in Frankfurt-on-Main. After his petira, his followers were now in a quandary as Rav Yisrael had left no instructions regarding which of his six sons to appoint in his place. Thus, the leadership split into three. His son, Rav Moshe, led the court in Stolin, where he opened the yeshiva, Beit Yisrael, in his father’s memory in 1922. Another son, Rav Avraham Elimelech, became rebbe in Karlin, while Rav Yochanan, his youngest son, became rebbe in Lutzk. The Nazis destroyed the Stolin community in Elul 1942, and four of Rav Yisrael’s sons perished in the Holocaust, Hy”d. However, thanks to his surviving sons, Karlin-Stolin communities now thrive in Eretz Yisrael and America. These sons were Rav Yaakov, who had moved to America in 1923, and lived in Williamsburg before moving to Detroit where he passed away in 1946. The second surviving son was Rav
Yochanan, Rav Yisrael’s youngest son, who became the Karlin-Stolin Rebbe in America in 1948, and passed away in 1956. He was succeeded by his daughter’s son, Rav Baruch Yaakov Meir Shochet, who was a baby at the time of his passing. History repeated itself when this youngster was coronated as the next Karlin-Stolin Rebbe when he was only eight years old.
HaRav Salman Eliyahu, zt’l, (5632 / 1872?1878 - 5701 / 1940), the Kerem Shlomo. Born in Bagdad, he was a student of the Ben Ish Chai, (1835-1909), and married Mazal, a granddaughter of the sister of the Ben Ish Chai. Rav Salman moved to the United Kingdom from Iraq and studied theology & philosophy. Due to the Western education he received in England, Rav Salman served as the personal secretary to Lord Herbert L. Samuel, the High Commissioner of the British Mandate for Palestine. Upon the advice of his mentor the Ben Ish Chai, Rabbi Salman moved back to Yerushalayim. One of his works is the Kerem Shlomo, an explanation of the Sefer of the great Kabbalist, the Rashash, entitled the Rechovot HaNahar. His son is Harav Mordechai Tzemach Eliyahu Shlit”a, a great rabbi and Posek who served as the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Eretz Yisrael from 1983 to 1993.HaRav Shemaryahu [or Shmuel] Greineman, zt"l, (5741 / 1980), who printed the sefer "Chazon Ish."
HaRav Ephraim Oshry, zt"l, (1908 - 5764 / 2003). Born in Kopishak, Lithuania, he learned in Ponevezh, Talmud Torah Kelm and Slabodka. He was also a talmid of the Chofetz Chaim in Radin. While he was still quite young, he was appointed Rav of the Abba Yechezkel Kloiz in Slabodka. During World War II, he lived in the Kovno ghetto from June, 1941 until August 1, 1944. It was there that he recorded the gripping shaylot he received, publishing them later in five volumes of She'eilot Uteshuvot Mima'amakim. After the liberation, he was the only surviving Rav of Kovno. He worked diligently to restore Yiddishkeit and was especially active in rescuing children left with non-Jews. He then fled to Austria, where he founded a yeshiva in Welsh, a small town near Salzburg. He was then called upon to take over the leadership of the Meor Hagoloh yeshiva in Rome. He later went to America, where he served as Rav of the Beit Hamedrash Hagodol on the Lower East Side of New York City. He published Divrei Ephraim in 1949. He also published chiddushei Torah on many areas, including Imrei Ephraim on Nezikin and other subjects. He also wrote Yahadut Lita which appeared in Yiddish, about his recollections of pre-War Europe.
Fast of Gedalia.
3 Tishrei - 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:
Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Gedalia was from the royal family of the Kings of Yehuda, his father was a Minister and his grandfather a Scribe for King Yoshiyahu. After his appointment to rule over the poor of the Jewish people, who remained behind in Israel after the forced exile to Babylon, he called for all the Jews who fled to surrounding nations to return to Israel and rebuild. King Belis of Amon wanted to stop the development of the Jewish settlement, and convinced Yishmael ben Nesanya to murder Gedalia and his supporters.This
unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting on the third day of Tishrei..
Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShana, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. According to Radak, Gedalia was killed on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination,
the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel.
After the Chashmonaim instituted writing Hashem's name on shtarot (contracts) in reaction
to the Greek prohibition to mention Hashem's name, the Chachomim (Sages) cancelled their
decision on this day to prevent Hashem's name from being desecrated. This day
was like a Yom Tov (Rosh Hashana 18b, also cited in Megillat Taanit)..
3 Tishrei 5586 - September 15, 1825:
An American diplomat named Mordechai Manuel Noah laid the foundation stone for Ararat, the first modern-day attempt to establish a national Jewish homeland. To implement his plan, Noah petitioned the New York State legislature for rights to Grand Island, a 27-square-mile parcel of land located between Buffalo, New York and Niagara Falls. Noah also levied a "redemption tax" upon each Jew in the world. Despite a grand opening ceremony, the plan fizzled when no Jews moved to Ararat / Grand Island.
3 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yitzchak Zekel Leib Wormeiser (Wormer), zt"l, (1768 - 5608 / 1847), also known as the Baal Shem of Michaelstadt (1768-1847). At the age of 17, he left home to learn at the yeshiva gedolah of Frankfurt, headed by Rav Pinchas Horowitz, the Baal HaFla'ah. He also became close to Rav Nosson Adler, the Chasam Sofer's rebbi. After his marriage at the age of 22, he moved to Michelstat, where he founded a yeshiva. Some have the Yahrtzeit as 4 Tishrei.
HaRav Yisrael Lipshitz, zt"l, (5542 / 1782 - 5621 / 1860), Rav of Danzig (Gdansk), and author of Tiferet Yisrael, a popular and important commentary on Mishnayot. His commentary achieved wide distribution and is printed in all the editions of Mishnayot today. It includes many original chidushim - novel explanations. In the second edition put out by his son in 1862, it was divided into two sections: the plain meaning of the text of the Mishna called “Yachin,” and the chidushim, contained in “Boaz.” These names were based on the names of two pillars in King Solomon’s Temple.
He also authored Shevilei D'rakiya, an introduction to the principles of Rabbinical astronomy and determining the Molad; it appears in the beginning of Seder Mo'ed in the "Tiferet Yisrael" sets of Mishnayot. Additionally, he wroted Derush Ohr HaChaim (Homily on the Light of Life) which debates the eternality of the soul.
HaRav Shimon Nosson Nota Biderman, zt”l, the Lelover Rebbe (1929).
HaRav Naftali Trop, zt"l, Rosh Yeshiva Radin (1871 - 5691 / 1930). Born in Grodno, he studied with his father, Rav Moshe Trop, who was Rosh Yeshiva of a local yeshiva. At 14, he left for Kelm, then Solodka, then Telz, where he became close to Rav Eliezer Gordon. In 1889, he returned to Slobodka, when Rav Yaakov Yitzchak (Itzel) Rabinowitz was appointed Rosh Yeshiva. There, he became his close talmid. In 1890, Rav Hirshel Levitan appointed him Rosh Yeshiva of Or HaChaim in Slobodka. In 1903, he replaced Rav Moshe Landinski as Rosh Yeshiva in Radin, where he remained for the rest of his life.
HaRav Dovid Rapaport, zt"l, (1890 - 5702 / 1941). Born in Minsk, his mother was a descendant of the Gaon of Vilna while his father, Rav Akiva, was the grandson of Rav Akiva Eiger. When he was still a young man, he enrolled in Ponovezh, having already written his sefer, Tzemach Dovid, on the chiddushim and halachic responsa of his grandfather. From Ponovezh, Rav Dovid went on to study in Kollel Beit Yisrael of Slabodka. After his marriage, he and his wife were supported by his father-in-law, during which period Rav Dovid was able to compile his second major work, Mikdash Dovid, which focuses on the tractates of Kodshim, Taharot, Bechorot and Sanhedrin. Then, during World War One, Rav Dovid had to flee and found refuge in Vilna. Later on, Rav Elchanan Wasserman invited Rav Dovid to deliver shiurim in Yeshivat Ohel Torah in Baranovich.This yeshiva was founded in 1907 at the initiative of Rav Yosef Yozel Horowitz, the Alter of Novhardok. During the outbreak of World War Two, Rav Dovid remained in Ohel Torah, joining the yeshiva on its treks to Vilna and, from there, to Turkey and Smilishuk. On the 19th of Sivan, 1941, an NKVD agent burst into the yeshiva and arrested him. After his trial, Rav Dovid was sent to a forced labor camp in a distant village, near Finland.
HaRav Aharon Yechiel (Reb Ahrele) Hopstein of Kuzhnitz, zt”l, (1889-1942). Reb Ahrele was a direct descendent of the Maggid Kozhnitz, who - along with the Chozeh of Lublin, Rav Mendel of Riminov, and the Oheiv Israel of Opt - were the greatest talmidim of Rav Elimelech of Lizhensk and who were primarily responsible for the spready of Chassidus throughout Europe. Rav Aharon Yechiel’s father, Rav Yerachmiel Moshe, was the sixth Kuzhnitzer Rebbe, was niftar in 1909. Another son of Rav Yerachmiel Moshe, Rav Yisrael Elazar, moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1923 and helped found Kfar Chassidim and Kfar Ata.
HaRav Chizkiyahu Yosef Mishkovsky, zt”l, (1884-1947), Av Beit Din of Krinki (Krinik, Krienek), Poland, he was a son in law of Rav Isaac Blazer (Reb Izella Peterburger). (1884-1947?1946) and a brother in law of Rav Moshe Shatzkes (1881 – 1958). Yeshivat Knesset Chizkiyahu, one of the first Lithuanian yeshivas founded after the establishment of the State of Israel, was named after him.
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4 Tishrei 5444 - September 24,
King Louis XIV expelled the Jews from all French territories in America.
4 Tishrei 5700 - September 17,
Soviet forces invade Poland, more than two weeks after Nazi Germany launches its assault there.
4 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yoel Baal Shem, zt”l, (1713).
HaRav Tzvi Hirsch Halberstadt, zt"l, (5508 / 1747), (the Maharshashach), the Kos Hayeshuot, great-grandfather of the Chasam Sofer.
HaRav Avraham Danzig, zt"l, (5508 / 1748 - 5581 / 1820), author of Chayei Adam, a halachic work on Jewish law dealing with daily conduct, prayer, Shabbat and holidays. Born in Danzig (Gdansk), he learned at the yeshiva in Prague under Rav Yechezkel Landau. He settled in Vilna where he lived most of his life serving as a dayan ( judge). He was related by marriage to the Vilna Gaon. He authored other acclaimed works including Chochmat Adam, Nishmat Adam, and Binat Adam. Other works he authored include Zichru Torat Moshe - an introduction to the laws of Shabbat, Kitzur Sefer Chareidim - an abridgement of the classic Sefer Chareidim by Rav Elazar Ezkari, and Toldot Adam - a commentary on the Passover Hagadah.
HaRav Yehuda Shlomo? Chai Alqalai (or Alkalai), zt”l, (5558 / 1798 - 5639 / 1878). Born in Sarajevo, Bosnia, he came to Israel with his parents at the age of 11. At a very young age he was ordained as a rabbi by Rabbi Eliezer Pappo, the Pele Yo'etz. One of the leaders of the Balkans and Israel, he was among the first to establish the new settlement in Israel. After serving as a Cantor and teacher he was appointed to be Chacham (Rabbi) of the Sephardic community in Zimlin, (or Zemun) (present day Serbia, close to Belgrade). He fought for the establishment of the settlement in Israel by purchasing land in Israel. The Blood Libel in Damascus in 1840 made a strong impression on him and he publicized the need to leave the Diaspora and come to Israel. He published a work entitled Minchat Yehuda in which he explained his ideas and called upon the wealthy world leaders such as Montefiore and Rothschild to use their influence and economic power to advance the settlement of Israel. In 1874 he arrived in Israel and he settled in Jaffo. His works include: Goral L’Hashem, Darchei Noam, and Minchat Tzion.
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5 Tishrei 2196 - 1566 B.C.E.:
Birth of Naftali ben Yaakov (born to Bilha).
It is also the day of his yahrtzeit in 2327 - 1435 B.C.E.:
5 Tishrei 3884 - 123 B.C.E.:
The Tanna Rab' Akiva was arrested by the Romans. He was subsequently tortured and killed al kiddush Hashem on Yom Kippur in Caesarea, Israel. Rab' Akiva had been a 40-year-old shepherd who could not even read the Alef-Bet. One day, he came across a stone that had been holed out by a constant drip of water. He concluded: If something as soft as water can carve a hole in solid rock, how much more so can Torah -- which is fire -- make an indelible impression on my heart. Rab' Akiva committed himself to Torah study, and went on to become the greatest sage of his generation, with 24,000 students learning under him at one time.
He received most of his teaching from Rab' Eliezer HaGadol. Rab' Akiva was one of four Tannaim who entered the Pardes. The others were Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, and Acher [Elisha ben Avuya]. According to some, Rab' Akiva was the editor of the Sefer Yetzira.
The Roman authorities eventually arrested him for "illegally" teaching Torah. As he was being tortured, Rab' Akiva rejoiced in fulfilling the biblical command to "love Hashem with all your life." As he died, Rab' Akiva uttered the words of Shema Yisrael. His self-sacrifice for Torah continues to inspire Jews till today.
The story of his killing, along with the other nine Harugei Malchut, is related in the stirring piyut, Eleh Ezkerah, recited during the Yom Kippur davening.
A tannit tzaddikim was established to commemorate this event, as well as the killing of twenty Jews during that time. ( Shulchan Aruch 180:2)
5 Tishrei 5702 - September 26, 1941:
Thee thousand Jews from Orsha, Byelorussia were shot at the local Jewish Cemetery, Hy"d.
5 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Naftali, zt"l, ben Yaakov Avinu, (2327 - 1435 B.C.E.:) See above.
HaRav Naftali HaKohen Katz of Lublin, zt"l. (5406 / 1645), Grandfather and namesake of the Semichat Chachamim, he was also the son-in-law of the Maharal of Prague, as well as a descendant of the Maharam Padwa through his father. So respected was he that even the Taz sent sheilot to him. Rav Naftali was a maggid in Prague, a dayan in Prositz, Nicholsburg, and Pinsk, and finally a dayan and Rav in Lublin.His sons were Harav Yitzchak, maggid in Prague and Lublin, and Harav Chaim, who succeeded to his position. He is buried in Lublin.
HaRav Eliezer Brish, zt”l, (5592 / 1831), Rav of Kutna.
HaRav Mordechai Schneerson of Vitebsk, zt”l, (5668 / 1907).
HaRav Baruch Shalom Ashlag, zt”l, (5752 / 1991), author of Birkat Shalom, and son of Rav Yehuda Ashlag, the Baal HaSulam
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Some communities recite the Selicha Shalosh Esrei Middot on the 6th and some
on the 7th of Tishrei
6 Tishrei 2449 - 1313 B.C.E.:
Taanit tzaddikim (Orach Chaim 5580:2) commemorating Hashem's decree that the Dor Hamidbar die in the wilderness because of the sin of the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf (Kol-bo and others) (some say the date is 7 Tishrei).
6 Tishrei 5432 - September 10, 1671:
Jewish community of Berlin was organized.
6 Tishrei 5700 - September 19, 1939:
The Wehrmacht murdered 100 Jews in Lukov, Poland, Hy"d.
6 Tishrei 5709 - October 9, 1948:
Egypt launched a massive offensive against the Negev region of Israel. This was part of the War of Independence, an attack by five Arab armies designed to "drive the Jews into the sea." Though the Jews were under-armed, untrained, and few in number, through ingenuity, perseverance and with Hashem's help, they staved off the attacks and secured the borders. Yet the price was high -- Israel lost 6,373 of its people, a full one percent of the Jewish population of Israel at the time.
6 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Shmuel Tzedaka Chutzin, zt”l, (5459 / 1699 – 5533 / 1773). One of the great leaders of Iraq, he was Rav, Posek, and author. In 1743 he became the Rav of Bagdad. One of the decrees he issued among the Jews of Iraq was that a pregnant woman should not fast on Tisha B’Av because of the Middle-Eastern heat. One of his sons, Rav Moshe Tzedaka wrote the poem Melech Goel U’Moshiah included in prayer books today. His works include Shut Tzedaka U’Mishpat and Orech Tzedaka.
HaRav Binyamin Zev Eiger, zt”l, (5566 / 1805), Rav of Leipnik.
HaRav Aryeh Leib, zt”l, (5481 / 1721 – 5572 / 1811) [others 5575 / 1815], “the Shpoler Zeide.” In his early years, he was a disciple of Rabbi Pinchas of Koretz. He was the principal student of Rebbe Yaakov Yosef of Polna’ah who authored the “Toldot.” When he was in Ziltopol he became famous for his help to the poor. Thousands came for his blessings as the stories of the miracles he wrought became publicized. He would travel from place to place to bring Jews back in repentance. He was a member of the Rabbinical Body created by Rebbe Levy Yitzchak of Berditchev to deal with anti-Semitic decrees of the Russian government. The stories of the miracles he made are collected in the Sefer Tiferet Maharal. None of his writings remain. He left a last will and testament that upon his grave there should be no gravestone, only an aron (ark) upon which is inscribed the date of his death.
HaRav Avraham Kalfon, zt”l, Rav of Tripoli, Libya ,(5495 / 1735 - 5580 / 1819). Born to Rav Refael, in Tripoli, Libya. (Actually, in those days, Libya did not exist - the region was comprised of three independent regions, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fazzan. By the time of Rav Avraham's birth, Ahmed Karamanli controlled much of modern Libya. Karamanli was a member of the Sultan's household guard, assassinated Tripoli's evil Ottoman governor in 1711, and installed himself as a semi-independent ruler in his stead. As a result, Tripoli became a Corsair (Barbary pirate) base.).
The family was a distinguished one, their lineage stemming from Parnassim and Dayanim. He learned under several sages, most notably the Italian gadol, Rav Malachi ben Yaakov HaKohen, author of Yad Malachi, a sefer that discusses the methodology and rules of the Shas and poskim.
Blessed with wealth from both his parents and his in-laws, Rav Avraham was able to devote himself to Torah his whole life. He was appointed sheikh (president) of Tripoli's kehilla, in 1778. Harav Avraham writes of himself that he was appointed Parnass in Tripoli in 5535 / 1775, holding the post until 5541 / 1781, with another term from 5552 / 1792 until 5558 / 1798. He was fluent in both nigleh and nistar. Harav Avraham was interested in history and searched through archives for manuscripts, becoming fluent in the Jewish history of ancient Tripoli.
He had a special relationship with the Chida; the two exchanged many letters. In 5564 / 1804, Harav Avraham went to Livorno, living there near the Chida for a year and a half. Harav Avraham was renowned for his acts of tzedaka, especially for needy talmidei chachamim.
His love of Eretz Yisrael impelled him to move there in 5566 / 1806. He settled in Tzefat, where he remained for the rest of his life. He wrote numerous sefarim. The best known is Chayei Avraham, on the reasons for the mitzvot. (others 7 Tishrei).
HaRav Mordechai of Tolna, zt”l, (5632 / 1871).
HaRav Noach Shachor, zt”l, of Biale, (5770 / 1909).
HaRav Yisrael Tausig, zt”l, (5728 / 1967), Rav of Kiryat Mattersdorf, Yerushalayim.
HaRav Tzvi Hersh Hakohen Kupshitz of Yerushalayim, zt”l, (5736 / 1975).
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7 Tishrei 2449 - 1313 B.C.E.:
Taanit tzaddikim (Orach Chaim 5580:2) commemorating Hashem's decree that the Dor
Hamidbar die in the wilderness because of the sin of the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf (according to some, (Kol-bo and others), the event took place one day earlier, on 6 Tishrei).
7 Tishrei 2312 - 1450 B.C.E.:
Birthday and Yahrtzeit of Zevulun ben Yaakov Avinu.
He was the tenth son of the Patriarch Yaakov, the sixth son of the Matriarch Leah. He was born in Paddan Aram. His mother Leah gave him his name, as the verse states (Bereishit 30:20): “G-d has endowed me (zevadani) with a good endowment; now my husband will make his permanent home with me (yizbeleini) for I have born him six sons. So she called his name Zevulun.” His tribe was blessed by his father (Bereishit 49:13): “Zevulun shall settle by seashores. He shall be at the ship’s harbor, and his last border will reach Zidon.” His tribe provided support by means of their merchant activity to the tribe of Yissachar, so they could devote themselves full time to Torah study. When the Children of Israel left Egypt they brought the bones of Zevulun with them and buried them in Zidon.
7 Tishrei 2312 - 1450 B.C.E.:
Birthday of Dina bat Yaakov.
7 Tishrei 5563 - September 3, 1802:
HaRav Chaim of Volozhin (a village in Lithuania) issued a proclamation to establish a new yeshiva. The Volozhin Yeshiva eventually became the center of Torah scholarship in Europe, hosting tens of thousands of students who went on to become leaders of the Jewish world. The yeshiva was persecuted ruthlessly by the Czarist government, and in 1892 the government closed the yeshiva. Yet in a deeper sense, Volozhin survived; most of the thousands of yeshivas today follow the Volozhin model. The Jewish people are immeasurably enriched, for as Chaim Nachman Bialik once said, a yeshiva is "the creative factory of the Jewish people."
7 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Zevulun ben Yaakov Avinu (2312 - 1450 B.C.E.).See above.
HaRav Dovid Oppenheim, zt"l, (5424 / 1664 - 5497 / 1736), born in Vermeils to Rav Avraham Oppenheim in Worms. When he was young, he studied in the city of Metz, under Rav Gershon Ashkenazi (author of Avodat HaGershuni), Rav Yaakov, the father of the Chacham Tzvi, and in the yeshiva of Rav Yitzchak Binyamin Wolf (author of Nachlat Binyamin). In Elul of 1689, at the age of 25, he succeeded Rav Binyamin Banet, as Rav of Nickolsburg, which included the entire state of Maherin. In 1702, he became Rav of Prague. In time, Rav Dovid was appointed Rav of the entire state of Moravia and, eventually, Rav of all Bohemia and served as Rav in Vienna.He founded a large Yeshiva and a supported it with his personal wealth. The Charity Fund of Israel, “Maot Eretz Yisrael” appointed him to be the “Nasi (President) of the Land of Israel.” His eventual successor as Rav of Prague was the Noda B’Yehuda. His vast library serves as a tribute to his outstanding personality. The catalogue of the books in his library, published under the title, VaYikain Dovid lists hundreds of books. His teshuvot are found in ShU"t Nish'al L'Dovid.
HaRav Noach of Lechovitz, zt”l, (5593 / 1832).
HaRav Menachem Nachum Twersky of Makarov, zt”l, (5612 / 1851), fourth of the eight sons of Harav Mordechai, the Chernobyler Maggid. He married Hinda Mattel, daughter of Rav Yosef HaLevi Horowitz, the Admor of Turchin, who in turn was the son of the Chozeh of Lublin. In 1833 he became Rebbe in the town of Makarov.
HaRav Yitzchak Michoel Pintzo of Italy, zt”l, (5573 / 1812), author of Pri Yitzchak.
HaRav Yaakov Entebbe, zt”l, (1870), rav of Damascus. (others 5607 / 1846).
HaRav Yosef Berabi, zt”l, (5679 / 1918), dayan of Djerba and author of Ben Porat Yosef.
HaRav Yitzchak Isaac Friedman, zt”l, (5704 / 1943), author of Nachlat Yitzchak
HaRav Binyomin Zeilberger, zt”l,(5682 / 1922 - 5766/2005), Rosh Yeshiva, Beit Hatalmud of Bensonhurst. Born in the small German village of Koenig-Shaufen, not far from Wurzberg. In one of his sefarim, Harav Binyomin writes that his father was an ish tam v’yashar, v’yerei Elokim — “a straight, upright and G-d-fearing person.”
He is buried on Har Hazeitim next to his illustrious father-in-law, Harav Yisroel Chaim Kaplan.
Harav Binyomin was educated in the German-Jewish schools of that time, where he learned both Jewish and secular subjects. Harav Shamshon Raphael Weiss, a German Jew who had learned in the Mirrer Yeshiva in Poland, was a teacher there. Rabbi Weiss often sent his students on trips to visit the Mirrer Yeshiva. One of these bachurim told the young Binyomin Zeilberger, 14 years old at the time, and this trip made a great impression on him. Binyamin became enamored of the idea of going to learn in Mir.
At that point, Harav Binyomin was at a crossroads: he had to decide which of two German schools he would attend to complete his studies. “If I have to change schools, why shouldn’t I go to the Mirrer Yeshiva, about which I have heard such glowing reports?” he thought.
Soon afterwards, his parents realized that the situation for Jews in Hitler’s Germany was deteriorating. They decided it would be a good idea for their son to leave Germany, so they allowed him to go to learn in Mir.
He arrived in Mir after Pesach of 5696 / 1936. At that time the Mashgiach, Harav Yeruchem Levovitz, zt”l, was ailing. Nevertheless, the 14-year-old bachur from Germany managed to hear several shmuessen from the Mashgiach before his petira two months later. Reb Yeruchem’s countenance and his approach to mussar had a profound impact on the bachur. He attached himself to the great talmidim of the Rav and through them forged a bond to Torat hamussar of Reb Yeruchem.
As the winds of war gathered over Europe in 1939, Reb Binyomin fled Poland with the Mirrer Yeshiva to independent Vilna, Lithuania. As is known, the yeshiva ultimately made its way across Russia to Japan and finally settled in Shanghai, where it remained for the duration of the war.
Arriving in America with the yeshiva in 5707 / 1947, Reb Binyomin learned in the newly-established Mirrer Yeshiva in Brooklyn, New York. He married the daughter of Harav Yisrael Chaim Kaplan, zt”l, son-in-law of Harav Yeruchem and a baal mussar who was Rosh Yeshiva and Mashgiach of Beit Medrash Elyon in Monsey. With his marriage, Reb Binyamin became a grandson to Harav Yeruchem Levovitz.
After his chasuna, Reb Binyomin joined the newly established Yeshiva Beit Hatalmud, which had recently been established by members of the Mir. Within its walls he transmitted Torah and yirah to generations of talmidim for the rest of his life, vigilant to ensure that the yeshiva’s unique ruach would remain unchanged from that forged by its founders.
During the last segment of his life, when Reb Binyomin was diagnosed with a terminal illness, the grandeur of a lifetime of Torah and middot was revealed. Although he was often in great pain, family members never heard him complain or cry out in pain. On the contrary, one usually saw him with a smile on his face.(Others 8 Tishrei)
(Others 8 Tishrei)
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8 Tishrei 2937 - 825 B.C.E.:
The dedication festivities celebrating the completion of the Beit Hamikdash, built by Shlomo Hamelech (King Solomon), commenced and continued for seven days, including Yom Kippur. (Moed Katan 9a)
(King David) had brought the Ark of the Covenant up to Yerushalayim's Har / Mount Moriah, but as a warrior he was not permitted by Hashem to build the Beit HaMikdash. However, his son Shlomo Hamelech did so.
The Beit HaMIkdash was the most important site in Eretz Yisroel -- a spiritual magnet for the Jewish nation's yearnings. The magnificent structure took seven years to build, and served as the epicenter of Jewish national and spiritual life for 410 year before being destroyed by Nevuzradan and the Babylonians under Nebuchadnetzar. 9 Av 3339 - 422 B.C.E. (See also 22 Tishrei).
8 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Baruch Schneerson, zt”l, (5550 / 1789), father of the Baal HaTanya.
HaRav Noach Yaffa, zt”l, of Lechovitz [Lekovich], (1775 - 5593 / 1832). Son of Rav Mordechai, the founder of the Lechovitz dynasty. As he had no sons, his Chasidim were divided as to his successor: some went to his talmid, Rav Moshe of Kobrin, some to his son-in-law, Rav Mordechai, and some to his nephew Rav Shlomo Chaim of Koidenov. His divrei Torah were kept, but not printed until they were written down by the previous Slonimer Rebbe, as Torat Avot.
HaRav Elazar Nissan Teitelbaum of Drobich(Drohbitz), zt”l, (5546/1786 - 5616 / 1855).
Harav Elazar was the son of Harav Moshe, the Yismach Moshe of Ujhel. He was born in Shineve. His father quotes some of the chiddushim he composed in his young years. Reb Elazar Nissan married the daughter of Harav Aharon, Rav of Chodorov. He settled in Drobich, where his wife’s grandfather Reb Nachum, Parnass of the city, lived. He became Rav in Sighet in 5594 / 1834, remaining for six years.
In 5600 / 1840 he moved to Ujhel, where his father lived. That year he received an offer to serve as Rav in Drobich, and he returned there.
The next year, following the petirah of his father, Reb Elazar Nissan was offered the position of Rav of Ujhel, but he turned down the offer, preferring to remain where he was. Although Chassidim began coming to Reb Elazar Nissan, he turned them away. Unlike his father, Reb Elazar Nissan didn’t write down his divrei Torah. Some of his chiddushim and drashot are quoted by his father, and more by his son, Harav Yekusiel Yehudah, the Yetev Lev. His other sons were Harav Shmuel, Rav of Gorlitz, and Harav Nachum, Rav of Drobich. His son-in-law was Harav Yisrael Hakohen Rappaport of Tarnow, mechaber of She’eilot U’Teshuvot Mahari Hakohen.
HaRav Shlomo Bechor Chutzin of Baghdad (1892).
HaRav Shlomo Benzion Twersky of Chernobyl, zt”l, (1870 - 5700 / 1939). Son of Rav Yeshayahu Meshulam Zusha Twersky, and grandson of Rav Aharon of Tchernobyl, he was orphaned of his father at the age of 11 years. He was appointed Rebbe at his Bar Mitzvah. In 1920, after a pogrom in his city, Rav Shlomo moved to Brahin and then to Kiev.
HaRav Shimon Sofer, zt”l, (5691 / 1930), Rav of Sandra and Paks.
HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel, zt”l, of Biala, (5693 / 1932).
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9 Tishrei - Erev Yom Kippur
9 Tishrei 5301 - September 20, 1540:
The first auto da fe in Lisbon of those forcibly converted to Christianity was held.
8-9 Tishrei 5702 - September 29-30, 1941:
The Nazis carried out executions at Babi Yar, as thousands of Jews were buried in a ravine near the Ukrainian city of Kiev, Hy"d. The Nazis had instructed all 175,000 Jews of Kiev to report to the cemetery. Most thought they would be deported. Yet the Nazis killed the Jews in retaliation for a series of bombings against German installations (though a secret Russian agency was actually responsible). With the aid of Ukrainian citizens, 35,000 Jews were ordered to undress, beaten if they resisted, and then shot at the edge of the Babi Yar gorge. Many people were buried alive, suffocated by the mass of bodies atop them. All told, an estimated 100,000 people -- including Soviet POWs -- were shot at the site.
9 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
The Tanna R' Elazar ben Rab' Shimon, zt"l, (3884 / 123 C.E.).
HaRav Avraham Saba, (Savah), zt”l, (5200 / 1440-5280 / 1519), author of Tzror Hamor. Born in Castile, he spent the first 50 years of his life in parts of Spain where Jews lived in prosperity and security. He was forced into exile to Portugal in 1492, and to North Africa in 1497 after not only being persecuted and seeing many members of his family die al kiddush Hashem, but he had to rewrite this commentary completely from memory, as in Fez, Morocco he had no library at his disposal. He died on board a ship on the way to Italy and was buried in Verona in 1510. He also wrote the Eshkol HaKofer on the Book of Ruth and Esther. His son, Rav Yitzchak was the son-in-law of Rav Yosef Karo, the Beit Yosef. Tzror Hamor was translated into English by Rav Eliyahu Munk. In Tzror Hamor, his genius is evident from the manner in which he selects hundreds of quotations from the Zohar and demonstrates that they are capable of being understood by the average Jew.
HaRav Avraham Abali ben Chaim HaLevi Gumbiner, zt"l, (1634 - 5443 / 1682), the Magen Avraham. Born in Gumbin, he witnessed the massacre of his parents in the Chmielnitzki pogroms at the age of 18. He escaped to Lissa, and then to Kalish, where he became Rosh Yeshiva and afterwards Dayan of the city. He is the author of Magen Avraham, a definitive commentary on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim. He also authored Zayit Ra’anan on Yalkut Shimoni.
HaRav Avraham Horowitz, zt”l, (1809), son of the Chozeh of Lublin.
HaRav Eliezer Zusman (Zissman) Sofer of Frakash, zt”l, (1903), author of Et Sofer.
HaRav Yitzchak Yehuda Shmelkes of Lemberg-Lvov, zt”l, (1905), the Beit Yitzchak.
HaRav Yosef Eliezer Rabinowitz of Radom, zt”l, (1943).
Harav Yitzchak Ze'ev Halevi Soloveitchik, zt"l, (Rav Velvel) the Brisker Rav. Also referred to as the Griz (5641 / 1886 - 5720 / 1959). Son and most prominent disciple of Rav Chaim Soleveitchik, he succeeded his father in Brisk, survived WWII after fleeing from Brisk, where his wife and four of his children were murdered, and moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1941. He was never a Rosh HaYeshiva in the usual sense of the word, and never stood at the head of any institution, rather he gave shiurim (classes) to chosen students in his Study Hall.>He refused to appear in public and was completely removed from worldly affairs. After the Chazon Ish passed away he assumed the mantle of leadership of the Yeshiva world. He wrote a Sefer on the Rambam’s Mishna Torah, which is known as the “Chidushei HaGri’z HaLevi,” and also Chidushim (insights) on the Torah.Among his descendents are Rav Dovid and Rav Yoshe Ber Soloveitchik.
HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel Twersky, zt”l, Admor of Machnova-Bnei Brak, grandson of the Maggid of Chernobyl, (1895-1987).
10 Tishrei - Yom Kippur
10 Tishrei 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.:
Brit milah of Avraham Avinu at age 99, and his son Yishmael at age 13, took place, according to Pirkei D'Rabi Eliezer 29.
10 Tishrei 2086 - 1676 B.C.E.:
Akeidat Yitzchak (according to some).
10 Tishrei 1677-1556 B.C.E.:
Birth of Rivkah / Rebecca (1677-1556 BCE), wife of Yitzchok / Isaac, mother of Yaakov / Jacob and Eisav / Esau, and one of the Four Imahot / Matriarchs of Israel.
10 Tishrei 2450 - 1312 B.C.E.:
Moshe Rabbe descended from Har / Mount Sinai with the Second Luchot / Tablets.
82 days after the people of Israel betrayed their newly entered covenant with Hashem by worshipping the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf and after Moshe twice spent 40 days atop Har Sinai pleading on their behalf, "Hashem restored His goodwill with the Jewish people gladly and wholeheartedly, saying to Moshe 'I have forgiven, as you ask', and gave him the Second Luchot" -- thereby establishing the day as a time for atonement, forgiveness and teshuvah for all generations.
10 Tishrei 2913 - 1848 B.C.E.:
Hashem forgave Dovid Hamelech over the incident with Batsheva.
10 Tishrei 3087 - 674 B.C.E.:
Zechariah ben Yehoyada Hakohen (HaNavi) attempted to rebuke the people of Israel for forsaking the Derech Hashem on a Shabbat Yom Kippur (Yerushalmi Taanis 4:5).
The people stoned him in the Ezrat Kohanim at the command of King Yoash and he died. His blood boiled and bubbled on the grounds of the Beit HaMikdash for 252 years until the Churban Rishon (Kohelet Rabba 3:20).
10 Tishrei 3353 - 208 B.C.E.:
Yechezkel HaNavi saw a vision in the 25th year of Golut Yohayochin describing the appearance of the future (third) Beit HaMikdash (chapters 47- 48) and the future expanded borders of Eretz Yisroel.
10 Tishrei - 1394:
Charles VI, under the pretense that a Jewish convert in Paris, Denis Machuit, returned to Judaism, signed an order allowing the plunder and expulsion of the Jews of Paris. The order was enforced a month later. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon.
10 Tishrei - 1558:
In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a shul on Yom Kippur and tried to preach to the Jews. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occurred. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti.
10 Tishrei 5612 - October 6, 1851:
The first recorded Jewish religious observance in Southern California is held at the home of Lewis Abraham Franklin in San Diego. The first shul, Adath Jeshurun (now Beth Israel), is founded 10 years later in San Diego by Louis Rose.
10 Tishrei 5625 - October 10, 1864:
Jews of Tunis and Tripoli were massacred, Hy"d.
10 Tishrei 5689 - September 24, 1928:
The local rabbi of Massena, New York, was called to police headquarters to answer charges of ritual murder after a four-year-old girl disappeared. This was the only blood libel on American soil.
10 Tishrei 5726 - October 6, 1965:
Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Sandy Koufax refused to pitch in the first game of the World Series, choosing instead to attend Yom Kippur services in the synagogue and observe the fast. The World Series went to a seventh and deciding game, and Koufax threw a three-hit shutout to win the Series and earn the MVP award. Koufax is arguably the greatest left-handed pitcher of all time; he unanimously won the Cy Young Award three times. Arthritis ended his career at the age of 31, and he became the youngest person ever elected to the baseball Hall of Fame. Hall of Fame slugger Willie Stargell said: "Trying to hit [Koufax] was like trying to drink coffee with a fork." Yet despite all his achievements on the field, Koufax is still remembered best for his Yom Kippur break, which instilled Jewish pride in millions of Americans. In 2001, in the thick of a pennant race, Dodgers outfielder Shawn Green ended his streak of 416 consecutive games in order to observe Yom Kippur; he cited Koufax's decision as motivation for his own.
10 Tishrei 5734 - October 6, 1973:
The Yom Kippur War begins with Egyptian and Syrian forces attacking across 1967 cease-fire lines.
10 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Zecharia Kohain Gadol (674 B..C..E.)
The Tanna Rab' Akiva ben Yosef, Hy"d, died al kiddush Hashem in Caesaria, when he was murdered by the Romans, (see 5 Tishrei) for teaching Torah. (3884 - 123 B.C.E). On that day Rab'Yehuda Hanasi was born (Kiddushin 72b).
Born ~50 CE, he received most of his teaching from Rabi Eliezer HaGadol. One of the greatest of the Tannaim, he was the teacher of great Tzaddikim such as Reb Shimon bar Yochai, Reb Meir Baal HaNes, Reb Yossi ben Chlafta, Reb Yehuda ben Eloy' and Reb Nechemia, and it was to them he passed on the Mesora (tradition) of the Oral Torah.
When the evil empire of Rome decreed a prohibition on learning Torah, Reb' Akiva taught Torah in public, in defiance of their decree. He was caught and sentenced to death. He was brought out of prison to be tortured to death, with steels rakes tearing apart his flesh. It was the time of reciting the Shema and in front of his students he was seen reciting the Shema with great love for the One Above, until his soul expired saying the words “Hashem Echod - the L-rd is One.”
Rabi Akiva was one of four Tannaim who entered the Pardes. The others were Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, and Acher [Elisha ben Avuya]. According to some, Rabi Akiva was the redactor of the Sefer Yetzira.
Rav Achai Gaon, son of Rabba bar Avuha, zt"l, (4076 / 316), one of the leading Rabbanan Savorai and author of the Sheiltot d'Rav Achai.
HaRav Dovid Nager, zt”l, dayan in Tunisia (1772).
HaRav Naftali Chaim Horowitz of Dzikov, zt”l, (1894).
HaRav David Knafo, zt”l, rabbi of Mugador, Morocco, (1937).
HaRav Yehuda Leib Ashlag of Yerushalayim, zt"l, (1886 - 5715 / 1954),the Baal Hasulam. . Rav Ashlag translated the Zohar into Hebrew from the original Aramaic, and he authored the Sulam, a commentary on the Zohar. Rav Ashlag reedited the “Etz Chaim” which is the definitive Lurianic work on essence and cosmology. To this he added a commentary known as the “Talmud Esser Sphirot,” transposing the somewhat abstract notion of “receptacle” (Kli) into the experientially more accessible term “desire” (Ratzon) in all its many permutations. Today, Talmud Esser Sphirot is regarded as the core of the entire teaching of Kabbalah. He also wrote hundreds of articles.
HaRav Avraham Binyomin Silberberg, zt”l, the Pittsburgher Rav (1962).
HaRav Moshe Yitzchak Gevirtzman, "Reb Itzikel" of Pshevorsk and Belgium (1882-1976). After World War II, Reb Itzikel opened his Beit Hamedrash in Mercatorstraat, Antwerp, and in a short time he became a magnet for the many downtrodden Yidden scattered across Europe who had lost all and everything during the war. Reb Itzikel left behind no sons, and his one and only son-in-law -- Reb Yankele -- was crowned as the new Pshevorsker Rebbe.
HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel Twersky, zt”l, Admor of Machnovka-Bnei Brak, grandson of the Maggid of Chernobyl (1895-1987).
HaRav Shlomo Shimshon Karelitz, zt”l, (1910-2001). Born in Vilna on Tisha B’Av, his father, Rav Mayer was a moreh tzedek and the right-hand-man of the Chafetz Chaim and Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky. His grandfather was Rav Shemaryahu Karelitz, the rav of Kosova. The Chazon Ish, Rav Avraham Yeshaya Karelitz, was Rav Shlomo Shimshon’s uncle. When he was fourteen, Rav Shlomo Shimshon left Kosova and went to the Mirrer yeshivah, where he became the talmid muvhak of its mashgiach, Rav Yerucham Levovitz. Shortly before the rise of the Third Reich, Rav Shlomo Shimshon and his parents moved to Eretz Yisrael. Several years later, he served as a dayan in the Petach Tikvah beit din. His publications include Divrei Shlomo and Shu”t Ateret Yisrael on Choshen Mishpat and Even HaEzer.
The Baal Shem Tov writes that the day after Yom Kippur, is an even greater holiday than Yom Kippur itself, a day called "Bshem HaShem" or in Yiddish "Gott's Nomen", literally "The Name of G-d."
11 Tishrei 2450 - 1312 B.C.E.:
Yitro advised Moshe Rabbeinu to appoint others to help him judge the nation. Moshe appoints judges of tens, fifties, hundreds and thousands.
11 Tishrei 2450 - 1312 B.C.E.:
The people volunteer donations to the Mishkan (Tanchuma Teruma 4)
11 Tishrei 5557 - October 13, 1796:
Censorship of Jewish books in Russia.
11 Tishrei 5658 - October 7, 1897:
The Bund, or Jewish Workers Party, convened for the first time in Czarist Russia. It was the first Jewish Socialist party in Eastern Europe. It exerted great influence on Jews in Europe and America, drawing many away from Judaism and convincing them Jews would be accepted by their non-Jewish compatriots if they only supported progressive political agendas.
11 Tishrei 5702 - October 2, 1941:
SS Chief Helmut Knochen ordered the systematic destruction of synagogues in Paris. During this time the Vichy government established other anti-Jewish measures, including the requirement that all Jews wear a yellow badge. Roundups took place in Paris where tens of thousands of Jews were arrested and handed over to the Nazis. Of an estimated 350,000 Jews who lived in France, 25 percent were murdered in the Holocaust, Hy"d. While many were sent to Auschwitz, there were also concentration camps located inside France, such as Gurs.
11 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Yahrtzeit of the Amora Mar bar Rav Ashi, (4226 - 466 B.C.E.), :who signed his name "Tavyomi" (Bava Batra12b). He learned under his illustrious father in Matha Mechasia, Babylon, and when his father was niftar, he took over the leadership of his Yeshiva.
Rav Huna bar Mar Zutra (466 CE)
Rabbeinu Yitzchak Halevi from Speyer, zt”l, (1133), talmid of Rashi.
HaRav Yosef Zecharya Stern of Shval, zt”l, author Zecher Yehosef (1904).
HaRav Avraham Abish of Frankfurt, zt”l, author of Birchat Avraham (1768).
HaRav Tzvi Aryeh of Alik, zt”l, (1811).
HaRav Menachem Mendel Friedman of Bohush, zt”l, (1942).
HaRav Mikatz Aryeh Chadad, zt”l, (1980), rabbi in Libya and author of Asbia Lechem.
HaRav Shmuel Tovias, zt”l, (1984), Rosh Yeshivat Ber Chaim Mordechai.
HaRav Asher Freund, zt”l, (1990), founder of Yad Ezra.
HaRav Gedalia Schneider, zt”l, (1998), Rosh Yeshivat Torat Emet, London.
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12 Tishrei 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.:
Today was Shlishi lemila (third day after circumcision) of Avraham Avinu when the Malachim (angels) visited him (according to Pirkei d'Rabi Eliezer).
As we are taught in the beginning of Parshat Vayera, Hashem took the sun out of its sheath, causing it to shine very intensely so that Avraham Avinu, who was recovering from his brit, would not trouble himself with guests.
However, when Hashem Himself came to be mevaker choleh (visit the sick) and saw how desperate
Avraham Avinu was for guests, He sent three malachim in the form of humans. One was Refael, who healed Avraham Avinu; another brought Sarah Imeinu the good tidings that she would give birth to Yitzchak within the year, and the third went from there to overturn Sodom and Amorah.
12 Tishrei - 1492:
Columbus discovered America. Louis de Torres, a Spanish Marrano, was the first white man to set foot in the Western Hemisphere when he landed in the West Indies on Christopher Columbus’s first voyage.
12 Tishrei 5508 - September 16, 1747:
Pope Benedict XIV prohibited Jewish converts to Christianity from giving their wives gittin (a Jewish divorce).
12 Tishrei 5724 - September 30, 1963:
The Fair Sabbath Law went into effect, permitting Shabbat-observant Jews in New York City to do business on Sunday. Throughout much of the 20th century, one of the biggest barriers to Shabbat observance in America was a work week that included Saturday, yet precluded Sunday. New York, with the largest concentration of Jews outside of Israel, has innovated numerous laws designed to accommodate religious expression for all faiths.
12 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Harav Avraham HaMalach, zt”l, (5501 / 1741 - 5537 / 1776). Son of the Maggid of Mezeritch.
Rav Avraham learned Kabbalah from the Maggid and the revealed Torah from Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi. When Rav Avraham's first wife passed away, he married the daughter of Rav Feivel of Kremenitz, author of Mishnat Chachomim. He had virtually no contact with the material world.
About a half a year before his petira, the Malach, at the urging of the Me’or Einayim of Chernobyl, accepted the position of maggid in the kehilla of Chovastov; however, he rarely revealed himself to the public eye. Many tzaddikim of the generation traveled to him, among them Harav Baruch of Mezhibuzh and the Me’or Einayim. He wrote Chesed L'Avraham, a commentary on the Torah, Talmud, Mishna and holidays. The Malach had two sons: Harav Yisrael Chaim of Ludmir and Harav Shalom Shachna of Prohobitch, who later became the father of Harav Yisrael of Ruzhin.
HaRav Yaakov Yisrael HaTzarfati of Fẻz, Morocco, zt”l, (5596 / 1835).
HaRav Yechiel Michel (ben Moshe) of Zhvil, zt”l, the second Zhviller Rebbe (1856). His father, the first Zhviller Rebbe, was one of the five sons of the Zlotschover Maggid, R' Yechiel Michel.
HaRav Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky, zt"l, (5627 / 1867 - 5710 / 1949), Also known as the Maharitz, the first Rebbe of Dushinsky, Av Beit Din of Chust and Yerushalayim. In his youth, he became a close talmid of the Shevet Sofer. His first marriage was to the daughter of Rav Mordechai Yehuda Winkler, the Livush Mordechai. He became the Rav of Galanta. Sadly, he and his rebetzen were not zocheh to have children despite the blessings of many tzadikim. His rebetzen passed away during an epidemic in World War I. His then married Esther, the daughter of Rav Yoel Tzvi Neuhaus, and a son - Yisrael Moshe - was born on the 21st of Kislev in 1921. In Adar of 1930, the family moved to Eretz Yisrael. One month later, Rav Yosef Chaim Sonenfeld was nifar, and Rav Yosef Tzvi was appointed Rav of Yerushalyim, and - in 1933 - Av Beit Din of the Eidah Chareidit. He founded the Yeshiva Yosef Tzvi, known today as Yeshivat Dushinsky. He supported the Agudat Yisroel. His work, the Responsa called Shu't Maharitz was published in two volumes posthumously. His son, Rabbi Moshe Yisroel, inherited his place as the Rosh HaYeshiva and also served later as Gaavad of the Eidah Chareidit.. (others 13, others 14 Tishrei)(5709 / 1948).
HaRav Yehoshua Gutman, zt”l, (2008). Rebbi in Denver for over 30 years and Rav of Khal Lev Avraham in Lakewood for the last seven years of his life.
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13 Tishrei 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.: :
After Avraham Avinu was unable to find ten righteous people in whose merit S'dom could be saved, S'dom, Amora, Admah and Tzvoyim were totally destroyed by Hashem. Tzoar, a "younger" city with less of a history of evil, was saved, after Lot and his daughters insisted on taking refuge there.
13 Tishrei 5641 - September 18, 1880:
Religious freedom was granted to the Jews of Morocco.
13 Tishrei 5747 - October 16, 1986:
Ron Arad, Israeli Air Force navigator, is captured in Lebanon.
13 Tishrei 5761 - October 12, 2000:
Lynching of Israeli reservists in Ramallah. At the start of the Palestinian intifada, two Israeli reserve soldiers were brutally lynched at a Palestinian police station in Ramallah. The two had taken a wrong turn and ended up in the West Bank town where they were set upon by a crowd. Palestinian police officers stood by -- and some participated -- as the crowd beat, mutilated, burned and disemboweled the Israelis. The image of one young man, waving to the crowd with bloodied hands, came to symbolize the vicious wave of terror that would claim over 1,000 Israeli lives, Hy"d.
13 Tishrei 5761 - October 12, 2000:
Destruction of the Shalom al Yisrael Shul in Yericho / Jericho.
13 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Moshe Yosef Mordechai Meyuchas, zt’l, (1738-1805). Served as the Rishon Letzion (Chief Rabbi of Israel) from 1802-1805, and Head of the Beit Din. He is the author of Sha’ar hashamayim (Salonika, 1768,) Berachot Mayim (Salonika, 1789,) and Mayin Shaal (Salonika 1799.)
Rav Meir Anshel Rothshild of Papadam, patriarch of the famous Rothschild family (1812)
HaRav Akiva Eiger of Posen, zt"l, (1761 - 5598 / 1837), outstanding Talmudist and Halachic authority. A descendent of the Eshel Avraham, he was born in Eisenstadt. He married the daughter of Reb Itzik Margolies, one of the wealthiest Jews of Lisa. Because of a fire in 1791, his father-in-law lost all of his possessions, and Rav Akiva Eiger was forced into the rabbinate. In 1814, he took the position in Posen, a position he kept for the rest of his life. He was the father-in-law of the Chasam Sofer. He wrote close to 1000 responsa, half of which have been published.
HaRav Shmuel, the Rebbe Maharash, zt”l, (1834-1882). The seventh and youngest son of the Tzemach Tzedek, he became the fourth Rebbe of Lubavitch after the passing of his father in 1866.
Harav Menachem Mendel Paneth, zt”l, of Dezh, (5645 / 1884), author of Avnei Tzedek and Maaglei Tzedek.(others 1885)
HaRav Yisrael Friedman, zt”l, the Sadigerer Rebbe (1853 - 5667 / 1906). After Reb Yisrael was niftar, all 5 of his sons became Rebbes: Reb Aharon (the Kedushat Aharon), Reb Shalom Yosef of Chernovitz, Reb Avraham Yaakov (the next Rebbe of Sadigerer), Reb Yitzchak of Rimanov and Reb Shlomo Chaim (Reb Shlomenu).
HaRav Chaim Berlin, zt"l, (5592 / 1832 - 5673 / 1912), Rav of Moscow and Yerushalayim. Born in Volozhin to Rav Naftali Tzvi Yehuda Berlin (the Netziv). He learned under his father in his formative years.
In 5608/1847, he married and settled in Shklov, where he resided until 5625 / 1865. He was appointed Chief Rabbi of Moscow in Adar 5625 / 1865. In 5642 / 1882, his wife passed away; two years later he remarried and settled in Biala, where he lived until his second wife passed away in 5649 / 1889. In 1889, he returned to Volozhin, where he served as Av Beit Din and also served as Rosh Yeshivah alongside Harav Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk.
The yeshiva was forced to close in 5652 / 1892 and Rav Chaim moved to Kobrin, where he was appointed Rav. Later he also served as Rav in Elizavetgrad until 5666 / 1906, when he left Russia and settled in Yerushalayim.
. After the petira of Harav Eliyahu Dovid Rabinowitz Teomim, the Aderet, in 5665 / 1905, and through the efforts of Harav Shmuel Salant, Rav Chaim was elected co-Chief Rabbi of the rabbinate of the Ashkenazi community, assisting Rav Shmuel. The two had been close friends early in their lives and corresponded frequently over the years.
Rav Shmuel Salant was niftar in 5669 / 1909; Rav Chaim Berlin then stood alone at the helm of the rabbinate in Yerushalayim.
He is buried on Har Hazeisim.
The yeshiva now known as Yeshiva Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin, established in Brooklyn, New York, in 1904, was renamed for him in 1914.
A collection of his letters and responsa were published as She’eilot U’teshuvot Rav Chaim Berlin.
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14 Tishrei 2936 - 826 B.C.E.:
Shlomo Hamelech completed construction of the first Beit Hamikdash.
14 Tishrei 1354:
Casimir the Great of Poland renews the Charter of Boleslav, granting Jews freedom of residence in all areas of the kingdom. This document proves to be instrumental in spurring Jewish flight from Germany further east.
14 Tishrei 5417 - October 2, 1656:
Jews allowed to worship in peace in Amsterdam. Neighbors who saw Jews holding secret Yom Kippur services thought they were secret Catholic papists and reported them to the Dutch authorities. The Jews were arrested on suspicion of insurgency. Once it was explained that the community was Jewish, the leaders were released and given freedom of worship.
14 Tishrei 5702 - October 5, 1941:
Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), one of the most respected Supreme Court Justices in United States history died on this day. Brandeis was the first Jew to serve on the Supreme Court, a post he held for 23 years. His "Brandeis Brief" became the model for future Supreme Court presentations. He was known as "attorney for the people" who championed many social and economic reforms. Brandeis was also a leader of the American Zionist movement, heading the Provisional Executive Committee for Zionist Affairs during World War I. Today, the Univ. of Louisville Law School, as well as Brandeis University in Massachusetts, bears his name.
14 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Harav Shalom Shachna of Prohovitch, zt”l, (1760 - 5563 / 1802), son of Rav Avraham HaMalach and father of Harav Yisrael of Ruzhin, author of Mashmea Shalom.
Harav Yehudah Leib of Anipole, zt”l, (5567 / 1806), author of Or Haganuz.
HaRav Yisrael Hopstein, zt"l, the Maggid of Kozhnitz (1737 - 5577 / 1816). The son of Shabsi , a poor bookbinder, Rav Yisrael became a disciple of four great chassidic rebbes - Rav Shmuel Shmelke of Nikolsburg, the Maggid of Mezritch, Rav Elimelech of Lizhensk, and Rav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev. For nearly 50 years he led the Kozhnitz community. Most popular among his many books is Avodat Yisrael, thoughts on the weekly parsha. He also wrote Beit Yisrael on the Talmud; Nezer Yisrael and Ohr Yisrael, both on the Zohar; and Tehillot Yisrael on Psalms. He was succeeded by his son Rav Moshe Elyakim Beriah. (others 5575 / 1814).
Harav Mordechai of Zhvil, zt”l, (5661 / 1900). A great grandson of R’ Avraham Ha-Malach (the son of the Maggid of Mezrich), Rav Mordechai became the third Zhviller Rebbe. He left two sons, the elder R’ Yechiel Michel, who was succeeded by R’ Yaakov Yisrael, and the younger R’ Shlomo, who was succeeded upon his death in 1945 by R’ Gedaliah Moshe.
Harav Shalom Halevi Segal of Podheits, zt”l, (5678 / 1917).
Harav Chanoch Heinich Gad Justman of Piltz, Hy”d, (5703 / 1942).
Harav Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky of Yerushalayim, zt”l, (5710 / 1949), See 12 Tishrei
Harav Chaim Elazar Bentzion Bruk, zt”l, (5746 / 1985), Rosh Yeshiva of Novardok-Yerushalayim. A talmid of Rav Avraham Yoffen, he was one of the 600 Novardok students who were secretly taken out of Communist Russia to Poland in the Summer of 1922. Rav Bruk left Grieve, Poland, for Yerushalayim in 1934, and founded the Bais Yosef Novardok Yeshiva. Rav Hillel Goldberg, executive editor of the Inmtermountain Jewish News in Denver, learned with Rav Bruk from 1972 to 1985.
HaRav Yitzchak Mordechai Schapiro of Gvodzitz-Sadigura, zt”l, (1934 - 2005). Born in Vienna, he was a descendent of the Maggid of Mezritch, the Noam Elimelech, the Berditchever Rebbe, and the Kozhnitzer Maggid. He moved to New York with his family in 1949. He attended Torah Vodaath. In 1962, he married the grand-daughter of Rav Yeruchim Leiner, the Radziner Rebbe of Boro Park.
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15 Tishrei 2256 - 1506 B.C.E.:
Some say Yaakov Avinu died today; others say on this day he
was brought to Eretz Yisroel for burial in Maarat Machpelah.
15 Tishrei - 1451:
Jews of Arnhem (Holland) were ordered to wear the Jew-badge by the city's cardinal.
15 Tishrei 5416 - October 16, 1655:
Yahrtzeit of HaRav Yosef Shlomo Delmedigo, zt"l, the Yashar of Candia (1591-1655). His forefathers moved to Crete from Germany in the early 15th century. As a youth, he excelled in his Torah studies as well as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and mastered several languages, all before he was 15. He then traveled to Padua to enroll in the University, where he studied under Galileo. After graduation, he returned to Candia. He married and began to practice medicine, by which he earned his acronysm, “Yashar” (Yosef Shlomo Rofeh). He wrote an encyclopedic treatise entitled Bait Yaar HaLevanon, a summary of all branches of knowledge studied in his days (never published). He also amassed a library of over 7000 volumes. He became the personal physician of Prince Radzivil of Lithuania while he lived in Vilna. While there, he replied at length to a series of deep questions on philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy. His treatise is called Mayan Ganim, but the reference is sometimes called by the name of the book of the questions, Sefer Eilim. Rav Yosef became Rav of Hamburg, where he wrote Matzreif LaChachmah, a defense of the study of kabalah. In 1628, he became Sephardic Rav of Amsterdam, where his sefer Novlot Chachmah, was published.
15 Tishrei 5655 - October 15, 1894:
Alfred Dreyfus was first arrested for treason.
A French army officer, Dreyfus was the victim of a frame-up; falsified documents were exposed in a famous open letter entitled J'accuse! (I Accuse!). This scandal, which came to be known as the Dreyfus Affair, bitterly divided French society for many years. Dreyfus was stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. (Five years later, he was released and later pardoned.) Theodor Herzl, a Jewish journalist reporting on the trial, was so affected by the anti-Semitism and injustice, that he committed his life to vigorously pursuing the cause of Zionism.
15 Tishrei 5659 - October 1, 1898:
A decree by the Russian Czar Nicholas II explicitly bars Jews from living in major Russian cities. The action follows laws issued the previous May, restricting Jewish settlement to the Pale of Settlement. In Kiev, alone, some 7000 Jews are forced to relocate.
15 Tishrei 5687 - September 23, 1926:
Yahrtzeit of HaRav Meir ben Aaron Judah Arik, zt"l, of Tarnow, Galicia, (1855-1926). He was the teacher the Maharsham, Reb Yehuda (Yeedle’le) Horowitz of Dzikov, and Rav Meshulam Roth; He was the author of Teshuvot Imrei Yosher, Tal Torah and others.
15 Tishrei 5699 - October 10, 1938:
Shechita banned in Italy.
15 Tishrei 5704 - October 14, 1943:
Led by Alexander Pecherski and a few other Jewish members of the Red Army, a revolt breaks out in the Sobibor death camp when a number of SS guards are killed. Of the 170 Jews who tried to escape, only 30 find their way to freedom and the remaining are captured and shot, Hy"d.
15 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Yaakov Avinu (see above).
HaRav Yosef Shlomo Delmedigo, zt”l, the Yashar of Candia (1591-1655). His forefathers moved to Crete from Germany in the early 15th century. As a youth, he excelled in his Torah studies as well as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and mastered several languages, all before he was 15. He then traveled to Padua to enroll in the University, where he studied under Galileo. After graduation, he returned to Candia. He married and began to practice medicine, by which he earned his acronysm, “Yashar” (Yosef Shlomo Rofeh). He wrote an encyclopedic treatise entitled Bais Yaar HaLevanon, a summary of all branches of knowledge studied in his days (never published). He also amassed a library of over 7000 volumes. He became the personal physician of Prince Radzivil of Lithuania while he lived in Vilna. While there, he replied at length to a series of deep questions on philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy. His treatise is called Mayan Ganim, but the reference is sometimes called by the name of the book of the questions, Sefer Eilim. Rav Yosef became Rav of Hamburg, where he wrote Matzreif LaChachmah, a defense of the study of kabalah. In 1628, he became Sephardic Rav of Amsterdam, where his sefer Novlos Chachmah, was published.
HaRav Yitzchak Eizek of Koritz, zt”l, (1787).
HaRav Meshulam Katz, zt”l, (1799), author of Ikar Tosefot Yom Tov.
HaRav Mordechai of Lechovitch, zt”l, (1810), disciple of Rav Shlomo of Karlin. He was exceedingly charitable, particularly toward the poor of Eretz Yisrael.
HaRav Meir Arik of Tarnow, Galicia, zt”l, (1925). He was the teacher the Maharsham, Reb Yehuda (Yeedle’le) Horowitz of Dzikov, and Rav Meshulam Roth; author of Teshuvot Imrei Yosher and Tal Torah.
HaRav Mordechai Leifer of Nadvorna, zt”l, (1835-1894). The great-grandson of Rav Meir “The Great” of Premishlan, Rav Mordechai was orphaned early and raised by his uncle, Reb Meir’l of Premishlan. His teachings are collected in Gedulat Mordechai.
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16 Tishrei - 1349:
The Jewish population of Krems, Germany, was massacred in the Black Death riots. In the Middle Ages, people were unaware that lack of hygiene caused the spread of bacteria, and the bubonic plague ("Black Death") spread quickly -- killing 25 million people, half the population of Europe. Rumors spread that Jews were poisoning the well water, and riots broke out across Europe. In some cities, Jews were burned alive. Hy"d.
16 Tishrei 5660 - September 20, 1899:
Alfred Dreyfus was released from prison on Devil's Island. See 15 Tishrei.
16 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Moshe Zacuto (the Ramaz), zt”l, (1625-1697). One of the foremost kabbalists of his generation, he was the author of Kol Haramaz, a commentary on the Zohar, as well as Shorshei HaShemot, on the names of G-d. He taught Rav Moshe Chaim Luzzato (the Ramchal) when the latter was still quite young.
HaRav Nachman Kahana of Spinka in Bnei Brak, zt”l, (1976).
HaRav Yitzchak Dov Halevi Bamberger, zt”l, (1807 – 1879), Av Beit Din of Wurzburg, 19th century posek.
HaRav Shimon of Yareslov, zt”l, (1849).
HaRav Tzvi Hirsch Shapiro of Munkacs, zt”l, (5610 / 1850 - 5674 / 1913), author of Darkei Teshuva on Yoreh Deah. He was the great-grandson of Rav Zvi Elimelech of Dinov (the Bnei Yissoscher) and the father of Rav Chaim Elazar Shapiro (the Minchat Elazar), who published the final volume of Darkei Teshuva.
17 Tishrei 5628 - October 16, 1867:
Blood Libel charges triggered anti-Jewish riots in Romania. Blood libels became a common feature in Europe during the Middle Ages: if a Christian baby was found dead, Jews would be charged with having kidnapped the baby and draining its blood. Accusers claimed that blood was the chief ingredient in matzah, and thus prior to every Passover Jews required a large supply. Ironically, Jewish law prohibits the consuming of blood (kosher meat is carefully washed and salted to remove all traces of blood). Yet this didnt stop the Blood Libel accusation, which over the centuries resulted in the death and torture of thousands of Jews. Hy"d.
17 Tishrei 5728 - October 21, 1967:
The Israeli destroyer, INS Eilat, was sunk by Egyptian missile boats near Port Said; 47 Israeli crew members were lost, Hy"d.
17 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Moshe Rosen, zt”l, (5631 / 1871 – 5718 / 1957), author of Nezer Hakodesh. Rav of Chavidan, Latvia. During the First World War he was very active on behalf of his brethren in Latvia. In 1928 he immigrated to the U.S., became the Rav of a number of important congregations and served as the Head of Agudat HaRabbanim.
HaRav Dovid Kahana Shapira of Piorda, zt”l, (1970).
Rebbetzin Batsheva Kanievsky a”h, (5772 / 2011), wife of Maran HaRav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a and oldest daughter of Maran HaRav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv zt”l.
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18 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Meshulam Igra, zt"l, (1742 - 5562 / 1801). He taught Rav Naftali Tzvi Ropshitz during the latter’s early years. He authored Shu't Rav Meshulam Igra. He was highly respected by the Gaonim of his age, Rav Nosson Adler, among others.
Reb' Nachman of Breslov, zt"l, (5532 / 1772 – 5571 / 1810), founder of the Breslov chasidic movement. Born to Feige, grand-daughter of the Ba’al Shem Tov, and Simcha, son of R' Nachman of Horodenka, the Ba’al Shem Tov’s close friend, in Mezhbizh. During his youth he acquired expertise in all the holy works and was accustomed to meditate in solitude. At the age of six he authored one of his major works, the Sefer HaMidot. His Torah was very powerful but he faced many Rabbis who opposed him. Reb' Nachman lived in Poland and the Ukraine, where he inspired thousands of Jews to greater love of G-d. Though he contracted tuberculosis at some point between 1806 and 1810, and suffered the loss of his son, daughter, and wife, Reb' Nachman said: "You may fall to the lowest depths, heaven forbid, but no matter how low you have fallen, it is still forbidden to give up hope." A few of his most famous teachings are: "It's a great mitzvah to always be happy," and "All the world is a narrow bridge -- but the main thing is not to be afraid" (now a popular Hebrew song, Kol Ha-Olam Kulo). He moved from Breslav to Uman on May 9, 1810, and died there October 16. His works include: Likutei Moharan, Sefer HaMidot, and the Sippurei Ma’asiyot. He revealed the Tikkun Klali - General Remedy to rectify the blemish of the Covenant and made many miraculous deliverances. He promised his followers: “My fire will burn until the coming of the Messiah.” Every year on Rosh Hashana, tens of thousands of Jews travel to Uman (Ukraine) to pray at the gravesite of Reb' Nachman.
HaRav Betzalel Regensburg, zt"l, (5581 / 1820), author of the notes known as Hagaot Harav Regensburg on the lateral columns of the Vilna Shas.
HaRav Yona Mertzbach, zt"l, (1900 - 5741 / 1980), Mashgiach of Yeshiva Kol Hatorah, and a central figure in the redaction of the Encyclopedia Talmudis. He was also renowned as an authority on the Hebrew grammar and language, and also on the authentic German minhagim. The Nazis assumed power in Germany on the 3rd of Shevat (January 30), 1933. Darmstadt, the city where Rav Mertzbach was then rav, was the first city in the country where the Nazis closed all Jewish shops for an entire day, on the 28th of March. Their pretext was that the opening of the Jewish stores, “endangered communal order and tranquility.” Approximately 300,000 Jews left Germany before the war and another 150,000 managed to escape after the war started, whereas approximately 160,000 perished in concentration and forced labor camps. Four months after Kristallnacht, the family arrived in Eretz Yisrael on Shushan Purim, 1939.
HaRav Ahron HaLevi Soloveitchik, zt"l, (1917 - 5762 / 2001), a scion of the great Soloveitchik family, son of Rav Moshe Soloveitchik, and grandson of Rav Chaim Soloveitchik, the famed Rosh Yeshiva of Volozhin and Rav of Brisk. Rav Ahron was born in Khaslavichy, a city in western Russia. When the communists invaded Khaslavichy in 1919, the Soloveitchiks escaped to Poland. As a young man Rav Ahron gained from such Torah giants as the Chofetz Chaim and the Imrei Emes. When the Soloveitchik’s moved to New York in 1928 with Rav Moshe assuming the position of Rosh Yeshiva in Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchonon, young Reb Ahron continued learning under the tutelage of his father who gave him semicha. He was taught English by Rav Avigdor Miller, who later would serve as the Mashgiach at Yeshivas Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin. In the early 1950s he became a magid shiur in Yeshivas Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin under the leadership of Rav Yitzchak Hutner. After the petira of his father in 1941, Reb Ahron lived in Washington Heights to aid his mother. In 1966, he came to Chicago as Rosh Yeshiva of Beit Medrash LaTorah, Hebrew Theological College in Skokie, a post he held until 1974. He eventually left that institution and started Yeshivas Brisk of Chicago. In 1983, a debilitating stroke left Rav Ahron partially paralyzed. His body racked with pain, his mind was still sharp and he continued his shiurim, despite tremendous physical difficulties. After the passing of his brother Rav Yosef Ber he would travel each week to Yeshiva Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchanan to give shiurim in his late brother’s stead.
HaRav Yeshaya Schneelbalg, zt"l, (2002), Rav of Bnei Brak Re'em.
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Tishrei 5666 - October 18, 1905:.
A week-long pogrom marking one of the bloodiest periods in Russian Jewish history begins, spreading to dozens of towns and villages throughout Russia. Hundreds of Jews are killed, Hy"d, thousands are wounded and over forty thousand homes and shops are destroyed in the rioting.
Tishrei 5699 - October 14, 1938:
Nazi plan for ghettoizing Jews in all big cities announced by Goering.
19 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman Kramer, zt"l, (5480 / 1720 – 5558 / 1797), known as the 'Vilna Gaon" ("the genius from Vilna"). He is regarded as the greatest rabbi of the past 500 years. The Vilna Gaon possessed a photographic memory: At age three he already knew the entire Bible by heart, and by age seven he knew several tractates of Talmud by heart and gave his first public discourse. By the time he was ten he had advanced to the point where he no longer needed a teacher. Legend says that by age 12 he was able to kabbalistically create a Golem (life out of formless mass). At the age of 35 he was approached by one of the leading sages of that time, Rav Yonaton Eybschutz, to act as an intermediary in the conflict between him and another great sage, Rav Yakov Emden.
The Gaon’s son testified that for fifty years his father did not sleep for more than two hours in a twenty-four hour period, in six 20-minute intervals. His breadth of knowledge was amazing. He was capable of stating from memory the number of times any sage was mentioned in any particular book of the Talmud. His knowledge of both the revealed and the hidden parts of the Torah was beyond compare. He wrote commentaries on all the classical Jewish works -- Bible, Talmud, Code of Jewish Law, plus various Kabbalistic works. Among his many writings are Biur HaGra on Shulchan Aruch and on Talmud, and Aderet Eliyahu, a commentary on Chumash.
He was also a renowned expert in mathematics and astronomy and was knowledgeable in almost all secular fields as he considered secular knowledge to be a vital adjunct to Torah study. He authored books on grammar and mathematics.
There is a statue of him and a street named after him in Vilnius, Lithuania. The Vilna Gaon set out for Eretz Yisrael in 1783, but for unknown reasons did not attain his goal. He inspired his disciples to make the move, however, and in 1809 a group of 70 became pioneers of modern settlement in Eretz Yisrael.
Rav Eliyahu was the leading figure in the opposition to the Chassidic movement in its early years.
HaRav Yaakov Yitzchak, zt”l, the Yid Hakadosh of P'shischa (5526 / 1766 – 5574 / 1813). A talmid of the Chozeh of Lublin, he was the rebbi of Rav Simchah Bunim of P'shischa. Other important disciples of his included Rav Menachem Mendel of Kotzk, Rav Yitzchak Meir of Ger, Rav Chanoch Heinich of Alexander, Rav Yitzchak of Vorki and Rav Yissachar Ber of Radoshitz. Rav Yaakov Yitzchak initiated a new path in Chassidut, the service of G-d through Torah study together with prayer. He thus founded a Polish version of Chassidut, which assigned a greater importance to Torah study and the role of scholars, and started to campaign against the superficiality and ignorance which had developed within Chasidism.
HaRav Aaron, the Sadigerer Rebbe, the Kedushat Aharon, zt”l, (1877 – 1912?13). Son of Rav Yisrael of Sadiger; father of Reb Mordechai Shalom Yosef. He died tragically, just six years after his father’s petira, at the age of 36.
HaRav Naftoli (Herman) Neuberger, zt”l, long time administrative head of Yeshivat Ner Yisrael of Baltimore (1918-2005). As the public representative of not only the yeshiva, but much of Baltimore 's Orthodox community for many years, Rav Neuberger met often with Jewish and government figures. Born in Hassfurt, a small Bavarian town along the Main River, Rav Neuberger was the youngest of Meir and Bertha Neuberger's three children. Four weeks after his bar mitzvah, his father died. In 1935, he left home to study at the Mirrer yeshiva in Poland. In 1938, he immigrated alone to the United States at 20, speaking only German and Yiddish. He enrolled at Ner Yisrael, which had opened 5 years earlier. In 1940, he began working in the yeshiva office. In 1942, Rav Neuberger married Judith Kramer, the youngest of Mrs. Ruderman's four sisters. By the mid-1950s, he was responsible for fund-raising and the yeshiva's physical operation and was responsible for moving the Yeshiva to its current campus. After Rabbi Ruderman's death in 1987, Rabbi Neuberger assumed the title of president. Through his efforts, beginning in 1975, over 800 Iranian immigrants attended Ner Israel -- on full scholarship. The eldest of his five sons, Rav Sheftel Neuberger, is vice president of the Yeshiva and was his father's right hand. Besides Sheftel, his other sons are: Isaac, a Pikesville attorney; Rav Shraga Neuberger, a Ner Israel rebbe; Yaakov, a Greenspring attorney; and Rav Ezra Neuberger, a Ner Israel rebbe and dean of its kollel.
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Tishrei - 1348:
Jews of Zurich were charged with perpetrating the Black Death epidemic. Some were burned to death; Hy"d, the rest were expelled. Riots against Jews spread to Bern , and in the Castle of Chillon on Lake Geneva, Jews under torture admitted to being given poison to place in wells around Venice.
Tishrei 5701 - October 14, 1940:
6,300 Jews of Baden deported by the Nazis.
20 Tishrei 5734 - October 16, 1973:
Israeli forces crossed to the western side of the Suez Canal in a decisive battle of the Yom Kippur War.
A division led by Ariel Sharon had attacked a weak point in the Egyptian "seam line" between the Egyptian second Army in the north and the Egyptian third Army in the south. In some of the most brutal fighting of the war, the Israelis opened a hole in the Egyptian line and reached the Suez Canal. A small force crossed the canal and created a bridgehead on the other side. A few days later, Israeli troops trapped the Egyptian Third Army, leaving it without any means of resupply, thus effectively ending the Yom Kippur War.
20 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel of Crakow, zt’l, (1596-1663), son of Rav Yaakov Lubliner and the grandson (through his mother) of Rav Meir Katzenellenbogen.
HaRav Eliezer Papo, zt”l, (1785-1828), author of the Mussar Classic (Jewish ethics) Peleh Yoetz and Damesek Eliezer. Born in Sarajevo, he led the community of Selestria, Bulgaria, and died early at the age of 41. He is considered the exemplary spokesman of the Sephardic musar tradition of the eighteenth century. He promised in his will that, “Whoever comes to my grave in purity after immersing in a mikveh, and prays with a broken heart, I guarantee him that his prayer will be accepted.” As such, his kever in Silestra, Bulgaria, is the destination of hundreds of visitors annually. His talmid muvhak was Rav Yoshiyahu Pinto. (Others 18 Elul).
HaRav Yaakov Yosef ben Yehuda Leib, zt”l, (1791), (”Reb Yaybi Saba”), the Maggid of Ostra.
HaRav Shimon of Skrenovitz, zt”l, (1926).
HaRav Yosef Moshe Addess, zt”l, (1923-1991). Born to Rav Yaakov Addess, he learned at the Porat Yosef yeshiva in the Old City during his youth. There he became very close to the rosh yeshiva, Rav Ezra Attia. In 1952, he began to teach in the Tzofiof shul in the Bucharian neighborhood of Yerushalayim. On Friday mornings, he always taught mussar, mainly from the sefer Peleh Yoetz (interesting that its author shared his yahrtzeit). These mussar shiurim were published later by a student, under the title Kochvei Or. He became Rosh Yeshiva, Porat Yosef, Yerushalayim. He son, Rav Yaakov, became rosh kollel of Maalot Yosef, and his son Aaron heads the various chessed projects started by Rav Yosef. He died on the same date that he was born. (others 19 Tishrei).
HaRav Avraham Yissachar Englard, zt”l, (1906-2005), the Sosnovtza Rav / Radziner Rebbe of Eretz Yisrael. Born in Krimelov to Rav Yeshaya, a grandson (and great-grandson) of the Shach, who served as Rav and Av Beit Din in Mondziuv and Sosnovitz (Sosnovtza). He became the son-in-law of the Radziner Rebbe, the Tiferet Yosef. When his father-in-law was nifter, the Rebbe’s son, Rav Shmuel Shlomo became Rebbe. During World War II, he escaped to the forest and joined the partisans; there in the forest, he wore the same clothes for almost two years. After the War, he returned to Sosnovitz, where he served as Rav and Av Beit Din. In 1948, he moved to Brooklyn, and in 1952, he accepted an invitation to join Chassidim of Radzin in Eretz Yisrael. He founded Radziner batei medrash in Bnei Brak, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Yerushayalim, Netanya, Petach Tikva, and Holon, and the Sod Yesharim Yeshiva in Yerushalayim. He moved to Crown Heights in 1954, but moved back to Bnei Brak in 1971.
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21 Tishrei 2936 - 932 B.C.E.:
Shlomo Hamelech finishes the dedication ceremonies
of the Beit Hamikdash.
21 Tishrei 3409 - 351 B.C.E.:
Haggai delivers prophecy to encourage Zerubavel and Yoshua
Kohen Gadol to build the Second Beit Hamikdash
21 Tishrei 5668 - September 29, 1907:
Bar Giora, a Palestinian Jewish self-defense organization was formed to protect the settlements from raiders. Two years later it was reorganized into Hashomer (the watchman) and finally became the Hagana, Israel 's pre-State defense forces.
21 Tishrei 5702 - October 12, 1941:
3,400 Jews of Galicia executed by Nazis, Hy"d.
21 Tishrei 5707 - October 16, 1946:
Following the Nuremberg trials, 10 major Nazi war criminals were hanged. Among them was Ernst Kaltenbrunner, an S.S. leader who was a friend of Adolf Eichmann and collaborated in the development of the death camps. As the end of World War II approached, he insisted on continuing the annihilation of the Jews until the last possible moment.
The hanging of the 10 Nazis eerily echoed the 10 sons of Haman who were hanged in the Purim story. Incredibly, this day on the Jewish calendar is Hoshana Raba, the traditional day of judgment for the nations of the world.
21 Tishrei 5734 - October 17, 1973:
Arab oil producing states announce 10 percent reduction in oil production and impose total embargo on U.S. and Netherlands.
21 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Yaakov Yosef HaKohen of Polnayah (Polonnoye), zt”l, (1669?1710 - 1781?1784), author of Toldot Yaakov Yosef. He was the foremost disciple of the Baal Shem Tov, and one of the earliest champions of chassidus. He was a descendant of Rav Shimshon of Ostropole, and Rav Yomtov Lipman Heller, the Tosefot Yomtov. While still a young man, Rav Yaakov Yosef was appointed as the rav of Sharigrod in Padalia, a former province of Poland, and it is there that he became an ardent disciple of the Baal Shem Tov, and he was asked to leave his post. He served as Rav of Rashkov and of Nemirov, and then in 1770 he became the Rav of Polnoye. His first sefer, Toldot Yaakov Yosef, is the first Chassidic sefer ever published, and is a major source of the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov, repeating the phrase, “I have heard from my teacher,” 249 times, and quoting him about another 40 times. In addition to Toldot Yaakov Yosef, he authored Ben Porat Yosef, Tzofnat Paane’ach, and Kesonet Passim. Althought he exact year of his birth is not known, it is believed that he lived more than 110 years.
HaRav Menachem Mendel of Premishlan, zt”l, (1777). A disciple of the Baal Shem Tov as well as of the Maggid of Mezritch. He settled in Eretz Yisrael in 1768. The actual year of his death is unknown. However, it was probably before 1777, since a large contingency of Chassidim that arrived that year apparently found him no longer living. His yahrtzeits date, however, is well-established.
HaRav Dovid Moshe Friedman, zt”l, (1828-1903), the first Chortkover Rebbe, the 5th son of Rav Yisrael of Ruzhin. He moved to Chortkov in 1865 to become Rav, a position he kept for over 40 years. He is the author of Divrei Dovid. Upon his death in 1904, his son Reb Yisrael succeeded him.
HaRav Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer, zt”l, (1961), the Cheshev Sofer.
HaRav Yaakov Aryeh Twersky, zt”l, (1979), the Trisker Rebbe.
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22 Tishrei - 825 B.C.E.:
Shlomo Hamelech (King Solomon), bid farewell to the Jewish people who had come to Yerushalayim / Jerusalem for a 14-day ceremony dedicating the First Beit HaMikdash (1-Kings 8:66). (See 8 Tishrei).
Dovid Hamelech (King David) had brought the Aron (Ark of the Covenant) up to Yerushalayim's Har HaMoriah (Mount Moriah), but as a warrior he was not permitted by Hashem to erect the Beit HaMikdash. However, his son Shlomo did so. The Beit HaMikdash was the most important site in Eretz Yisroel -- a spiritual magnet for the Jewish nation's yearnings. The magnificent structure took seven years to build, and stood for 410 years before being destroyed by the Babylonians under Nevuchadnetzar.
22 Tishrei 5386 - October 23, 1625:
Jews of Rome prohibited by Urban VIII (1623-44) to erect matzeivot (monuments).
22 Tishrei 5386 - October 23, 1904:
Death of Dr. Marcus Jastrow (1829-1904). Born in Rogasen, Posen, Marcus Jastrow was thirty-seven-years-old when he was called to Philadelphia 's Congregation Rodeph Shalom, where he served as senior rabbi until his retirement in 1892. "A Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Babli, Talmud Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature" evolved into, and was published as, a two-volume work in 1903.
22 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Aharon Halevi Hurvitz of Stroshel, zt”l, (1828), primary student of the Alter Rebbe of Lubavitch, author of Avodat Halevi and Shaar Hayichud.
HaRav Shraga Feivel of Gritza, zt”l, (1848).
HaRav Moshe Shmuel Glasner, zt”l, (1857-1924). Rav Moshe, a great-grandson of the Chasam Sofer, was born in Pressburg and later moved with his family to Klausenberg, where his father served as Rav. Rav Moshe succeeded his father in that post in 1878 and filled it until 1923, when he settled in Yerushalayim. Rav Moshe’s best known work is Dor Revi’i on Mesechet Chullin. His other works include responsa and a Torah commentary.
HaRav Dovid Shapiro of Sonik-Dinov, zt”l, (1933).
HaRav Moshe Yaakov Hakohen Revikov (Ribikov), zt”l, (1966), tzadik nistar, the “sandlar (shoemaker) of Tel Aviv.”
Nadvorna Rebbe of Petach Tikva, zt”l, (2002).
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23 Tishrei - 67 C.E.:
Roman soldiers captured Gamla, a fortress in Israel's Golan region, and killed all its inhabitants. The ancient historian Josephus Flavius, a leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome, fortified Gamla as a main stronghold in 66 CE. The Romans attempted to take the city by means of a siege ramp, but were turned back by the defenders; only on the second attempt did they succeed in penetrating the fortifications and conquering the city. Thousands of inhabitants were slaughtered, while others chose to jump to their deaths from the top of the cliff. The location of ancient Gamla was discovered in archeological excavations during the 1970s; the remains have been preserved as a national park.
23 Tishrei - 1555:
Hundreds of Jews in Cracow killed during hakafot, Hy"d.
23 Tishrei 5741 - October 3, 1980:
A bomb placed outside of a shul on the Rue Copernic in Paris explodes killing 3 people, Hy"d. The terrorists are never apprehended, nor was it ever determined whether the perpetrators belonged to a Palestinian movement or the radical French right.
23 Tishrei 5746 - October 8, 1985:
Palestinian terrorists hijack the Italian cruise ship, Achille Lauro, and murder American Jew Leon Klinghoffer, Hy"d..
23 Tishrei 5749 - October 4, 1988:
Members of the dissolved Lebanese parliament ratify the Taif Agreement. Although the agreement calls for the "disbanding of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias," Hezbollah remains active.
23 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Dovid Jungreis, zt”l, (1898 - 5731 / 1971), Rosh Av Beit din Yerushalayim. Rav Dovid’s grandfather was Rav Moshe HaLevi Jungreis, a student of the Ksav Sofer and the av beit din of Kashoi, while his father was Rav Baruch Reuven Shlomoh, the founder of the Eidah HaChareidit. He married Rebbetzin Miriam Pu’ah, a daughter of Rav Asher Zussman. In 1931, at the age of 33, he was appointed dayan in the Eidah HaChareidit beit din, joing Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld. His knowledge was so vast, the Satmar Rav once said, “If Rav Dovid is here, I don’t need any sefer.” Although he was childless, Rav Dovid’s insightful drashot, which were compiled by his students into a sefer, entitled Or Dovid.
Rabbeinu Chanoch ben Rabbeinu Moshe of Cordova, zt"l, (1000), one of the four Shevuyim (Captives).
The famous story of the "Four Captives" occurred, in which four premier Torah scholars from Babylonia were captured and redeemed in different centers in the Mediterranean Basin, where they became the leaders of important communities.
The four set sail from southern Italy to raise money for poor brides. They were set upon by pirates, who offered them to various communities. Three of the four are known. HaRav Shmaryohu ben Elchonon was redeemed in Alexandria, Egypt; HaRav Chushiel was redeemed in Tunisia; Rabbeinu Moshe ben Chanoch and his son Chanoch were redeemed in Cordoba, Spain.
They were first sold as slaves there and later redeemed by the community. Rabbeinu Moshe became rav of Cordoba, and was succeeded in this position by his son after he was niftar in about 965 (4725). His halachic rulings were considered to be on the level of the geonei Bavel of his time, as were Rabbeinu Chanoch's. They established Spain as a center of Torah. Rabbeinu Chanoch's main talmid was Shmuel Hanoggid.
Rav Menachem Mendel of Linsk, zt”l, (1802), father of Rav Naftali Tzvi of Ropshitz.
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24 Tishrei 3415 - 347 B.C.E.:
The Anshei Knesset Hagedolah annulled the yetzer hara of idol worship after intense fasting and prayer. Jews under Nechemia cried out to Hashem and made a
new covenant with Him. (Yoma 69b). See 27 Tishrei.
24 Tishrei - 1270:
Eighth and last Crusade led by Louis IX of France. It was diverted to Tunisia where Louis IX died, and after that the west lost interest in supporting the Crusades against the Muslims. When Acco fell to the Mamelukes in 1291, the Crusader kingdom came to its final end after close to 3 centuries.
24 Tishrei 5700 - October 7, 1939:
Germany decreed that passports of Jews were to be marked with a J.
24 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Eliyahu Guttmacher, zt”l, (1796-1874), Av Beit din Greiditz. Born near Posen (Poznan) in eastern Germany (today, Poland) he became, at age 19, a student of R’ Akiva Eiger for four years. R’ Guttmacher published several pamphlets describing his ideas about the Redemption and the return to Eretz Yisrael. He also left behind many manuscripts on “traditional” Torah subjects, and some of his commentaries are published in the back of the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud.
HaRav Elchonon Sorotzkin, zt”l, Chairman of Vaad Hayeshivot; son of Rav Zalman Sorotzkin (Oznayim Le-Torah). He was the author of Leman Achai VeRai and leader of Chinuch Atzmai. (year??1966)
HaRav Avraham Yehuda Leib Hacohen Schwartz, zt”l, (1824-1883), the Kol Aryeh.
HaRav Yaakov Moshe bar Yehuda Toledano, zt”l, (5639 / 1879 - 5721 / 1960). At the age of 19 he was ordained as a Rav in Tverye, where his family had moved to from Morocco. During the First World War his family was exiled from Eretz Yisrael to Corsica where he served as a Rav for the exiles. In 1920 he returned to Tverye and re-established the community. In 1926 he was appointed to the Association of Rabbis in Tangiers; three years later he became the Assistant Chief Rabbi in Cario, and then the Chief Rabbi in Alexandria in 1937. In 1942 he was called to be the Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv where he served until his death. He served as the Minister of Religion in 1958. He studied the history of Eretz Yisrael and wrote bibliographies. His works include the Ner HaMa’arav and the Yam HaGadol.
HaRav Chaim Zanvil Abramowitz, zt”l, (1995), the Ribnitzer Rebbe, Monsey. He attended Kishinev Yeshiva in the 1920s and sat at the court of Rav Avraham Mattisyahu of Sthefanesht in Romania. After emigrating from Russia in 1973, he lived in Yerushalayim and Monsey, NY. It is known that from the 1930s until the end of his life he fasted on all days when it is permitted to do so under Jewish law.
HaRav Chaim Shaul Kaufman, zt”l, (1938-2005), Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Tiferet Yaakov of Gateshead. Born in Berlin as the youngest of 8 children, he came to Gateshead in July 1939. He married Leah Nagel of Antwerp.
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25 Tishrei - 1348:
Pope Clement VI issued a bill denouncing the Black Plague libel against the Jews stating that they were suffering just like the rest of Europe. Other rulers issued like denunciations but they were only marginally effective.
25 Tishrei 5700 - October 8, 1939:
Nazi pogrom against the Jews of Lodz, Hy"d.
25 Tishrei 5701 - October 27, 1940:
Belgium bans ritual slaughter.
25 Tishrei 5702 - October 16, 1941:
First mass deporting of German Jews to Eastern European ghettos.
25 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev, zt"l, (5500 / 1740 - 5571 / 1810), a beloved chassidic leader in Poland and the Ukraine. He was the son of a family of Rabbis that had produced a continuous line of Rabbis for 26 generations. He laid the foundation for Chassidus in central Poland, Lithuania and the Ukraine. At the suggestion of his mentor, Reb Smelke of Nikolsburg, he traveled to Mezeritch and became a close disciple of the second leader of the Chassidic movement, Rav DovBer, the Maggid of Mezeritch..Following posts at Zelichov and Pinsk, he spent the last 25 years of his life in Berditchev where he served as the Head of the Beit Din. The important foundation of his Torah was the love of one’s fellow Jew and his striving to judge the Jewish people favorably at all times and always interpreting people's actions in the best possible light, for which he earned the appellation, "defense attorney of the Jewish people." He used to say: “No one may speak badly about the Jewish people, one may only search for the way to judge them favorably…only one who speaks of the righteousness of the Jewish people is fitting to be their leader.” His teachings are contained in the posthumously published popular commentary of the Torah, Kedushat Levi, considered to be a fundamental text in Chassidut.. (others 5570 / 1809).
HaRav Moshe Sofer of Pressburg, zt"l, (5523 / 1762 - 5600 / 1839), a leader of European Jewry known as the "Chatam Sofer" after his work of Rabbinic respona. He was born in Frankfurt Am Mein. He was a student of Rav Nosson Adler of Frankfort and Rav Pinchas Halevi Horowitz, the Baal Haflaah (a talmid of the the maggid of Mezeritch). His first position was as a Rav in Boskovitz in Moravia. He married the daughter of the Rav of Prosnitz and was supported by his brother-in-law, Rav Hirsch. Unfortunately, Rav Hirsch eventually lost all his money, and the Chatam Sofer took a position as rav in the Moravian city of Dresnitz. After five years in Dresnitz, Rav Moshe moved to Mattersdorf. The Chatam Sofer was appointed Rav of Pressburg in Tishrei of 1806, and he occupied that position for 33 years. In Pressburg he founded a Yeshiva that became the most famous in Western Europe. The Kehilla of Pressburg was a spiritual fortress in Hungary against the “Enlightenment” movement and the Reformers. The Chatam Sofer was active during his entire life to strengthen the Rabbinate and teach Torah. He encouraged the settlement of the Land of Israel. After the petira of his first wife, Rav Moshe married the daughter of Rav Akiva Eiger. She bore the previously childless Chatam Sofer 7 daughters and 3 sons. Rav Moshe was an outstanding Halachic authority and community leader, and was at the forefront of the battle to preserve the integrity of traditional Judaism in the face of the various "reformist" movements of his time. The Chatam Sofer wrote many Halachic Responsa, and at his funeral his students carried 90 manuscripts, which were published posthumously.
HaRav Dr. Mordechai Zeev (ben Aryeh Leib) Braude, zt”l, (1870-1949). Born in Brest Litovsk, he was the son of Rav of Lvov. His mother, Chana, was the daughter of Rav Tzvi Hirsch Orenstein, Rav of Brest Litovsk, Rzeszow and Lvov. He was a delegate to the First Zionist Congress. He served as a Rav in Stanislawow and Lodz, as well as a fighter for the rights of the Jews in Austria and Poland, and their representative in legal bodies. He moved to Eretz Yisrael and lived in Yerushalayim.
HaRav Dovid Matisyahu Rabinowitz, zt”l, (1997), Biala Rebbe of Bnei Brak
HaRav Yom Tov Lipman Helprin, zt”l, author of Kedushat Yom Tov.
26 Tishrei - 1337:
In Deckendorf, Bavaria, desecration of the wafers used in churches was alleged and violence spread to 51 communities, including Bohemia and Austria. To this day people come on pilgrimages to the church where paintings show Jews in medieval dress desecrating the "wafers".
26 Tishrei 5569 - October 17, 1808:
With Napoleon's arrival at the Duchy of Warsaw, the new state parliament calls for equal rights for non-Jews. The parliament states that emancipation for the Jews "would be postponed for 10 years in the hope of eradicating all their distinctions which set them apart."
26 Tishrei 5569 - October 17, 1808:
The Jews who resided in Warsaw were stripped of all their political rights.
26 Tishrei 5734 - October 22, 1973:
Mount Hermon is recaptured by the parachute and Golani brigades during the Yom Kippur War. Fearing an Israeli advance, the Syrians immediately agree to a UN-sponsored cease-fire.
26 Tishrei 5734 - October 22, 1973:
A cease-fire resolution was passed by the U.N. Security Council to halt the Yom Kippur War. Shuttle diplomacy by Henry Kissinger compelled Israel and Egypt to accept the cease-fire. Fighting, however, would continue for another four days. In the war, Israel suffered the loss of 2,600 soldiers and 800 tanks. Four years later, Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat would visit Jerusalem and announce his readiness to forge a permanent peace deal.
26 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Harav Aharon of Zhitomir, zt”l, (5577/1816), author of Toldot Aharon. A talmid muvhak of Rav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev, he succeeded Rav Zev Wolf of Zhitomir (the Ohr Hemeir) upon the appointment of the Kedushat Levi. His divrei Torah were written down by one of his closest talmidim, Rav Levi of Zhitomir, after he heard them, at the end of every Shabbat and Yom Tov.
Harav Asher of Stolin, zt”l, (1760 - 5587/1828), the Stoliner Rebbe son of Harav Aharon Hagadol of Karlin. When his father passed away, he was raised by his successor Rebbe Shlomo Karliner who became one of his main influences. Reb’ Asher later settled in Stolin. (Others 1826).
Harav Dovid Shapiro, zt”l, of Sonik-Dinov, (5694/1933).
HaRav Yehuda Yudel Rosenberg, zt”l, (1859 - 5696 / 1935). Born in Skaraschev, a small town near Radomsko, Poland. He served as Rav in Tarlow, and age 25, he was appointed Av Beit Din. In 1903, he published Yadot Nedarim, a commentary on Rashi and Ran to mesechet Nedarim. In 1905, he published Shaarei Zohar Torah, an attempt to organize for the verses of the Torah what the Zohar said on that verse. In 1913 he moved to Toronto where he was a Rav until 1917, when he was appointed the Chief Rabbi of Montreal. He wrote 30 Seferim in Halacha, Kabbala and Chassidut.
Harav Dovid Mattisyahu Rabinowitz, zt”l, (5689 / 1928 - 5758 / 1997), the Biala Rebbe of Bnei Brak. Born in Shedlitz, Poland. His father was Harav Yechiel Yehoshua, later Rebbe of Biala. He was named Dovid after his great-grandfather, Harav Nosson Dovid of Shidlovtza, and Mattisyahu was added since his brit was on the seventh day of Chanukah.
During the difficult years of the war, his father was exiled to Russia. Young Dovid Mattisyahu, along with two of his brothers and his sister, escaped to Tehran, Iran. The children came to Eretz Yisrael on the transport known as Yaldei Tehran, “the children of Tehran.”
When Harav Yosef Shlomo Kahaneman, the Ponevezher Rav, heard that the children of the Biala Rebbe had come to Eretz Yisrael, he made a special effort to arrange placements for them that would ensure they would lead Torah lives. Dovid Mattisyahu went to the Ponevezh Yeshiva, where he was noted for his constant learning and his warm tefillot; he was often asked to lead the tefillot on Yamim Tovim.
Dovid Mattisyahu got married and later received semichah from Harav Yosef Tzvi Kalish of Skernevitz, the Rav of Bnei Brak, a scion of the Vorka dynasty. Harav Yechiel Yehoshua arrived in Eretz Yisrael in 5707 / 1947 and was reunited with his children. He began rebuilding the Biala dynasty after the Holocaust. After the petira of his father on 21 Shevat 5742 / 1982, Reb Dovid Mattisyahu founded his court in Bnei Brak, where he spread Torah and Chassidut with passion and fire. He had great dveikut in tefilla and avoda.
Reb Dovid Mattisyahu would spend one Shabbat every year, during the Three Weeks, in the Old City of Yerushalayim, near the Kotel.
His sons, ybl”c, are Harav Yaakov Menachem, the Biala Rebbe in Bnei Brak; Harav Shmuel Yair, who serves as Rav in his brother’s beis medrash in Bnei Brak; Harav Avraham Yerachmiel, the Rebbe of Ostrova-Biala in Yerushalayim; Harav Yirmiyahu, the Rebbe of Biala-Lentchna in Beit Shemesh; and Harav Aharon Shlomo Chaim Elazar, the Biala Rebbe in Boro Park.
His sons-in-law are Harav Yehudah Zev Volf Kornreich, the Shidlovtza Rebbe in Yerushalayim, and Harav Yaakov Hager, son of the Seret-Vizhnitzer Rebbe, shlita.
Some of Reb Dovid Mattisyahu’s divrei Torah were published with the titles Orchot Dovid and Lahavat Dovid.
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27 Tishrei 3415 - 344 B.C.E.:
The Anshei Knesset HaGedolah weakened the yetzer hara of arayot after three days of prayer. (Yoma 69). See 24 Tishrei.
27 Tishrei 5331 - 1570:
The wealthy Jewish community of Venice was sacked and impoverished.
27 Tishrei 5688 - October 23, 1927:
The Israeli city of Netanya was founded in Palestine on a plot of empty land.
Netanya has since grown to become the fourth-largest city in Israel, with a population of 165,000. Netanya has one of the most beautiful stretches of beach in Israel, with white sands and inviting waters.
Netanya was named for Nathan Straus (1848-1931), a Jewish American merchant and philanthropist. Straus was a co-owner of R.H. Macy & Co., yet he never amassed personal wealth because he was always using his money to help people. For example, in New York's winter of 1893, he gave away more than two million five-cent tickets good for coal, food or lodging. His greatest devotion, however, was to Israel. He gave more than two-thirds of his fortune and devoted the last 15 years of his life to this cause.
27 Tishrei 5704 - October 26, 1943:
Three thousand Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas, were deported to the Klooga murder
camp in Estonia.
27 Tishrei 5709 - October 30, 1948:
Operation Chiram was successfully completed, giving Israel effective control
of the Galil.
27 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Rabbeinu Yitzchok — the R”I Hazakein, zt”l, of the Baalei Tosfot (the commentary of the Talmud) (1120 - 1200), (Others 4949 / 1188).
One of the greatest of the Baalei haTosafot, the R”I of Danfir, as he was known, is much quoted in their commentary to the Gemara.
He was the son of Rabbeinu Shmuel (son of Rabbeinu Simcha of Vitri, author of Machzor Vitry), who was a talmid of Rashi. His mother was Miriam, sister of Rashbam and Rabbeinu Tam, all of whom were children of Rabbeinu Meir ben Shmuel, the son-in-law of Rashi Hakadosh. Rabbeinu Yitzchak was married to the daughter of Rabbeinu Yehudah ben Rabbeinu Yom Tov. (According to another opinion, he was married to the daughter of the Riva”m.)
He was a disciple of his uncle, Rabbeinu Tam, and succeeded him as Rosh Yeshiva in Romrog (Ramerupt) after Rabbeinu Tam moved to Troyes. Thereafter, he founded the yeshiva at Dampierre. He was always careful not to argue with his uncle/Rebbe and always showed the highest regard for him; he obeyed his commands and asked for his decisions in letters, and nullified his own opinion to that of Rabbeinu Tam.
Most of the Baalei Tosafot were his talmidim. The Study Hall of Rabbi Yitzchak is considered to be the source of the main body of the Tosfot commentary.
Sixty Torah scholars studied before him; each had mastered a specific masechta of Shas. Using this system and learning together, they clarified numerous difficult concepts in Shas.
Rabbeinu Yitzchak was a kabbalist who lived an ascetic life, davened at great length, and was always the last to leave shul. For Yom Kippur he would fast two days due to sfeika d’yoma — the reason that we in the Diaspora observe two days of each Yom Tov.
Among his students were Rav Shimshon of Sens (who edited many of our Tosefot, wrote important works in his own right, and led 300 families to settle in Eretz Yisrael in 1211), the Ros”h of Shantz, Rav Yitzchak ben Avraham (the Ritzva), his son Rabbeinu Elchanan, and Rabbeinu Baruch Baal HaTerumah, who went to live in Eretz Yisrael. Ri had at least two sons, both of whom died in his lifetime: Rabbeinu Elchanan and Rabbeinu Shlomo.
The R”I was buried in Ramerupt, Germany. Through the efforts of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Gabbai, an ohel was built in recent years at the site believed to be the beit hachaim of many of the Baalei Tosafot, including the R”I.
HaRav Efraim Zalman Shor, zt”l, (5394 / 1633), author of Tevuot Shor. (Others 28 Tishrei). He was the son of Harav Naftali Hirsh Shor, a direct descendant of Rabbeinu Yosef Bechor Shor, one of the Baalei Tosafot. He was also the son-in-law of the famous Harav Shaul Wohl (Katzenellenbogen).
Reb Efraim Zalman became Rav first in the city of Shebarshin, and later in Horodna. After the petira of his father-in-law, he was appointed Rav of Brisk. He subsequently became Rav and Rosh Yeshiva in Lublin. He authored Tevuot Shor, a brief summary of the Beit Yosef on all four sections of the Shulchan Aruch, adding the sources for many rulings not brought by the Beit Yosef himself.
He was survived by his son Harav Yaakov, who also served as Rav in Brisk.
HaRav Elazar Rokeach of Amsterdam, zt”l, (1741), the Maaseh Rokeach.
HaRav Nosson Tzvi Kenig, zt”l, rosh kolel Breslav in Bnei Brak. (1997), author of Torat Nosson.
Harav Shraga Shmuel Schnitzler of Bekesh-Tchaba, zt”l, (5740 / 1979).
28 Tishrei 4176 - 415:
The Romans removed the last Nasi, Rabban Gamliel (the fourth), from office, destroying
the last vestiges of Jewish self-government after the churban
28 Tishrei 4946 - 1185:
Saladin. with his Moslem army, captured Yerushalayim from the Crusaders and allowed Jews to return to the city
after an absence of 88 years.
28 Tishrei 5127 - 1366:
King Frederick III of Sicily forbade decorating the outside of shuls.
28 Tishrei 5691 - October 20, 1930:
The British White Paper restricting Jewish rights in Palestine and which caused
the Jewish people untold trouble, was published.
The British government issued the Passfield White Paper, a formal statement of policy in Palestine. The paper was an attempt to appease the Arabs in the aftermath of the 1929 riots: During six days of Arab rioting in Yerushalayim, Gaza, Chevron and Tzefat, 135 Jews were killed and more than 300 wounded. The White Paper criticized the Jewish Agency for promoting Jewish employment opportunities, claiming that it damaged economic development of the Arab population. Further, the paper required that Jews obtain permission from the British authorities to purchase land. The result was that Jewish immigration was greatly curtailed.
28 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
Harav Avraham Kara, zt”l, (5303 / 1542), Rav of Prague.
HaRav Efraim Zalman Shor, zt”l, (5394 / 1633), author of Tevuot Shor. (see 27 Tishrei).
HaRav Nachman Tzvi HaLevi of Kolomaya, zt”l, (1829), son of Rav Yitzcak, Rav of Kolomaya.
HaRav Shmuel Landau of Prague, zt”l, (1837), second son of the Noda BeYehuda.
HaRav Avraham Eiger, the Lubliner Rebbe, zt”l , (1914 – 5761 / 2000, others 1916 – 5763 / 2002). He was named after his father, the author of Shevet MiYehuda, who had died just three months before his birth on erev Rosh Chodesh Iyar. He joined a long line of admorim stretching back through his grandfather, R’ Shlomo Eiger, and his great- grandfather, the great R’ Akiva Eiger, all the way to the founder of the dynasty, R’ Leibele Eiger, also known as the Torat Emet. He survived the war by escaping to Shanghai. In 1949, he moved to Eretz Yisrael, settling in Yerushalayim for a year, then setting up the Lubliner Beit Chassidim in Tel Aviv. In 1955, he moved to Bnei Brak, and in 1963, he set up his Beit Midrash in the center of Zichron Meir.
29 Tishrei 5211 - 1450:
The Jews of Lower Bavaria were expelled.
29 Tishrei 5631 - October 24, 1870:
France grants Algerian Jews citizenship. Previously, Jews living in the French colony were required to make individual requests for naturalization.
29 Tishrei 5700 - October 12, 1939:
The Nazis ordered that all Jewish areas in occupied Poland must establish "Jewish Councils." The stated purpose of the councils was to be the liaison between the Jewish community and the Nazis.
29 Tishrei 5700 - October 12, 1939:
First Jewish deportees left Vienna and Bohemia.
29 Tishrei 5701 - October 31, 1940:
This was the last day for Jews to leave their homes and move into the Warsaw
29 Tishrei 5701 - October 10, 1942:
Four thousand Jews from Stanislavov, Poland were deported to the Belcez murder
29 Tishrei 5703 - October 10, 1942:
Last transport of Austrian Jews left for Theresienstadt.
29 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
the Tanna Shimon Hatzaddik, (3449 / 313 B.C.E.), Kohain Gadol (High Priest) at the beginning of the days of the Second Beit HaMikdash, and the last of the Anshei Knesset Hagdolah. (Men of the Great Assembly).
As one of the first of the Sages mentioned in the Mishna (Oral Law), the Tradition came through him from the Anshei Knesset Hagdolah, which was lead by Ezra HaSofer (the Scribe). He served as the Kohain Gadol for 40 years. When Alexander the Great came the Land of Israel in 318 B.C.E. with the intention of conquering Yerushalayim, Shimon Hatzaddik went out to greet him wearing the garments of the Kohain Gadol. When the Emperor saw him he got off his chariot and bowed to the ground before him, saying, “The image of this man appeared before me whenever I went to battle victoriously, and if not, I was not victorious.” In this way a threatening danger passed from the Jewish people.
The Sages relate the story of the circumstances of his death: In the year he passed away Shimon Hatzaddik said, “This year I shall die.” They asked, “How do you know?” He answered: “Every Yom Kippur an old man appears dressed in white who accompanies me into the Holy of Holies and departs with me, this year an old man dressed in black appeared who entered with me but didn’t leave with me.” Seven days later he passed away.
Our Sages relate of seven open miracles that appeared in the Beit HaMikdash during his reign as Kohain Gadol.
He used to say (Pirkei Avot / Ethics of Our Fathers, Chapter 1): “The world was created for three things: Torah, Divine Service, and Acts of Kindness.”
HaRav Don Yitzhak Abrabanel (1437-1508), a leader during the Golden Age of Spanish Jewry.
After having served as treasurer to the king of Portugal, Abrabanel became a minister in the court of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. In 1492, Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews who refused to convert to Christianity. In the Inquisition, an estimated 32,000 Jews were burned at the stake and another 200,000 were expelled from Spain. Abrabanel reportedly offered Queen Isabella the astronomical sum of 600,000 crowns to revoke the edict. Abrabanel was unable to prevent the expulsion and was exiled along with his people. Most of his rabbinic writings were composed in his later years when he was free of governmental responsibilities.
Harav Meir Derbarmdiger of Berditchev, zt”l, (5566 / 1805), son of the Kedushat Levi.
Harav Avraham David, zt”l, (5601 / 1840), Rav of Butchach and author of Daat Kedoshim.
HaRav Menachem Mendel Hager of Vizhnitz, zt"l, (1830 - 5645 / 1884), author of Tzemach Tzaddik. Named for His grandfather, Rav Menachem Mendel Hager of Kossov (1768-1825), founder of the Vizhnitz dynasty. Born to Rav Chaim of Kossov, who betrothed him to Miriam, daughter of Rav Yisrael of Rizhin, when his son was only 6 years old. The wedding took place in 1844. In 1854, he moved to Vizhnitz, a small town at the foot of the Carpathian mountains, 30 miles from the Romanian border. Shortly thereafter his father was niftar. He assumed the mantle of Vizhnitz when he was only 24. He was succeeded by his son Rav Baruch (1845-1893).
Harav Avraham Chaim Horowitz, zt”l, (5610 / 1850 - 5679 / 1918), the Plantcher Rav. His father was Harav Moshe of Rozvadov, the son of Harav Eliezer of Dzhikov, son of Harav Naftali Tzvi of Ropshitz. His mother was the daughter of Harav Yekusiel Yehudah Teitelbaum, the Yetev Lev of Sighet. Reb Avraham Chaim learned with his brother-in-law, Harav Shalom David Ungar. He was once tested by the Divrei Chaim of Sanz, who advised him to learn a lot of Shach as “it sharpens the mind.”
He married the daughter of Harav Betzalel Weinberger of Gorlitz. He became Rav in Plantch; following his father’s petira, he was named Rebbe there. Many thousands flocked to his court.
When Congress Poland expelled all foreigners, Reb Avraham Chaim had to move away, and he resettled in Radomishla. In 5671 / 1911, he moved to Reisha. During World War I he fled to Budapest, returning after the war to Reisha.
Reb Avraham Chaim was renowned for his hasmada. He davened with a bren, which gave everyone around him a spiritual lift. He had a sweet voice, and at his tischen he would sing niggunim that he composed.
His sons were Harav Shlomo, Rav in Pakshivnitz (he was niftar young); Harav Elazar, Hy”d, of Grodzhisk, martyred in 5703 / 1943; and Harav Dovid, Hy”d, Ravin Pshetzlav and later Rav in Reisha, martyred in 5702 / 1942. His sons-in-law were Harav Elimelech Rubin, Hy”d, Rav in Zaslow; Harav Yoel Teitelbaum, the Divrei Yoel, zt”l, and Harav Efraim Horowitz, zt”l, the son of Harav Hershel of Rozvadov.
Harav Shmuel Tzvi Danziger, zt”l, (5684 / 1923), the Tiferet Shmuelof Alexander.
HaRav Akiva Glasner, zt”l, (1956). A descendant of the Chasam Sofer and of Rav Akiva Eiger, Rav Glasner succeeded his father, Rav Moshe Shmuel Glasner, as Chief Rabbi of Klausenberg, Rumania, in 1922, and served there until the deportation of the Jews in 1944. He was deported to Bergen-Belsen, but was saved from there on the famous "Kasztner train." (Rudolf Kasztner was a non-religious Hungarian Zionist who struck a deal with Adolf Eichman to save some 1,700 Jews in exchange for trucks. Years later, an Orthodox Israeli journalist accused Kasztner of acting improperly, and Kasztner sued for libel. After a celebrated trial, Kasztner lost. He was exonerated on appeal, but only posthumously, having been murdered in 1957. Among those saved by Kasztner was Rav Yoel Teitelbaum, the Satmar Rebbe) After the War, Rav Glasner lived in Zurich until his death at age 71. His works include: Dor Dorim and Ikvei Hatzon.
The son of Rav Yechiel Danziger and brother of Rav Yerachmiel Yisrael Yitzchak Danziger (1853-1910). His son, Rav Yitzchak Menachem Mendel Danziger (1880-1943), author of Akeidat Yitzchak) succeeded him as Rebbe.
Harav Yisrael Shapiro, zt”l, (5703 / 1942), the Grodzisker Rebbe.
30 Tishrei 5719 - October 14, 1958:
The cornerstone of the Israel's Knesset building was laid in Yerushalayim / Jerusalem. The Knesset is composed of 120 members, the same size as the Great Assembly ("Knesset HaGedola") that served as the rabbinical body during the Second Temple era. (The Great Assembly redacted the biblical books Ezekiel, Daniel and Esther, and composed many prayers such as the Amidah.) Today, the Israeli Knesset is known as a bastion of democracy in the Middle East, with women, Arabs, and other minorities represented.
30 Tishrei 5734 - October 26, 1973:
Israeli forces under General Ariel Sharon trapped the Egyptian third Army on the eastern side
of the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War.
30 Tishrei Yahrtzeits
HaRav Moshe from Shershov, zt”l, (1826).
HaRav Avraham Dovid Wahrman of Butchatch (1771-1840). Born in Nadvorna, Galicia (today, in the Ukraine). In addition to his father, Avraham Dovid also studied under his uncle Rav Yehoshua Charif. At age ten, Avraham Dovid became engaged to the daughter of Rav Zvi Hirsch Kara of Butchatch, and he moved to that town to study under his future father-in-law. Beginning in 1791, Rav Avraham Dovid served as rabbi of Yazlowitz for 24 years. In 1814, Rav Zvi Hirsch Kara died, and Rav Avraham Dovid was offered the rabbinate of Butchatch in his place. It was there that he spent the remainder of his days. His best known works are Da'at Kedoshim on parts of Shulchan Aruch Yorah Deah, and Eishel Avraham on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim. The latter work is printed in the back of standard editions of the Shulchan Aruch.
HaRav Tzvi Hirsh Chayos, zt"l, the Maharatz Chayos (or Chiyus , Chayes or Hayot) ), Rav of Zolkov (1805 - 5616 / 1855). Born in Brody to Rav Meir Chiyus. He was a descendent of Rav Yitzchak Chiyus, the Zera Yitzchak. The family could trace their lineage back to Dovid Hamelech. He received smicha at the age of 21 from Rav Ephraim Zalman Margulies, Rav of Brody. Two years later, he was appointed Rav of Zolokova. In 1854, he became Rav of Kalisch. He was the author of Sheilot U’teshuvot Maharatz, Atreret Tzvi, and Divrei Horaah and others. His thoughts on Shas are printed in the back of Gemaras used today. Rav Tzvi Hirsch’s son. Rav Yitzchak, was mechaber of the sefer Siach Yitzchak on masechet Makkot.
Harav Yitzchak Meir Hazenpertz, zt”l, (5677 / 1916), author of Ohr Yakar, a commentary on the Ohr Hachaim Hakadosh al HaTorah.
Harav Chaim Hager of Kossov, Hy”d (5703 / 1942), Son of Harav Moshe of Kossov, a descendant of the Torat Chaim of Kossov (founder of the Kossov-Vizhnitz dynasty). His maternal grandfather, Harav Avraham Menachem Steinberg, Rav of Brod, gave him semichah in 5680 / 1920. Reb Chaim married the daughter of Harav Meshulam Feivish Wahrman of Yassi. After the petira of his father on 6 Tammuz 5685 / 1925, Reb Chaim became Rebbe in Kossov. Among his famous chassidim was Harav Dovid Sperber, the Brashover Rav and mechaber of Afarkaste D’Anya.
In 5695 / 1935, Reb Chaim visited Eretz Yisrael. On his return he wanted to move there, but his chassidim begged him to stay on. In World War II, Reb Chaim moved to the ghetto in Kolomai. His Rebbetzin and his daughter (a kallah at the time) were killed there in 5702 / 1942. The chassidim worked on an escape plan for the Rebbe and asked him to return to Kossov for that. Hiding in a bunker, he escaped an aktzia, and decided to return to Kolomai. The Yidden who had paid a fortune to Hungarian guides asked them to wait another few days until they could bring Reb Chaim back. They refused, but said they would return on September 12. Two days earlier, a group of chassidim set off for Kolomai to return the Rebbe to Kossov; however, the Rebbe refused to travel, as it was Shabbat. On Motzoei Shabbat, the Nazis conducted a thorough aktzia in Kolomai and took the Rebbe and his sons to Lelov. The Rebbe couldn’t tolerate the heat and the lack of air and water in the transport and he was niftar on 30 Tishrei, the first day of Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan, 5703 / 1942. All his sons were killed during the War. Hashem yikom damam.
There is no 31 Tishrei
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