This Month in
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Tishrei (Sept. - Oct.)


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1 Tishrei
1 Tishrei - Rosh Hashana

1 Tishrei - Rosh Hashana, 1st Day

On Rosh Hashana, each person's allotment of life and livelihood is subject to renewal. The Talmud says that on Rosh Hashana, Hashem answered the prayers for children of Sarah, Rivka, Rachel, Leah and Chana -- were answered; on this day Sarah became pregnant with Yitzchok (Isaac), Rachel with Yosef (Joseph) and Chana with the prophet Shmuel (Samuel), respectively. (Sarah's story is the Torah reading on the first day of Rosh Hashana, and Chana's story is the Haftorah.)
We recite Tashlich.

The sixth day of Creation:

Hashem created animals that walk and crawl on the earth, and He created Adam Harishon, the first human, and Chava, the first woman. "Hashem formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." (Bereishit /Genesis 2:7) That day they were banished from Gan Eden.

1 Tishrei 1656 - 2105 B.C.E.:

(According to Rab' Eliezer) Noach dispatched a dove.from the Teivah / Ark for the third time. When the dove did not return, Noach knew that the waters had completely drained from the earth. On that day Noach removed the roof of the Teivah; but he, his family remained in the Teivah for another 57 days, until the 27th of Cheshvan.

1 Tishrei - 1958 - 1804 B.C.E.:

Birth (1958 / 1804 B.C.E.): and yahrtzeit (2086 / 1676 B.C.E.:) of Sarah Imeinu, according to some sources. Also Akeidat Yitzchak. See below.

1 Tishrei - 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.:

Sarah Imeinu was blessed by the Malach to have children.

1 Tishrei - 2086 - 1676 B.C.E.:

Yitzchok was bound on the mizbeach during the Akeidah. This prompted the petirah of his mother, Sarah Imeinu.

1 Tishrei 2173 - 1589 B.C.E.:

Yaakov Avinu received the brachot / blessings from Yitzchak Avinu (according to the Zohar, but according to Pirkei D'Rabi Eliezer it occurred on Pesach).

1 Tishrei 2200 - 1562 B.C.E.:

Rachel Imenu's tefillot were answered; she later gave birth to Yosef Hatzaddik.

1 Tishrei 2236 - 1526 B.C.E.:

Yosef Hatzaddik was freed from prison in Mitzrayim / Egypt.

1 Tishrei 2448 - 1314 B.C.E.:

The harsh slavery of the Jews in Mitzrayim / Egypt ended.

1 Tishrei 2832 - 930 B.C.E.:

The tefillah of Chana was answered; she gave birth to Shmuel HaNAvi the following year.

1 Tishrei 3049 - 713 B.C.E.:

Elisha promised his hostess, the Ishah gedolah of Shunam, that she would bear a child.

1 Tishrei - 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:

Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Gedalia was from the royal family of the Kings of Yehuda, his father was a Minister and his grandfather a Scribe for King Yoshiyahu. After his appointment to rule over the poor of the Jewish people, who remained behind in Israel after the forced exile to Babylon, he called for all the Jews who fled to surrounding nations to return to Israel and rebuild. King Belis of Amon wanted to stop the development of the Jewish settlement, and convinced Yishmael ben Nesanya to murder Gedalia and his supporters. See 2 Tishrei.This unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting on the third day of Tishrei..

According to Radak, Gedalia was killed on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination, the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel.

1 Tishrei - c. 360 B.C.E.:

Ezra read the Torah to the people and made a new covenant with them.

1 Tishrei - 352 B.C.E.:

Zerubavel brought the first Korban on the new Mizbeiach

1 Tishrei - 5314 - 1553:

Cardinal Caraffa (later to be Pope Paul IV), with the backing of Pope Julius III, publicly burns the Talmud and other sifrei kodesh in Rome.

1 Tishrei 5405 - October 1, 1645:

Jews of Mogilev, Russia, were attacked during Tashlich.

1 Tishrei 5415 - September 12, 1654:

First shul services in Manhattan.

1 Tishrei 5597 - September 12, 1836:

First shul services in St. Louis.

1 Tishrei 5650 - August 17, 1890:

Birth of HaRav Yisrael Abuchatzeira, the Baba Sali (1890-1984).

1 Tishrei 5684 - September 11, 1923:

Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin instituted the "Daf Yomi," the daily regimen of Talmud study (in which the participant studies one folio a day to complete the entire Talmud in seven years)

. 1 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Birth (1958 / 1804 B.C.E.): and yahrtzeit (2086 / 1676 B.C.E.:) of Sarah Imeinu, according to some sources. One of the four Matriarchs of the Jewish people, She was the wife of the Patriarch Avraham. She would bring women close to serving G-d together with her husband Avraham, who worked with the men. Although G-d promised to give the Land of Israel to their seed, Avraham and Sarah were without children until advanced old age, when she was 90 and Avraham was 100, Yitzchak was born. She was buried in the Cave of Machpela that Avraham bought from the Hitites. She lived from 1958 (1804 B.C.E.) until 2086 (1676 B.C.E.).

HaRav Shefatia, zt"l, (886), author of the selicha, "Yisrael Nosha BaHashem,"

HaRav Amnon of Mainz died Al Kiddush Hashem, while composing the Rosh Hashana prayer, "Unesaneh Tokef", Hy"d. (circa 1011 or 1012 - 4771 / 2 ? ). He sanctified HaShem’s Name during the period of the Crusades in Germany when he refused to convert to Christianity and the Bishop tortured him to death in an unusually cruel way. Before his death on Rosh Hashana he asked to be brought to the Synagogue, where he created the prayer “Unesaneh Tokef” - “Now, let our Kedusha ascend to You, our G-d, Who is King. Let us tell how utterly holy this day is and how awe-inspiring.” He expired upon completing the prayer. Three days later he appeared in a dream to Rav Klonimus and taught him the entire prayer, and asked him to publicize it in the Jewish communities. Today it is a climatic part of the Machzor of both Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur.

HaRav Yehuda Ayash (Ayas), zt”l, (5460 / 1700 (1688?) – 5521 / 1760), the Mateh Yehuda.
He served as the Head of the Beit Din and the Rav of Algiers. He was known as the “Honor of the Generation,” the “Holy Pious One” and the “Rav who resembles an Angel of the Hosts of G-d.”  In 1756 he came to Eretz Yisrael and settled in Yerushalayim. He stood at the helm of the Yeshiva Keneset Yisrael, and wrote Mateh Yehuda, Beit Yehuda, Lechem Yehuda and more.

HaRav Aharon Moshiach Katzenelebogen of Belz, zt”l, (1816).

HaRav Meir Yeudah Leibush ben Yechiel Michel (Malbim), zt"l. (1809 - 5640 / 1879). He was born in Volhynia and was still a child when his father died.  He studied in his native town until the age of 13.  He then went to Warsaw where he was known as the ‘iluy from Volhynia.' 
From 1838 to 1845 he was rav of Wreschen, district of Posen, and in the latter year was called to the rabbinate of Kempen, where he remained until 1860; he was thereafter known as "der Kempener." In 1860 Malbim became chief rabbi of Bucharest, Rumania. But he could not agree with the rich German Jews there who wished to introduce the Reform rite and even threatened violence in the pursuit of their aims. By intrigues they succeeded in throwing him into prison, and though he was liberated through the intervention of Sir Moses Montefiore, it was upon the condition that he leave Rumania. He became Rav of Moghilef, on the Dnieper in 1870, but his lack of subservience provoked the resentment of the richer Jews, who denounced him as a political criminal. The governor of Moghilef ordered him to leave town. Malbim then went to Königsberg as chief rabbi of the Polish community, but there he fared no better than in Bucharest and Moghilef; he was continually harassed by the German Jews. His fame and immense popularity rests upon his widely esteemed commentary to Tanach, in which he details the close relationship between the Oral and the Written Law.

HaRav Eliyahu Hamoui, zt”l, (5671 / 1911). One the the great Kabbalists of Aram Tzova, who served as the Head of the Beit Din, author of Peh Eliyahu.

HaRav Yaakov Dovid ben Ze'ev Wilovsky of Slutzk, Chicago and Tsfat, zt"l. (1845 - 5674 / 1913). The Ridbaz, was one of the great European scholars to come to America. As a consequence of the halachic standards of kashrut that he attempted to impose in Chicago, he eventually had to flee for his life.

HaRav Yitzchak Cohen of Djerba, Tunisia, zt"l, (1918).

HaRav Yitzchak Meir of Kopycznitz, zt"l, (1931 or 1935). Succeeded as Rebbe by his son, Rav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel.

HaRav Ezriel Yehuda Lebowitz, zt"l, Viener Rav (1991).

HaRav Shmuel Halevi Shechter, zt"l, (1915-1999). Born in Montreal, Canada, he was only five years old, when his mother passed away. During his years at Rabbi Isaac Elchonon Theological Seminary, he shared a dormitory room with Rav Avigdor Miller. Later, he traveled to Poland to learn at the Mirrer Yeshiva under Rav Yeruchom. After his marriage, he learned at Kelm. When he returned to America, he learned with Rav Aharon Kotler, first at White Plains, NY, then at Lakewood. Years later, he settled in Eretz Yisrael.

























2 Tishrei
2 Tishrei

Rosh Hashana, 2nd Day

2 Tishrei 1- 3761 B.C.E.:

"Thus the heaven and earth were finished, and all their array" (Bereishit / Genesis 2:1); Shabbat Breishit, the first Shabbat of creation.

2 Tishrei - 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:

Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Gedalia was from the royal family of the Kings of Yehuda, his father was a Minister and his grandfather a Scribe for King Yoshiyahu. After his appointment to rule over the poor of the Jewish people, who remained behind in Israel after the forced exile to Babylon, he called for all the Jews who fled to surrounding nations to return to Israel and rebuild. King Belis of Amon wanted to stop the development of the Jewish settlement, and convinced Yishmael ben Nesanya to murder Gedalia and his supporters. See 1 Tishrei.This unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting on the third day of Tishrei..

Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShanah, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. According to Radak, Gedalia was killed today, on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination, the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel.

2 Tishrei 5420 -September 19, 1659:

The kedoshim, HaRav Tuvya and HaRav Yisroel, were murdered in a blood libel in Razino, Hy"d.

2 Tishrei 5701 - October 4, 1940:

The Vichy government in France introduced "Statut des Juifs" (Statute on Jews), divesting Jewish refugees of their civil rights. Without any request by the Germans, the Vichy government of France began passing anti-Jewish measures, particularly on refugee Jews, prohibiting them from moving, and limiting their access to public places and most professional activities.. About 350,000 Jews lived in France at the time, more than half of whom were not French citizens. Under the terms of the armistice between France and Germany, northern France remained under German occupation. Southern France, which was not occupied by the Germans, was governed by an exclusively French administration based in the town of Vichy. The Vichy regime publicly declared neutrality in the war, but actually was active in passing antisemitic legislation and cooperated with Germany in the deportation of Jews from France.

2 Tishrei 5702 - September 23, 1941:

Experimental executions by gassing began at the Auschwitz death camp in southern Poland. The entrance to Auschwitz was cynically marked with a sign, "Work makes you free." Arriving prisoners would be subject to a "selection," often administered by Josef Mengele, where a wave of the hand decided who would be used for medical experiments, who sent to forced labor, and who murdered that day. The latter group was sent to a gas chamber pumped with Zyklon B; the bodies were then burned in the Auschwitz crematoria. Jewish leaders begged Roosevelt and Churchill to bomb the railway lines leading to Auschwitz, but the Allies never gave the plan priority. In its four years of operation, the Nazis murdered more than one million Jews at Auschwitz, Hy"d.

2 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. This unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting. (419 BCE or 422 BCE).

Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShanah, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. According to Radak, Gedalia was killed today, on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination, the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel

HaRav Yisrael Perlow, zt”l, the Yanuka of Stolin (1868-1921). The Karlin dynasty had its beginnings with Rav Aharon HaGodol of Karlin (1736-1772), a talmid of the Maggid of Mezritch. At that time, Karlin was located in Lithuania, so Karliners are known as “Lithuanian chassidim.” It was Rav Aharon’s son and successor, Rav Asher the First, who moved the court to Stolin. Rav Aharon’s great-grandson, Rav Asher the Second, was childless for many years. In 1869, his wife, Rebbetzen Devorah, was blessed with a boy, whom they named Yisrael. Reb Yisrael was only 4 years old when his father was niftar in the town of Drohobich (Galicia). The Karlin chasidim resolved to meet this lack of leadership by standing firm in their loyalty to the Karlin dynasty, and therefore proclaimed the Yenuka [Child] Yisrael to be their Rebbe. The influence of the Haskalah movement, which had first begun to be felt in Rav Aharon the Second’s days grew stronger in Rav Yisrael’s time. Rav Yisrael died far away from his native town, in a convalescent home in Homburg, Germany. He was buried in Frankfurt-on-Main. After his petira, his followers were now in a quandary as Rav Yisrael had left no instructions regarding which of his six sons to appoint in his place. Thus, the leadership split into three. His son, Rav Moshe, led the court in Stolin, where he opened the yeshiva, Beit Yisrael, in his father’s memory in 1922. Another son, Rav Avraham Elimelech, became rebbe in Karlin, while Rav Yochanan, his youngest son, became rebbe in Lutzk. The Nazis destroyed the Stolin community in Elul 1942, and four of Rav Yisrael’s sons perished in the Holocaust, Hy”d. However, thanks to his surviving sons, Karlin-Stolin communities now thrive in Eretz Yisrael and America. These sons were Rav Yaakov, who had moved to America in 1923, and lived in Williamsburg before moving to Detroit where he passed away in 1946. The second surviving son was Rav
Yochanan, Rav Yisrael’s youngest son, who became the Karlin-Stolin Rebbe in America in 1948, and passed away in 1956. He was succeeded by his daughter’s son, Rav Baruch Yaakov Meir Shochet, who was a baby at the time of his passing. History repeated itself when this youngster was coronated as the next Karlin-Stolin Rebbe when he was only eight years old.

HaRav Salman Eliyahu, zt’l, (5632 / 1872?1878 -  5701 / 1940), the Kerem Shlomo. Born in Bagdad, he was a student of the Ben Ish Chai, (1835-1909), and married Mazal, a granddaughter of the sister of the Ben Ish Chai. Rav Salman moved to the United Kingdom from Iraq and studied theology & philosophy. Due to the Western education he received in England, Rav Salman served as the personal secretary to Lord Herbert L. Samuel, the High Commissioner of the British Mandate for Palestine. Upon the advice of his mentor the Ben Ish Chai, Rabbi Salman moved back to Yerushalayim. One of his works is the Kerem Shlomo, an explanation of the Sefer of the great Kabbalist, the Rashash, entitled the Rechovot HaNahar. His son is Harav Mordechai Tzemach Eliyahu Shlit”a, a great rabbi and Posek who served as the Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Eretz Yisrael from 1983 to 1993.

HaRav Shemaryahu [or Shmuel] Greineman, zt"l, (5741 / 1980), who printed the sefer "Chazon Ish."

HaRav Ephraim Oshry, zt"l, (1908 - 5764 / 2003). Born in Kopishak, Lithuania, he learned in Ponevezh, Talmud Torah Kelm and Slabodka. He was also a talmid of the Chofetz Chaim in Radin. While he was still quite young, he was appointed Rav of the Abba Yechezkel Kloiz in Slabodka. During World War II, he lived in the Kovno ghetto from June, 1941 until August 1, 1944. It was there that he recorded the gripping shaylot he received, publishing them later in five volumes of She'eilot Uteshuvot Mima'amakim. After the liberation, he was the only surviving Rav of Kovno. He worked diligently to restore Yiddishkeit and was especially active in rescuing children left with non-Jews. He then fled to Austria, where he founded a yeshiva in Welsh, a small town near Salzburg. He was then called upon to take over the leadership of the Meor Hagoloh yeshiva in Rome. He later went to America, where he served as Rav of the Beit Hamedrash Hagodol on the Lower East Side of New York City. He published Divrei Ephraim in 1949. He also published chiddushei Torah on many areas, including Imrei Ephraim on Nezikin and other subjects. He also wrote Yahadut Lita which appeared in Yiddish, about his recollections of pre-War Europe.























3 Tishrei
3 Tishrei
Tzom Gedalia
Fast of Gedalia.

3 Tishrei - 3340 - 422 B.C.E.:

Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed by Nevuchadnetzar to rule the remaining Jews after Churban Bayis Rishon ( the destruction of the first Beit Hamikdash), was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Gedalia was from the royal family of the Kings of Yehuda, his father was a Minister and his grandfather a Scribe for King Yoshiyahu. After his appointment to rule over the poor of the Jewish people, who remained behind in Israel after the forced exile to Babylon, he called for all the Jews who fled to surrounding nations to return to Israel and rebuild. King Belis of Amon wanted to stop the development of the Jewish settlement, and convinced Yishmael ben Nesanya to murder Gedalia and his supporters. This unfortunate event brought great hardship and grief to the Jewish people and is commemorated by a public day of fasting on the third day of Tishrei. The Sages established the Fast of Gedalia on the 3rd of Tishrei to remember this tragic event and to teach us that the death of a Tzaddik (holy man) is equivalent to the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash (the Holy Temple).

Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShana, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. According to Radak, Gedalia was killed on the second day of Rosh Hashana.
Upon his assassination, the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from Eretz Yisroel.

After the Chashmonaim instituted writing Hashem's name on shtarot (contracts) in reaction to the Greek prohibition to mention Hashem's name, the Chachomim (Sages) cancelled their decision on this day to prevent Hashem's name from being desecrated. This day was like a Yom Tov (Rosh Hashana 18b, also cited in Megillat Taanit)..

3 Tishrei 5586 - September 15, 1825:

An American diplomat named Mordechai Manuel Noah laid the foundation stone for Ararat, the first modern-day attempt to establish a national Jewish homeland. To implement his plan, Noah petitioned the New York State legislature for rights to Grand Island, a 27-square-mile parcel of land located between Buffalo, New York and Niagara Falls. Noah also levied a "redemption tax" upon each Jew in the world. Despite a grand opening ceremony, the plan fizzled when no Jews moved to Ararat / Grand Island.

3 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Yitzchak Aryeh (Zekel Leib) Wormeiser (Wormer), zt"l, (5527 / 1767 or 1768 - 5608 / 1847), also known as the Baal Shem of Michaelstadt (1768-1847). Harav Yitzchak Aryeh, known as Reb Zekel Leib, was born in Michaelstadt, Germany. His father was Harav Matisyahu. The family traced their lineage from Harav Eliyahu Baal Shem, stretching all the way back to Dovid Hamelech.
From his earliest youth, Reb Yitzchak Aryeh reached exalted madreigot through self-deprivation.
At the age of 15, he went to learn under the auspices of Harav Nosson Hakohen Adler, one of the greatest Rabbanim in his time.
At the age of 17, he left home to learn at the yeshiva gedolah of Frankfurt, headed by Rav Pinchas Horowitz, the Baal HaFla'ah.
By the time he was 18, Reb Yitzchak Aryeh was fluent in chochmat haKabbalah. He also became close to Rav Nosson Adler, the Chasam Sofer's rebbi. He continued learning under Rav Nosson Adler until 5549 / 1789, when he married, returned to his hometown and founded a yeshivah.
Hundreds of talmidim thronged to his yeshivah. Reb Yitzchak Aryeh took care of all their needs with care and warmth.
Due to persecution by kehillah members who opposed his ways, as well as his frequent forays into chochmat hanistar, he was not accepted as Rav in Michelstadt. In fact, once they even had him thrown into jail. As these events detracted from his ability to continue his rigorous avodat Hashem, he moved to Mannheim, where he remained for a short while.
In 5582 / 1822, Reb Yitzchak Aryeh moved back to Michelstadt, where he was finally accepted as Rav of the city and its surrounding environs.
He was known as a baal mofet, performing many wondrous miracles in order to help Yidden. People flocked to him from all over the continent. Gedolim such as the Chiddushei Harim and the Chasam Sofer told their petitioners to seek his brachah.
Reb Yitzchak Aryeh suffered much during his lifetime. He lost his Rebbetzin at a young age and a number of his children died in his lifetime. As mentioned above, he suffered persecution and his home burned down with his entire collection of precious sefarim and unpublished manuscripts.
What remained of his writings was gathered and published by Machon Yerushalayim in The Baal Shem of Michelstadt.
Reb Yitzchak Aryeh was niftar on the night of Motzoei Tzom Gedaliah, and is buried in the beitt hachaim in Worms. (Some have the Yahrtzeit as 4 Tishrei).

HaRav Yisrael Lipshitz, zt"l, (5542 / 1782 - 5621 / 1860), Rav of Danzig (Gdansk), and author of Tiferet Yisrael on Mishnayot.
Born in 5542/1782, Rav Yisrael Lipshitz was the son of Harav Gedaliah, Rav in Hazdeitsch and author of Regel Yesharah and Chomrei Masnisa, and the grandson of Harav Yisrael, the Rav of Kliva who arranged the famous Kliva get.
Born in 5542/1782, Reb Yisrael was a talmid of Harav Akiva Eiger.
For over 50 years he was one of the leading Rabbanim of his generation, serving in Dessau, Schutland, Langefurt and, in his later years, Danzig.
Reb Yisrael was renowned for his mesirut nefesh for Torah; his son Rav Baruch Yitzchak attests in the introduction to Tiferet Yisrael that, at times, Reb Yisrael would fast for three days straight, day and night, learning without interruption.
Reb Yisrael was legendary for his tzedakah and chessed; even though he was the honored Rav, he went from door to door to raise funds.
Reb Yisrael wrote his own sefer Torah. On the day he finished writing it, he also made a siyum on Shas, thus completing Torah Sheb’al Peh and Torah Shebichtav simultaneously.
Reb Yisrael is best known for Tiferet Yisrael, a popular and important commentary on Mishnayot. His commentary achieved wide distribution and is printed in all the editions of Mishnayot today. It includes many original chidushim - novel explanations.
In the second edition put out by his son in 1862, it was divided into two sections: The two parts of his commentary are called Yachin U’Boaz. TheYachin is a general commentary, while the Boaz is analytical. They commentaries were named after the two large pillars in the Beit Hamikdash, as if to say that they are the “pillars” of Mishnayot. Tiferet Yisrael is considered one of the best and most useful commentaries on the Mishnayot.
He also authored Shevilei D'rakiya, an introduction to the principles of Rabbinical astronomy and determining the Molad; it appears in the beginning of Seder Mo'ed in the  Tiferet Yisrael  sets of Mishnayot. Additionally, he wroted Derush Ohr HaChaim (Homily on the Light of Life) which debates the eternality of the soul. He also wrote other sefarim; most remained in manuscript form.
On Tzom Gedaliah 5621/1860, Reb Yisrael went to daven in shul as always. After SelichottShacharit and his regular shiurim, Reb Yisrael suddenly fainted and passed away, still adorned in tallit and tefillin.
Many thousands attended his levayah. Reb Yisrael was buried in Danzig.

HaRav Yitzchak Dovid Biderman of Lelov, zt”l (5647 / 1886).
HaRav Uri Landman of Podli, zt”l (5677 / 1916).

HaRav Shimon Nosson Nota Biderman, zt”l, the Lelover Rebbe (5690 / 1929).

HaRav Naftali Trop, zt"l, Rosh Yeshiva Radin (5631 / 1871 - 5691 / 1930). (Others 5690 / 1929), Born on 13 Nisan 5631/1871, in Grodno, he studied with his father, Rav Moshe Trop, who was Rosh Yeshiva of a local yeshiva. At the age of 14, he left for Kelm, where he remained for two years, then Solodka, then Telz, where he became close to Rav Eliezer Gordon. In 1889, he returned to Slobodka, when Rav Yaakov Yitzchak (Itzel) Rabinowitz was appointed Rosh Yeshiva. There, he formed a close bond with Rav Itze’le, who guided him and formed his unique derech halimud.
At 20, Rav Naftali was considered one of the most outstanding young scholars in Slabodka, and the Alter of Slabodka, Harav Nosson Tzvi Finkel, chose him as his daughter’s chassan. Tragically, his kallah passed away during the engagement period. He married the daughter of Harav Eliezer Yaakov Chavas, an esteemed and well-known tzaddik.
After his chasunah he learned in Kelm for a number of years but in 5660/1900 Harav Tzvi Hersh Levitan, who founded Yeshivat Ohr Hachaim in Slabodka, asked him to serve as Rosh Yeshivah in his new makom Torah, even though he was barely 30 at the time.
Four years later, when the Chofetz Chaim was looking for a Rosh Yeshivah in Radin, he chose Rav Naftali to fill the post. Until then, the position was filled by Harav Moshe Landynski, a great Gaon in his own right. However, as the yeshivah was constantly expanding, a new Rosh Yeshivah was sought to maintain a more orderly learning schedule, a common practice in the yeshivah world.
He had various shiurim with many of the bachurim, so that he was constantly busy learning privately with talmidim, infusing them with Torah.
Rav Naftali was close to the Chofetz Chaim, and acted with complete bittul towards him, attending his weekly shmuessen and shiurim. Likewise, the Chofetz Chaim was fond of his Rosh Yeshivah, and would often consult with him.
Rav Naftali fell ill at the age of 59. The talmidim, together with the Chofetz Chaim, fervently invoked Heavenly mercy, but to no avail. During the entire Selichot period, the Chofetz Chaim was constantly at Rav Naftali’s bedside, hoping and davening that he would recover. But Rav Naftali was niftar on Motzoei Rosh Hashanah.
Rav Naftali’s well-known and cherished seferChiddushei Hagranat, is a classic in the yeshivah world.

HaRav Dovid Rapaport, zt"l, (1890 - 5702 / 1941). Born in Minsk, his mother was a descendant of the Gaon of Vilna while his father, Rav Akiva, was the grandson of Rav Akiva Eiger. When he was still a young man, he enrolled in Ponovezh, having already written his sefer, Tzemach Dovid, on the chiddushim and halachic responsa of his grandfather. From Ponovezh, Rav Dovid went on to study in Kollel Beit Yisrael of Slabodka. After his marriage, he and his wife were supported by his father-in-law, during which period Rav Dovid was able to compile his second major work, Mikdash Dovid, which focuses on the tractates of Kodshim, Taharot, Bechorot and Sanhedrin. Then, during World War One, Rav Dovid had to flee and found refuge in Vilna. Later on, Rav Elchanan Wasserman invited Rav Dovid to deliver shiurim in Yeshivat Ohel Torah in Baranovich.This yeshiva was founded in 1907 at the initiative of Rav Yosef Yozel Horowitz, the Alter of Novhardok. During the outbreak of World War Two, Rav Dovid remained in Ohel Torah, joining the yeshiva on its treks to Vilna and, from there, to Turkey and Smilishuk. On the 19th of Sivan, 1941, an NKVD agent burst into the yeshiva and arrested him. After his trial, Rav Dovid was sent to a forced labor camp in a distant village, near Finland.

HaRav Aharon Yechiel (Reb Ahrele) Hopstein of Kuzhnitz, zt”l, (1889 - 5703 / 1942). Reb Ahrele was a direct descendent of the Maggid Kozhnitz, who - along with the Chozeh of Lublin, Rav Mendel of Riminov, and the Oheiv Israel of Opt - were the greatest talmidim of Rav Elimelech of Lizhensk and who were primarily responsible for the spready of Chassidut throughout Europe. Rav Aharon Yechiel’s father, Rav Yerachmiel Moshe, was the sixth Kuzhnitzer Rebbe, was niftar in 1909. Another son of Rav Yerachmiel Moshe, Rav Yisrael Elazar, moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1923 and helped found Kfar Chassidim and Kfar Ata.

HaRav Chizkiyahu Yosef Mishkovsky, zt”l, (1884-1947), (Others 5707 / 1946), Av Beit Din of Krinki (Krinik, Krienek), Poland, he was a son in law of Rav Isaac Blazer (Reb Izella Peterburger). (1884-1947?1946) and a brother in law of Rav Moshe Shatzkes (1881 – 1958). Yeshivat Knesset Chizkiyahu, one of the first Lithuanian yeshivas founded after the establishment of the State of Israel, was named after him.

HaRav Yeruchim (ben Avraham Moshe) Gorelick, zt"l, (1911-1983). Born in Slutzk, he learned in the Lomza Yeshiva, the Chofetz Chaim's yeshiva in Radin under Rav Naftali Trop, and in Brisk under Rabbi Yitzchak Zev Soloveitchik. In 1940-1941, Rav Gorelick escaped from Europe to Japan, and then to America. He first served as rebbe at Mesivta Tifereth Jerusalem and involved himself in relief efforts. In 1943, he was appointed a Rosh Yeshiva at Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary where he taught Torah to thousands of students until his death. He served as rabbi in the Bronx, establishing Beit Yaakov Beit Miriam in the Bronx; Yeshiva Gedolah L’Mitzuyanim of South Fallsburg, New York; and Yeshiva Gedolah Zichron Moshe of Bronx, which later moved to its permanent home in South Fallsburg.


























4 Tishrei
4 Tishrei

4 Tishrei 5444 - September 24, 1683:

King Louis XIV expelled the Jews from all French territories in America.

4 Tishrei 5700 - September 17, 1939:

Soviet forces invade Poland, more than two weeks after Nazi Germany launches its assault there.

4 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Yoel Baal Shem Heilprin, zt”l, (5474 / 1713), of Lvitsk, Pinsk, Ostrog and Lvov who was a member of the Council of Four Lands.

HaRav Tzvi Hirsch Ashkenazi-Halberstadt, zt"l, (5508 / 1747), (the Maharshashach), the Kos Hayeshuot, great-grandfather of the Chasam Sofer.

HaRav Avraham Danzig, zt"l, (5508 / 1748 - 5581 / 1820), author of Chayei Adam, a halachic work on Jewish law dealing with daily conduct, prayer, Shabbat and holidays. Born in Danzig (Gdansk), his father was Harav Yechiel Michel. he learned at the yeshiva in Prague under Rav Yechezkel Landau, the Noda BiYehudah; and under Harav Yosef Lieberman, Rosh Yeshivah in Prague.
At age 18, he received semichah from Harav Lieberman.
After Rav Avraham married, he lived in Vilna for most of his life. He did not want to support himself by rabbanut, so he tried his hand at business — but used most of the day for learning and davening.
After his business failed, he was forced to take upon himself the rabbanut of Vilna.
In his introduction to Chachmat Adam, Rav Avraham, in his great humility, excuses himself for having to be supported by the community, adding that he relied on the fact that the Torah lets an elderly talmid chacham be supported by the public.
He also served as a dayan ( judge). He was related by marriage to the Vilna Gaon. Chayei Adam, his major halachic work, was first published in Vilna anonymously. His most famous sefarimChayei Adam (a “kitzur” on Orach Chaim) and Chachmat Adam (a “kitzur” onYoreh Deah), became very popular.
In 5564/1804, Rav Avraham was miraculously saved from death when an explosion in his courtyard killed 31 others. He then promised to go live in Yerushalayim after all his children were married.
He authored other acclaimed works including Chochmat Adam, Nishmat Adam, and Binat Adam. Other works he authored include Zichru Torat Moshe - an introduction to the laws of Shabbat, Kitzur Sefer Chareidim - an abridgement of the classic Sefer Chareidim by Rav Elazar Ezkari, and Toldot Adam - a commentary on the Passover Hagadah.
The Chayei Adam wrote a seferMatzeivat Moshe, on hilchot aveilut in memory of his son, Moshe, who was niftar at a young age. At his levayah, a text was given out in which he asked mechilah from all in case he had mistakenly wronged them.
The Tefillah Zakah that many are accustomed to say before Kol Nidrei was written by the Chayei Adam.

HaRav Nechemiah of Bochov, zt”l, (5620 / 1859).

HaRav Yehuda Shlomo? Chai Alqalai (or Alkalai), zt”l, (5558 / 1798 - 5639 / 1878). Born in Sarajevo, Bosnia, he came to Israel with his parents at the age of 11.  At a very young age he was ordained as a rabbi by Rabbi Eliezer Pappo, the Pele Yo'etz.  One of the leaders of the Balkans and Israel, he was among the first to establish the new settlement in Israel. After serving as a Cantor and teacher he was appointed to be Chacham (Rabbi) of the Sephardic community in Zimlin, (or Zemun) (present day Serbia, close to Belgrade). He fought for the establishment of the settlement in Israel by purchasing land in Israel. The Blood Libel in Damascus in 1840 made a strong impression on him and he publicized the need to leave the Diaspora and come to Israel. He published a work entitled Minchat Yehuda in which he explained his ideas and called upon the wealthy world leaders such as Montefiore and Rothschild to use their influence and economic power to advance the settlement of Israel. In 1874 he arrived in Israel and he settled in Jaffo. His works include: Goral L’Hashem, Darchei Noam, and Minchat Tzion.

HaRav Yitzchak (ben Shmuel) Maltzen, zt”l, (5674 / 1913), talmid of Rav Yisrael Salanter, author of Shvisat Hashabbat. (Others 1915).

HaRav Baruch Raphael Soloveichik (year?)


































5 Tishrei
5 Tishrei

5 Tishrei 2196 - 1566 B.C.E.:

Birth of Naftali ben Yaakov (born to Bilha).
It is also the day of his yahrtzeit in 2327 - 1435 B.C.E.:

5 Tishrei 3884 - 123 B.C.E.:

The Tanna Rab' Akiva was arrested by the Romans. He was subsequently tortured and killed al kiddush Hashem on Yom Kippur in Caesarea, Israel. Rab' Akiva had been a 40-year-old shepherd who could not even read the Alef-Bet. One day, he came across a stone that had been holed out by a constant drip of water. He concluded: If something as soft as water can carve a hole in solid rock, how much more so can Torah -- which is fire -- make an indelible impression on my heart. Rab' Akiva committed himself to Torah study, and went on to become the greatest sage of his generation, with 24,000 students learning under him at one time.
He received most of his teaching from Rab' Eliezer HaGadol. Rab' Akiva was one of four Tannaim who entered the Pardes. The others were Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, and Acher [Elisha ben Avuya]. According to some, Rab' Akiva was the editor of the Sefer Yetzira.
The Roman authorities eventually arrested him for "illegally" teaching Torah. As he was being tortured, Rab' Akiva rejoiced in fulfilling the biblical command to "love Hashem with all your life." As he died, Rab' Akiva uttered the words of Shema Yisrael. His self-sacrifice for Torah continues to inspire Jews till today.
The story of his killing, along with the other nine Harugei Malchut, is related in the stirring piyut, Eleh Ezkerah, recited during the Yom Kippur davening.
A tannit tzaddikim was established to commemorate this event, as well as the killing of twenty Jews during that time. ( Shulchan Aruch 180:2)

5 Tishrei 5702 - September 26, 1941:

Thee thousand Jews from Orsha, Byelorussia were shot at the local Jewish Cemetery, Hy"d.

5 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Naftali, zt"l, ben Yaakov Avinu, (2327 / 1435 B.C.E.: See above.

HaRav Naftali HaKohen Katz of Lublin, zt"l. (5406 / 1645).
He was born in Prague, the son of Harav Yitzchak Hakohen, Grandfather and namesake of the Semichat Chachamim, he was also the son-in-law of the Maharal of Prague, as well as a descendant of the Maharam Padwa through his father.
His grandson and namesake, the Semichat Chachamim, records that Reb Naftali was one of the most respected Rabbanim of his time, who exchanged halachic correspondence with the Taz and other Gedolim.
Rav Naftali was a maggid in Prague, a dayan in Prositz, Nicholsburg, and Pinsk, and finally a Dayan and Rav in Lublin.
At the same time, the famous Rav Heschel of Cracow headed the yeshivah in Lublin.
His sons were Harav Yitzchak, maggid in Prague and Lublin, and Harav Chaim, who succeeded to his position. Reb Naftali was niftar on 5 Tishrei 5406 / 1645, and is buried in Lublin.

HaRav Eliezer Brish, zt”l, (5592 / 1831), Rav of Kutna.
Harav Eliezer Brish was born c. 5534 / 1774 in Lisa. His father was Harav Moshe Yaakov.
The city of Lisa was known in those years as a fortress of Torah. It was renowned for its famed geonim, who became Rabbanim and Dayanim in many kehillot.
The Rav and Rosh Yeshivah at that time was Harav Teveli, who taught thousands of bachurim in his yeshivah. Among them was Reb Eliezer.
In 5552 / 1792, Reb Eliezer married the daughter of Rav Yehudah from Lisa. After his marriage, Reb Eliezer founded his own yeshivah, and in a short time he was asked to become the maggid and darshan of the kehillah.
Many kehillot asked him to serve as their Rav. Reb Eliezer, in his humility and his love for his home town, ignored these tempting offers.
Years later, in 5579 / 1819, when the kehillah of Kutna was seeking a new Rav, they agreed to support him and his family and to fully support a yeshivah as well. It was difficult for Reb Eliezer to leave his home town for good; it was also difficult for the members of the kehillah, who felt very close to him. But he made the decision to move on.
In Kutna, Reb Eliezer was a strong leader. He also headed a large yeshivah, where he delivered deep shiurim on many sugyot. His derech halimud was to write down all the difficulties he found with the sugya and then delve into its depths, answering all the questions.
After serving as Rav there for nearly 12 years, Reb Eliezer was niftar in Kutna on 5 Tishrei 5592 / 1831.
Some of his drashot and hespedim were published under the name Pe’ulat Tzaddik.
His son-in-law was Harav Shmuel Brish — a nephew — who was Rav in Iniava.

HaRav Mordechai (ben Baruch Shalom) Schneerson of Vitebsk, zt”l, (5668 / 1907).

HaRav Menachem Pollak, zt”l, (1890 - 5713 / 1952), Rav of Szerencz, Hungary, author of Chelek Levi and Iyun Menachem.
Rabbi Menachem Halevi Pollak was born in Kisvarda/Kleinvardein. He was a talmid of the Arugat Habosem in Chust, and of R’ Shmuel Rosenberg in Hunsdorf. His first wife Helen Kahan died between 1912-1914. In 1914, he married the daughter of R’ Pinchas halevi Billitzer of Szerencs, and then served as Rav there until 1939, when he left Hungary and settled in New York. He was niftar on 5 Tishrei 5713 / 1952. His son-in-law Rabbi Yehuda Leib Lemberger, was son of the Tiszapolgar Rav, R’ Menachem Lemberger, and brother of the Makava Rav R’ Moshe Nathan Lemberger (of Kiryat Ata, Israel).

HaRav Baruch Shalom Ashlag, zt”l, (5667 / 1907 - 5752 / 1991), author of Birchat Shalom, and son of Rav Yehuda Ashlag, the Baal HaSulam.
Harav Baruch Shalom Halevi Ashlag was born in Warsaw on 4 Shevat 5667/1907. He was the oldest son of the famed Harav Yehudah Leib, zt”l, author of the Sulam commentary on the Zohar.
Rav Baruch Shalom began learning Kabbalah together with his father’s select talmidim at the tender age of 9. He also joined his father on his trips to the Porisover Rebbe.
In 5681/1921, Rav Baruch Shalom immigrated with his family to Eretz Yisrael. The family settled in the Old City in Yerushalayim and the boy learned at the Lubavitcher Yeshivat Torat Emet.
Although Rav Baruch Shalom received semichah (before he reached the age of 20), he did not want to use the knowledge of Torah he had acquired to make a living. For most of his life he concealed his greatness, behaving like a simple worker.
When Rav Baruch Shalom grew older he became his father’s prime talmid. He joined his father on his trips, did his father’s errands and provided for his father’s every need.
He often learned with his father in private, writing down in his personal notebook thousands of notes on the Baal HaSulam’s ideas concerning the spiritual work an individual must do.
Rav Baruch Shalom learned Kabbalah with his father for more than 30 years. When his father fell ill, he appointed Rav Baruch Shalom to give shiurim to his talmidim in his place.
After the petirah of Baal HaSulam on Yom Kippur 5715/1954, Reb Baruch Shalom took his place as the leader of the Ashlag Chassidim, and dedicated his life to perpetuating his father’s unique derech, to interpreting and expanding on his father’s writings, and to disseminating Kabbalah.
Rav Baruch Shalom did not want to become known to the public as a Kabbalist; hence, like his father, he declined offers of official positions.
More than a decade after the petirah of his father, though, he began teaching Kabbalah in broader circles.
In 5736/1976 he expanded his home in Bnei Brak, which became a shul.
From 5744/1984 to his last day, he wrote a weekly article and gave it to his talmidim. His talmidim published the essays in a five-volume publication called Shlavei HaSulam.
Rav Baruch Shalom was niftar on 5 Tishrei 5752/1991, and buried in Yerushalayim.






















6 Tishrei
6 Tishrei

Some communities recite the Selicha Shalosh Esrei Middot on the 6th and some on the 7th of Tishrei

6 Tishrei 2449 - 1313 B.C.E.:

Taanit tzaddikim (Orach Chaim 5580:2) commemorating Hashem's decree that the Dor Hamidbar die in the wilderness because of the sin of the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf (Kol-bo and others) (some say the date is 7 Tishrei).

6 Tishrei 5432 - September 10, 1671:

Jewish community of Berlin was organized.

6 Tishrei 5700 - September 19, 1939:

The Wehrmacht murdered 100 Jews in Lukov, Poland, Hy"d.

6 Tishrei 5709 - October 9, 1948:

Egypt launched a massive offensive against the Negev region of Israel. This was part of the War of Independence, an attack by five Arab armies designed to "drive the Jews into the sea." Though the Jews were under-armed, untrained, and few in number, through ingenuity, perseverance and with Hashem's help, they staved off the attacks and secured the borders. Yet the price was high -- Israel lost 6,373 of its people, a full one percent of the Jewish population of Israel at the time.

6 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Shmuel Tzedaka Chutzin, zt”l, (5459 / 1699 – 5533 / 1773). One of the great leaders of Iraq, he was Rav, Posek, and author. In 1743 he became the Rav of Bagdad. One of the decrees he issued among the Jews of Iraq was that a pregnant woman should not fast on Tisha B’Av because of the Middle-Eastern heat. One of his sons, Rav Moshe Tzedaka wrote the poem Melech Goel U’Moshiah included in prayer books today. His works include Shut Tzedaka U’Mishpat and Orech Tzedaka.

HaRav Binyamin Zev (ben Akiva) Eiger, zt”l, (5566 / 1805), Rav of Leipnik.
(Others 1795).

HaRav Aryeh Leib, zt”l, (5481 / 1721 – 5572 / 1811) [others 5485 / 1725 - 5575 / 1815], “the Shpoler Zeide.”
Rav Aryeh Leib was born to Reb Baruch, who was considered a rather simple baal habayit rather than a talmid chacham; he was a great yirei Shamayim, and together with his righteous wife lived a life dedicated to serving Hashem. They were particularly devoted to the mitzvah of hachnasat orchim. Their home, which was located near the city of Uman, was always open to guests.
In the winter of 5485/1725, a simple young man and his wife arrived at their doorstep. As they made their living digging for clay, selling it in neighboring villages, their horse once became too weak to pull the heavy load; and they found their livelihood endangered. They were advised to travel to Reb Baruch, which they did.
After plying them with food and drink, Reb Baruch instructed his servants to replace the travelers’ horse with one from his stable. They also requested to remain with their host for Shabbat.
On Motzoei Shabbat shortly after midnight, Rav Baruch noticed a very strong light outside his bedroom window. Fearing a fire, he set out to investigate. He discovered that the light was coming from the room of the young guest. Reb Baruch approached the door of the room and heard soft sounds of bitter weeping. Peeking through the keyhole, he saw his guest sitting on the floor reciting Tikun Chatzot, with a heavenly light shining from his face. Overcome by what his eyes beheld, Reb Baruch fainted.
The sound brought the guest out of his room. He quickly revived his host and then blessed him, saying that he would merit to have a son who would grow up to be a great tzaddik.
“Name your son Leib, and I will come to the brit to bless the baby.”
Within a year, Reb Baruch’s wife gave birth to a baby boy. At the brit, Reb Baruch searched the crowd for the poor young man. When he noticed him, he rushed over with open arms. The poor man insisted on remaining inconspicuous.
According to the custom of the time, as the kvatter carried the child out of the room after the brit, the guests would place their hands on the child and bless him. The poor stranger also placed his hands on the child and recited the following:
“I am an ignorant person; however, I recall that my father taught me the verse ‘Avraham zakein.’ ‘Av’ is a father, and ‘zakein’ is a grandfather, thus the translation of that passuk is ‘Avraham zakein — Avraham became our zeide.’ I therefore bless this child that he should become a zeide to Klal Yisrael.”
The name stuck. Even his parents would call him “Zeidele,” and so he became famous as the "Shpoler Zeide." It later became known that the “poor man” was, in fact, the Baal Shem Tov.
In his early years, he was a disciple of Rabbi Pinchas of Koretz. He was the principal student of Rebbe Yaakov Yosef of Polna’ah who authored the “Toldot.” When he was in Ziltopol he became famous for his help to the poor. Thousands came for his blessings as the stories of the miracles he wrought became publicized. He would travel from place to place to bring Jews back in repentance. He was a member of the Rabbinical Body created by Rebbe Levy Yitzchak of Berditchev to deal with anti-Semitic decrees of the Russian government. The stories of the miracles he made are collected in the Sefer Tiferet Maharal. None of his writings remain. He was niftar on 6 Tishrei in Shpole at the age of 87.
He left a last will and testament that upon his grave there should be no gravestone, only an aron (ark) upon which is inscribed the date of his death.

HaRav Avraham Kalfon, zt”l, Rav of Tripoli, Libya ,(5495 / 1735 - 5580 / 1819). Born to Rav Refael, in Tripoli, Libya. (Actually, in those days, Libya did not exist - the region was comprised of three independent regions, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fazzan. By the time of Rav Avraham's birth, Ahmed Karamanli controlled much of modern Libya. Karamanli was a member of the Sultan's household guard, assassinated Tripoli's evil Ottoman governor in 1711, and installed himself as a semi-independent ruler in his stead. As a result, Tripoli became a Corsair (Barbary pirate) base.).
The family was a distinguished one, their lineage stemming from Parnassim and Dayanim. He learned under several sages, most notably the Italian gadol, Rav Malachi ben Yaakov HaKohen, author of Yad Malachi, a sefer that discusses the methodology and rules of the Shas and poskim.
Blessed with wealth from both his parents and his in-laws, Rav Avraham was able to devote himself to Torah his whole life. He was appointed sheikh (president) of Tripoli's kehilla, in 1778. Harav Avraham writes of himself that he was appointed Parnass in Tripoli in 5535 / 1775, holding the post until 5541 / 1781, with another term from 5552 / 1792 until 5558 / 1798. He was fluent in both nigleh and nistar.
Harav Avraham was interested in history and searched through archives for manuscripts, becoming fluent in the Jewish history of ancient Tripoli.
He had a special relationship with the Chida; the two exchanged many letters. In 5564 / 1804, Harav Avraham went to Livorno, living there near the Chida for a year and a half. Harav Avraham was renowned for his acts of tzedaka, especially for needy talmidei chachamim.
His love of Eretz Yisrael impelled him to move there in 5566 / 1806. He settled in Tzefat, where he remained for the rest of his life.
Harav Avraham was niftar on Shabbat Shuvah, 6 Tishrei, 5580 / 1819, at the age of 84.
He wrote numerous sefarim. The best known is Chayei Avraham, on the reasons for the mitzvot. (others 7 Tishrei).

HaRav Mordechai of Tolna, zt”l, (5632 / 1871).

HaRav Noach Shachor, zt”l, of Biale, (5770 / 1909).
Harav Noach Shachor was the son of Harav Yitzchak Eizik of Mir. Reb Yitzchak Eizik was a wealthy Chassid and talmid chacham who traveled to the courts of Kotzk and later Ger. Harav Chaim Berlin, the son of the Netziv of Volozhin, married the daughter of Reb Yitzchak Eizik.
Reb Noach, too, was a Chassid of the Kotzker Rebbe, and often traveled to the court in Kotzk. Later, after the petirah of the Kotzker Rebbe, Reb Noach traveled to the Gerrer Rebbes. He learned at times with the Avnei Nezer.
It is related that a few hours before the petirah of the Chiddushei Harim, his Rebbetzin asked him what shidduch should be made for his grandson, the infant Avraham Mordechai, later the Imrei Emet. The Chiddushei Harim answered that he had set his eye on three of the Chassidim: Reb Lipman, Reb Noach Shachor and Harav Chaim Elazar Wachs, the Nefesh Chayah.
When the time came, the daughter of Reb Noach was suggested to the Sfat Emet for his son, Reb Avraham Mordechai. The wedding was held in 5641 / 1881. It is interesting to note that the words of the Chiddushei Harim were not for naught; all three people that he mentioned later became mechutanim of his children.
Reb Noach lived in Biale, where he headed a yeshivah in his home for over 40 years.
He was fluent in the entire Rashba. Once, during a shiur, one of the talmidim quoted a Rashba that did not entirely agree with the chiddush of Reb Noach. Upon hearing the Rashba, and realizing that he had overlooked and forgotten this Rashba, Reb Noach fainted due to the pain and anguish of forgetting the words of the Rashba.
Reb Noach was renowned for his hasmadah. When a bachur took leave of Reb Noach before one Sukkot, Reb Noach asked him a difficult question and told him to work it out during his vacation. When this bachur heard that a fire broke out in the home of Reb Noach, he traveled back to Biale to see what could be salvaged. He came on Chol Hamoed Sukkot, and saw that the entire house was burned to ashes; only the sukkah was still standing, and Reb Noach was sitting in the sukkah learning.
Seeing the dire situation, the bachur began to cry. When Reb Noach noticed him crying, he comforted the bachur, “Even if you haven’t yet found an answer to my question, that is no reason to cry.” Reb Noach couldn’t even imagine that the bachur was crying over the burnt house.
Reb Noach was niftar on 6 Tishrei 5670/1909.

HaRav Yisrael Tausig, zt”l, (5728 / 1967), Rav of Kiryat Mattersdorf, Yerushalayim.

HaRav Tzvi Hersh Hakohen Kupshitz of Yerushalayim, zt”l, (5736 / 1975).






























7 Tishrei
7 Tishrei

7 Tishrei 2449 - 1313 B.C.E.:

Taanit tzaddikim (Orach Chaim 5580:2) commemorating Hashem's decree that the Dor Hamidbar die in the wilderness because of the sin of the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf (according to some, (Kol-bo and others), the event took place one day earlier, on 6 Tishrei).

7 Tishrei 2312 - 1450 B.C.E.:

Birthday and Yahrtzeit of Zevulun ben Yaakov Avinu.
He was the tenth son of the Patriarch Yaakov, the sixth son of the Matriarch Leah. He was born in Paddan Aram. His mother Leah gave him his name, as the verse states (Bereishit 30:20): “G-d has endowed me (zevadani) with a good endowment; now my husband will make his permanent home with me (yizbeleini) for I have born him six sons. So she called his name Zevulun.”
His tribe was blessed by his father (Bereishit 49:13): “Zevulun shall settle by seashores. He shall be at the ship’s harbor, and his last border will reach Zidon.” His tribe provided support by means of their merchant activity to the tribe of Yissachar, so they could devote themselves full time to Torah study. When the Children of Israel left Egypt they brought the bones of Zevulun with them and buried them in Zidon.

7 Tishrei 2312 - 1450 B.C.E.:

Birthday of Dina bat Yaakov.

7 Tishrei 5563 - September 3, 1802:

HaRav Chaim of Volozhin (a village in Lithuania) issued a proclamation to establish a new yeshiva. The Volozhin Yeshiva eventually became the center of Torah scholarship in Europe, hosting tens of thousands of students who went on to become leaders of the Jewish world. The yeshiva was persecuted ruthlessly by the Czarist government, and in 1892 the government closed the yeshiva. Yet in a deeper sense, Volozhin survived; most of the thousands of yeshivas today follow the Volozhin model. The Jewish people are immeasurably enriched, for as Chaim Nachman Bialik once said, a yeshiva is "the creative factory of the Jewish people."

7 Tishrei 5700 - September 20, 1939:

Germany occupied Lukow, Poland, killing many Jews. Hy”d.

7 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Zevulun ben Yaakov Avinu (2312 - 1450 B.C.E.).See above.

HaRav Dovid Oppenheim, zt"l, (5424 / 1664 - 5497 / 1736), was born in 5424/1664 in Vermeils (Worms) to Rav Avraham Oppenheim, one of the prominent community leaders of Worms.
When he was young, he studied in the city of Metz, under Rav Gershon Ashkenazi (author of Avodat HaGershuni), Rav Yaakov, the father of the Chacham Tzvi, and in the yeshiva of Rav Yitzchak Binyamin Wolf (author of Nachlat Binyamin), His main Rebbi.
(When Rav Gershon published his sefer, Rav Dovid graced it with a hakdamah.)
At the age of 20 Rav Dovid received semichah from his mentors, and he soon became known in all of Germany for his vast Torah knowledge.
In Elul of 5449/1689, at the age of 25, he succeeded Rav Binyamin Banet, as Rav of Nickolsburg, which included responsibility for the entire state of Maherin.
Many halachic questions were directed to Rav Dovid by the leading Gedolim of his generation, among them the Chavot Yair, the Shvut Yaakov, the Knesset Yechezkel and Harav Avraham Broide.
Due to his dedication, the members of his community respected Rav Dovid highly. This esteem is reflected in a number of the amendments made both by the government and the Jewish communities.
Many other cities wanted Rav Dovid to serve as their Rav, and large and prestigious communities sent him invitations to do so. However, Rav Dovid had become deeply attached to the members of Nickolsburg’s community, and he refused to leave them until 5462/1702, when two people approached Rav Dovid with a letter from the community of Prague, offering him the position of Rav. In 1702, he agreed and Rav Dovid was Rav in Prague for 34 years, until his petirah.
Even after assuming the position as Rav of Prague, Rav Dovid remained in close contact with the members of Nickolsburg’s community, and he left his large library there. After a while, a decree was issued to burn all of the sifrei kodesh in Prague. Because Rav Dovid had left his library in Nickolsburg, it was spared from this decree.
In time, Rav Dovid was also appointed Rav of the entire state of Moravia and eventually Bohemia, and served as Rav in Vienna. He founded a large Yeshiva and a supported it with his personal wealth. The Charity Fund of Israel, “Maot Eretz Yisrael” appointed him to be the “Nasi (President) of the Land of Israel.”
On 7 Tishrei, 5497/1736, Rav Dovid was niftar. He was buried in Prague.
His eventual successor as Rav of Prague was the Noda B’Yehuda.
His vast library serves as a tribute to his outstanding personality. The catalogue of the books in his library, published under the title, VaYikain Dovid lists hundreds of books. His library included 20 sefarim that he himself wrote on all aspects of the Torah, including his teshuvotNish’al L’Dovid.

HaRav Yitzchak Michoel Pintzo of Italy, zt”l, (5573 / 1812),  author of Pri Yitzchak.

HaRav Avraham Calfon, zt”l, (1735-1819). Born in Tripoli, Libya. Actually, in those days, Libya did not exist - the region was comprised of three independent regions, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fazzan. He learned under several sages, most notably the Italian gadol, Rav Malachi ben Yaakov HaKohen, author of Yad Malachi, a sefer that discusses the methodology and rules of the Shas and poskim. Blessed with wealth from both his parents and his in-laws, Rav Avraham was able to devote himself to Torah his whole life. He was appointed sheikh (president) of Tripoli’s kehillah, in 1778. By the time of Rav Avraham’s birth, Ahmed Karamanli controlled much of modern Libya. Karamanli was a member of the Sultan’s household guard, assassinated Tripoli’s evil Ottoman governor in 1711, and installed himself as a semi-independent ruler in his stead. As a result, Tripoli became a Corsair (Barbary pirate) base.

HaRav Noach of Lechovitz, zt”l, (5593 / 1832).
Harav Noach of Lechovitz was the son of Harav Mordechai, the founder of the Lechovitzer dynasty. He was born in 5534 / 1774.
He was the talmid of his father and also of Harav Baruch of Mezhibuzh. Following the petirah of his father in 5570 / 1810, the Chassidim appointed Reb Noach as his father’s successor, despite being just 36 years old. Although the Chassidim accepted him, Reb Noach refused to serve, saying that he felt that the elder and leading talmid of his father, Harav Michel of Lechovitz, should be the new Rebbe. Finally, Reb Noach did agree to become Rebbe, and many flocked to his court.
Although Reb Noach didn’t write down his divrei Torah, they were recorded by the Slonimer Rebbe, the Nesivot Shalom, and printed as Torat Avot. In the sefer were also divrei Torah of other Rebbes of the Lechovitz dynasty.
Reb Noach was niftar on 7 Tishrei 5593 / 1832 at the age of 68.
As Reb Noach had no sons, his Chassidim separated after his petirah. Most went to his talmid, Rav Moshe of Kobrin; some to his son-in-law, Harav Mordechai; and some to his nephew, Harav Shlomo Chaim of Koidenov.

HaRav Yaakov Entebbe, zt”l, (1870), rav of Damascus. (others 5607 / 1846).

HaRav Menachem Nachum Twersky of Makarov, zt”l, (5612 / 1851), fourth of the eight sons of Harav Mordechai, the Chernobyler Maggid. He married Hinda Mattel, daughter of Rav Yosef HaLevi Horowitz, the Admor of Turchin, who in turn was the son of the Chozeh of Lublin. In 1833 he became Rebbe in the town of Makarov.

HaRav Yosef Berabi, zt”l, (5679 / 1918), dayan of Djerba and author of Ben Porat Yosef.

HaRav Yitzchak Isaac (Eizik) Friedman, zt”l, (5704 / 1943), author of Nachlat Yitzchak

HaRav Binyomin Zeilberger, zt”l, (5682 / 1922 - 5766 / 2005), Rosh Yeshiva, Beit Hatalmud of Bensonhurst. Born in 5682/1922 in the small German village of Koenig-Shaufen, not far from Wurzberg. In one of his sefarim, Harav Binyomin writes that his father was an ish tam v’yashar, v’yerei Elokim — “a straight, upright and G-d-fearing person.”
Harav Binyomin was educated in the German-Jewish schools of that time, where he learned both Jewish and secular subjects. Harav Shamshon Raphael Weiss, a German Jew who had learned in the Mirrer Yeshiva in Poland, was a teacher there. Rabbi Weiss often sent his students on trips to visit the Mirrer Yeshiva. One of these bachurim told the young Binyomin Zeilberger, 14 years old at the time, and this trip made a great impression on him. Binyamin became enamored of the idea of going to learn in Mir.
At that point, Harav Binyomin was at a crossroads: he had to decide which of two German schools he would attend to complete his studies. “If I have to change schools, why shouldn’t I go to the Mirrer Yeshiva, about which I have heard such glowing reports?” he thought.
Soon afterwards, his parents realized that the situation for Jews in Hitler’s Germany was deteriorating. They decided it would be a good idea for their son to leave Germany, so they allowed him to go to learn in Mir.
He arrived in Mir after Pesach of 5696 / 1936. At that time the Mashgiach, Harav Yeruchem Levovitz, zt”l, was ailing. Nevertheless, the 14-year-old bachur from Germany managed to hear several shmuessen from the Mashgiach before his petira two months later. Reb Yeruchem’s countenance and his approach to mussar had a profound impact on the bachur. He attached himself to the great talmidim of the Rav and through them forged a bond to Torat hamussar of Reb Yeruchem.
As the winds of war gathered over Europe in 1939, Reb Binyomin fled Poland with the Mirrer Yeshiva to independent Vilna, Lithuania. As is known, the yeshiva ultimately made its way across Russia to Japan and finally settled in Shanghai, where it remained for the duration of the war.
Arriving in America with the yeshiva in 5707 / 1947, Reb Binyomin learned in the newly-established Mirrer Yeshiva in Brooklyn, New York. He married the daughter of Harav Yisrael Chaim Kaplan, zt”l, son-in-law of Harav Yeruchem and a baal mussar who was Rosh Yeshiva and Mashgiach of Beit Medrash Elyon in Monsey. With his marriage, Reb Binyamin became a grandson to Harav Yeruchem Levovitz.
After his chasuna, Reb Binyomin joined the newly established Yeshiva Beit Hatalmud, which had recently been established by members of the Mir. Within its walls he transmitted Torah and yirah to generations of talmidim for the rest of his life, vigilant to ensure that the yeshiva’s unique ruach would remain unchanged from that forged by its founders.
During the last segment of his life, when Reb Binyomin was diagnosed with a terminal illness, the grandeur of a lifetime of Torah and middot was revealed. Although he was often in great pain, family members never heard him complain or cry out in pain. On the contrary, one usually saw him with a smile on his face.
 On 7 Tishrei 5766/2005, Harav Binyomin Zeilberger was niftar. He is buried on Har Hazeitim next to his illustrious father-in-law, Harav Yisroel Chaim Kaplan.
(Others 8 Tishrei)

HaRav Nosson Dov Nuta (ben Yaakov Menachem) Freund, zt"l, (1924-2013). Born in Yerushalayim, he learned at Yeshiva Etz Chaim together with Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Rav Yisroel Yaakov Fischer and other future gedolim. Rav Freund later assumed the position of rosh yeshiva at Etz Chaim L’Tzeirim, where he taught numerous talmidim, among them the Chernobler Rebbe, the Rachmastrivke Rebbe, and Rav Meir Solovetichik. He also served as rosh yeshiva of Yeshivas Dushinsky L’Tzeirim. Rav Freund was prominently involved in the Oneg Shabbat V’Yom Tov organization run by R’ Efraim Stern.






























8 Tishrei
8 Tishrei

8 Tishrei 2937 - 825 B.C.E.:

The dedication festivities celebrating the completion of the Beit Hamikdash, built by Shlomo Hamelech (King Solomon), commenced and continued for seven days, including Yom Kippur. (Moed Katan 9a)
Dovid HaMelech
(King David) had brought the Ark of the Covenant up to Yerushalayim's Har / Mount Moriah, but as a warrior he was not permitted by Hashem to build the Beit HaMikdash. However, his son Shlomo Hamelech did so.

The Beit HaMIkdash was the most important site in Eretz Yisroel -- a spiritual magnet for the Jewish nation's yearnings. The magnificent structure took seven years to build, and served as the epicenter of Jewish national and spiritual life for 410 year before being destroyed by Nevuzradan and the Babylonians under Nebuchadnetzar. 9 Av 3339 - 422 B.C.E. (See also 22 Tishrei).

8 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Baruch Schneerson, zt”l, (5550 / 1789), father of the Baal HaTanya.

 HaRav Noach Yaffa, zt”l, of Lechovitz [Lekovich], (1775 - 5593 / 1832). Son of Rav Mordechai, the founder of the Lechovitz dynasty. As he had no sons, his Chasidim were divided as to his successor: some went to his talmid, Rav Moshe of Kobrin, some to his son-in-law, Rav Mordechai, and some to his nephew Rav Shlomo Chaim of Koidenov. His divrei Torah were kept, but not printed until they were written down by the previous Slonimer Rebbe, as Torat Avot.

HaRav Elazar Nissan Teitelbaum of Drobich (Drohbitz), zt”l, (5546/1786 - 5616 / 1855).
Harav Elazar was the son of Harav Moshe, the Yismach Moshe of Ujhel. He was born in Shineve in Tammuz 5546/1786. His father quotes some of the chiddushim he composed in his young years. Reb Elazar Nissan married the daughter of Harav Aharon, Rav of Chodorov. He settled in Drobich, where his wife’s grandfather Reb Nachum, Parnass of the city, lived. He became Rav in Sighet in 5594 / 1834, remaining for six years.
In 5600 / 1840 he moved to Ujhel, where his father lived. That year he received an offer to serve as Rav in Drobich, and he returned there.
The next year, following the petirah of his father, Reb Elazar Nissan was offered the position of Rav of Ujhel, but he turned down the offer, preferring to remain where he was. Although Chassidim began coming to Reb Elazar Nissan, he turned them away.
Unlike his father, Reb Elazar Nissan didn’t write down his divrei Torah. Some of his chiddushim and drashot are quoted by his father, and more by his son, Harav Yekusiel Yehudah, the Yetev Lev. His other sons were Harav Shmuel, Rav of Gorlitz, and Harav Nachum, Rav of Drobich. His son-in-law was Harav Yisrael Hakohen Rappaport of Tarnow, mechaber of She’eilot U’Teshuvot Mahari Hakohen.

HaRav Avner Yisrael (ben Vidal) HaTzafati, zt"l, (1827-1884), Av Beit Din of Fez. He authored Yahas Fez, which apparently was the first extensive history account written by the Jews of Morocco. 

HaRav Shlomo Bechor Chutzin of Baghdad (5652 / 1892).

HaRav Shimon Sofer, zt”l, (5691 / 1930), Rav of Sandra and Paks.

HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel, zt”l, of Biala and Lublin, (5693 / 1932).
Harav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel Rabinowitz was the son of Harav Yitzchak Yaakov of Biala, author of Divrei Binah. He was born in Ostrova in 5635/1875, when his father was living near his father-in-law, Harav Yehoshua of Ostrova.
He married the daughter of Harav Shimon Chaim Alter, the brother of the Sfat Emet of Gur.
Following the petirah of his father, the Divrei Binah, on 23 Adar II 5665/1905, Reb Avraham Yehoshua Heschel served as Rebbe in Chelm. Later he settled in Lublin, where he was known as the Biala Rebbe of Lublin. He was a great masmid and talmid chacham.
He was niftar in Lublin on 8 Tishrei 5693/1932, at the age of 58.
His sons were Harav Aharon Dovid of Lentshna; Harav Shlomo; and Harav Tzvi. His son-in-law was Harav Baruch Mordechai Weinberg, son of Harav Yissachar Aryeh Leib of Slonim.
The divrei Torah of Reb Avraham Yehoshua Heschel on Bereishit and Shemot were published under the name Yeshuot Avraham.

 HaRav Shlomo Benzion Twersky of Chernobyl, zt”l, (5630 / 1870 - 5700 / 1939).
Harav Shlomo Bentzion Twersky was born in 5630/1870 (1869). Son of Rav Yeshayahu Meshulam Zusha Twersky, and grandson of Rav Aharon of Tchernobyl, he was orphaned of his father (28 Tammuz 5641 / 1881) at the age of 11 years. He was appointed Rebbe in his father’s place at his Bar Mitzvah.
He was also appointed Nasi of the Eretz Yisrael tzedakah in Ukraine. Being appointed Rebbe at such a young age caused him to be called “Yanuka” (like the other Rebbes, the Yanuka of Karlin and the Yanuka of Tolna).
Reb Shlomo Bentzion married Rebbetzin Shifrah, the daughter of Rav Zalman Chodorov of Berditchev.
In 1920, after a pogrom in his city, Rav Shlomo moved to Brahin and then to Kiev.
At the invitation of his Chassidim he moved to America, but life there did not match his high standards, and he returned to Europe. In letters to Chassidim in Eretz Yisrael, Reb Shlomo Bentzion writes of his longings to live in the Holy Land, but he never managed to fulfill this desire.
Reb Shlomo Bentzion was niftar on 8 Tishrei 5700 / 1939 in Kiev, at age 69.
His sons were Reb Yeshayahu Meshulam Zusha, who was niftar in his father’s lifetime, and Reb Aharon, son-in-law of Rav Gedalyah Moshe of Zhvil.
His sons-in-law were Reb Yehoshua Elazar Chodorov; Reb Zev of Kobel; and Reb Yochanan, the son of Reb Avraham Dov of Rachmastrivka.





























9 Tishrei
9 Tishrei - Erev Yom Kippur

9 Tishrei 5301 - September 20, 1540:

The first auto da fe in Lisbon of those forcibly converted to Christianity was held.

8-9 Tishrei 5702 - September 29-30, 1941:

The Nazis carried out executions at Babi Yar, as thousands of Jews were buried in a ravine near the Ukrainian city of Kiev, Hy"d. The Nazis had instructed all 175,000 Jews of Kiev to report to the cemetery. Most thought they would be deported. Yet the Nazis killed the Jews in retaliation for a series of bombings against German installations (though a secret Russian agency was actually responsible). With the aid of Ukrainian citizens, 35,000 Jews were ordered to undress, beaten if they resisted, and then shot at the edge of the Babi Yar gorge. Many people were buried alive, suffocated by the mass of bodies atop them. All told, an estimated 100,000 people -- including Soviet POWs -- were shot at the site.

9 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

The Tanna R' Elazar ben Rab' Shimon, zt"l, (3884 / 123 C.E.).

 HaRav Avraham Saba, (Savah), zt”l, (5200 / 1440-5280 / 1519), author of Tzror Hamor. Born in Castile, he spent the first 50 years of his life in parts of Spain where Jews lived in prosperity and security. He was forced into exile to Portugal in 1492, and to North Africa in 1497 after not only being persecuted and seeing many members of his family die al kiddush Hashem, but he had to rewrite this commentary completely from memory, as in Fez, Morocco he had no library at his disposal. He died on board a ship on the way to Italy and was buried in Verona in 1510.
He also wrote the Eshkol HaKofer on the Book of Ruth and Esther.
His son, Rav Yitzchak was the son-in-law of Rav Yosef Karo, the Beit Yosef. 
Tzror Hamor
was translated into English by Rav Eliyahu Munk. In Tzror Hamor, his genius is evident from the manner in which he selects hundreds of quotations from the Zohar and demonstrates that they are capable of being understood by the average Jew. 

HaRav Avraham Abali ben Chaim HaLevi Gumbiner, zt"l, (1634 - 5443 / 1682), the Magen Avraham. Born in Gumbin, he witnessed the massacre of his parents in the Chmielnitzki pogroms at the age of 18. He escaped to Lissa, and then to Kalish, where he became Rosh Yeshiva and afterwards Dayan of the city. He is the author of Magen Avraham, a definitive commentary on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim. He also authored Zayit Ra’anan on Yalkut Shimoni. (Others 3 Tishrei).

HaRav Avraham (ben Yaakov Yitzchak) HaLevi Horowitz, zt”l, (1809), son of the Chozeh of Lublin.

HaRav Eliezer Zusman (Zissman) (ben Mordechai Fischel) Sofer of Frakash, zt”l, (1903), author of Et Sofer.
HaRav Yitzchak Yehuda (ben Chayim Shmuel)  Shmelkes of Lemberg-Lvov, zt”l, (1905), the Beit Yitzchak.
HaRav Yosef Eliezer Rabinowitz of Radom, zt”l, (1943).

HaRav Yitzchak Ze'ev Halevi Soloveitchik, zt"l, (Rav Velvel) the Brisker Rav. Also referred to as the Griz (5641 / 1886 - 5720 / 1959).
Son and most prominent disciple of Rav Chaim Soleveitchik, he succeeded his father in Brisk, survived WWII after fleeing from Brisk, where his wife and four of his children were murdered, and moved to Eretz Yisrael in 1941.
He was never a Rosh HaYeshiva in the usual sense of the word, and never stood at the head of any institution, rather he gave shiurim (classes) to chosen students in his Study Hall.
He refused to appear in public and was completely removed from worldly affairs. After the Chazon Ish passed away he assumed the mantle of leadership of the Yeshiva world.
He wrote a Sefer on the Rambam’s Mishna Torah, which is known as the “Chidushei HaGri’z HaLevi,” and also Chidushim (insights) on the Torah.Among his descendents are Rav Dovid and Rav Yoshe Ber Soloveitchik. 

HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel Twersky, zt”l, Admor of Machnova-Bnei Brak, grandson of the Maggid of Chernobyl, (1895-1987).
























10 Tishrei
10 Tishrei - Yom Kippur

10 Tishrei 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.:

Brit milah of Avraham Avinu at age 99, and his son Yishmael at age 13, took place, according to Pirkei D'Rabi Eliezer 29.

10 Tishrei 2086 - 1676 B.C.E.:

Akeidat Yitzchak (according to some).

10 Tishrei 1677-1556 B.C.E.:

Birth of Rivkah / Rebecca (1677-1556 BCE), wife of Yitzchok / Isaac, mother of Yaakov / Jacob and Eisav / Esau, and one of the Four Imahot / Matriarchs of Israel.

10 Tishrei 2450 - 1312 B.C.E.:

Moshe Rabbe descended from Har / Mount Sinai with the Second Luchot / Tablets.
82 days after the people of Israel betrayed their newly entered covenant with Hashem by worshipping the Eigel HaZahav / Golden Calf and after Moshe twice spent 40 days atop Har Sinai pleading on their behalf, "Hashem restored His goodwill with the Jewish people gladly and wholeheartedly, saying to Moshe 'I have forgiven, as you ask', and gave him the Second Luchot" -- thereby establishing the day as a time for atonement, forgiveness and teshuvah for all generations.

10 Tishrei 2913 - 1848 B.C.E.:

Hashem forgave Dovid Hamelech over the incident with Batsheva.

10 Tishrei 3087 - 674 B.C.E.:

Zechariah ben Yehoyada Hakohen (HaNavi) attempted to rebuke the people of Israel for forsaking the Derech Hashem on a Shabbat Yom Kippur (Yerushalmi Taanis 4:5).
The people stoned him in the Ezrat Kohanim at the command of King Yoash and he died. His blood boiled and bubbled on the grounds of the Beit HaMikdash for 252 years until the Churban Rishon (Kohelet Rabba 3:20).

10 Tishrei 3353 - 208 B.C.E.:

Yechezkel HaNavi saw a vision in the 25th year of Golut Yohayochin describing the appearance of the future (third) Beit HaMikdash (chapters 47- 48) and the future expanded borders of Eretz Yisroel.

10 Tishrei - 1394:

Charles VI, under the pretense that a Jewish convert in Paris, Denis Machuit, returned to Judaism, signed an order allowing the plunder and expulsion of the Jews of Paris. The order was enforced a month later. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon.

10 Tishrei
- 1558:

In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a shul on Yom Kippur and tried to preach to the Jews. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occurred. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti.

10 Tishrei 5612 - October 6, 1851:

The first recorded Jewish religious observance in Southern California is held at the home of Lewis Abraham Franklin in San Diego. The first shul, Adath Jeshurun (now Beth Israel), is founded 10 years later in San Diego by Louis Rose.

10 Tishrei 5625 - October 10, 1864:

Jews of Tunis and Tripoli were massacred, Hy"d.

10 Tishrei 5689 - September 24, 1928:

The local rabbi of Massena, New York, was called to police headquarters to answer charges of ritual murder after a four-year-old girl disappeared. This was the only blood libel on American soil.

10 Tishrei 5726 - October 6, 1965:

Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Sandy Koufax refused to pitch in the first game of the World Series, choosing instead to attend Yom Kippur services in the synagogue and observe the fast. The World Series went to a seventh and deciding game, and Koufax threw a three-hit shutout to win the Series and earn the MVP award. Koufax is arguably the greatest left-handed pitcher of all time; he unanimously won the Cy Young Award three times. Arthritis ended his career at the age of 31, and he became the youngest person ever elected to the baseball Hall of Fame. Hall of Fame slugger Willie Stargell said: "Trying to hit [Koufax] was like trying to drink coffee with a fork." Yet despite all his achievements on the field, Koufax is still remembered best for his Yom Kippur break, which instilled Jewish pride in millions of Americans. In 2001, in the thick of a pennant race, Dodgers outfielder Shawn Green ended his streak of 416 consecutive games in order to observe Yom Kippur; he cited Koufax's decision as motivation for his own.

10 Tishrei 5734 - October 6, 1973:

The Yom Kippur War begins with Egyptian and Syrian forces attacking across 1967 cease-fire lines.

10 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Zecharia (ben Yehoyadah), Kohain Gadol (674 B..C..E.)

The Tanna Rab' Akiva ben Yosef, Hy"d, died al kiddush Hashem in Caesaria, when he was murdered by the Romans, (see 5 Tishrei) for teaching Torah. (3884 - 123 B.C.E). On that day Rab'Yehuda Hanasi was born (Kiddushin 72b).
Born ~50 CE, he received most of his teaching from Rabi Eliezer HaGadol. One of the greatest of the Tannaim, he was the teacher of great Tzaddikim such as Reb Shimon bar Yochai, Reb Meir Baal HaNes, Reb Yossi ben Chlafta, Reb Yehuda ben Eloy' and Reb Nechemia, and it was to them he passed on the Mesora (tradition) of the Oral Torah.
When the evil empire of Rome decreed a prohibition on learning Torah, Reb' Akiva taught Torah in public, in defiance of their decree. He was caught and sentenced to death. He was brought out of prison to be tortured to death, with steels rakes tearing apart his flesh. It was the time of reciting the Shema and in front of his students he was seen reciting the Shema with great love for the One Above, until his soul expired saying the words “Hashem Echod - the L-rd is One.”
Rabi Akiva was one of four Tannaim who entered the Pardes. The others were Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, and Acher [Elisha ben Avuya]. According to some, Rabi Akiva was the redactor of the Sefer Yetzira.

Rav Achai Gaon, son of Rabba bar Avuha, zt"l, (4076 / 316), one of the leading Rabbanan Savorai and author of the Sheiltot d'Rav Achai. (others 511).

HaRav Dovid Nager, zt”l, dayan in Tunisia (1772).

HaRav Naftali Chaim Horowitz of Dzikov, zt”l, (1894).

HaRav David Knafo, zt”l, rabbi of Mugador, Morocco, (1937).

HaRav Moshe Karelitz, zt”l, Hy”d, (5702 / 1941), youngest brother of Rav Avraham Yeshaya Karelitz, the Chazon Ish.  
Reb Moshe was the editor of the Torah journal  “Knesset Yisroel” which appeared in Vilna in the ’30s. He also authored “Ohr Chadash” his comments on “Sharei Tshuvah” of Rabbeinu Yona: (See
He was killed together with all the rabbonim in the Vilna ghetto by the Nazis ym”s on either Erev Yom Kippur or Yom Kippur. Also killed was his son in law, Rav Moshe Chaim Briskman, his daughter Breine (Moshe's wife), and his granddaughter.Hy"d. (See next).

HaRav Moshe Chaim Briskman, zt”l Hy”d, (5702 / 1941), son in law of HaRav Moshe Karelitz, zt”l, Hy”d. R’ Moshe Chaim was the son of HaRav Menachim Zalman Briskman zt”l of Dubrovitz and Pieterkov, a prominent Stoliner Chosid, one of Yeshivat Mir's first talmidim and a close follower of HaRav Chaim Ozer Grodzensky, zt"l.
R’ Moshe Chaim was know as “Moshe Masmid” in the Mirrer Yeshiva.
He was killed together with all the rabbonim in the Vilna ghetto by the Nazis ym"s on either Erev Yom Kippur or Yom Kippur. Also killed was his Father in Law, his wife Breine and his daughter. H'yd.
They added Chaim to his name because his Father in Law was called R' Moshe. R' Moshe Chaim and his Father in Law had visas to go to the U.S.A.- sent to them by R' Shmuel Greineman, an uncle - but his wife didn't have a visa so they stayed in Vilna. 
Later, he send letters to his brother R' Dovid Briskman to Shanghai, asking to get him a way to go out , but it was already impossible. They were all killed by the Nazis YMS.
His younger brothers were R’ Yeshayohu Dovid Briskman zt”l, also a talmid at Yeshivat Mir, and R’ Pinchos zt"l, who married the daughter of the Admor of Skolya and was a talmid muvhok of HaRav Elchonon Wassermann Hy"d and later a talmid at Yeshivat Mir; and two sisters, one of whom married HaRav Yeshaya Shimanowitz zt"l, rosh yeshiva at Yeshivat Rabbenu Yaakov Yosef (RJJ), and HaRav Mordechai Shmuel Igulnik Hy"d the rov of Wizwa.

HaRav Yehuda Leib Ashlag of Yerushalayim, zt"l, (1886 - 5715 / 1954),the Baal Hasulam. . Rav Ashlag translated the Zohar into Hebrew from the original Aramaic, and he authored the Sulam, a commentary on the Zohar. Rav Ashlag reedited the “Etz Chaim” which is the definitive Lurianic work on essence and cosmology. To this he added a commentary known as the “Talmud Esser Sphirot,” transposing the somewhat abstract notion of “receptacle” (Kli) into the experientially more accessible term “desire” (Ratzon) in all its many permutations. Today, Talmud Esser Sphirot is regarded as the core of the entire teaching of Kabbalah. He also wrote hundreds of articles.

HaRav Avraham Binyomin Silberberg, zt”l, the Pittsburgher Rav (1962).

HaRav Moshe Yitzchak Gevirtzman, "Reb Itzikel" of Pshevorsk and Belgium (1882-1976). After World War II, Reb Itzikel opened his Beit Hamedrash in Mercatorstraat, Antwerp, and in a short time he became a magnet for the many downtrodden Yidden scattered across Europe who had lost all and everything during the war. Reb Itzikel left behind no sons, and his one and only son-in-law -- Reb Yankele -- was crowned as the new Pshevorsker Rebbe.

HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel Twersky, zt”l, Admor of Machnovka-Bnei Brak, grandson of the Maggid of Chernobyl (1895-1987).

HaRav Shlomo Shimshon Karelitz, zt”l, (1910-2001). Born in Vilna on Tisha B’Av, his father, Rav Mayer was a moreh tzedek and the right-hand-man of the Chafetz Chaim and Rav Chaim Ozer Grodzinsky. His grandfather was Rav Shemaryahu Karelitz, the rav of Kosova.
The Chazon Ish, Rav Avraham Yeshaya Karelitz, was Rav Shlomo Shimshon’s uncle. When he was fourteen, Rav Shlomo Shimshon left Kosova and went to the Mirrer yeshivah, where he became the talmid muvhak of its mashgiach, Rav Yerucham Levovitz. Shortly before the rise of the Third Reich, Rav Shlomo Shimshon and his parents moved to Eretz Yisrael. Several years later, he served as a dayan in the Petach Tikvah beit din. His publications include Divrei Shlomo and Shu”t Ateret Yisrael on Choshen Mishpat and Even HaEzer.




























11 Tishrei
11 Tishrei

The Baal Shem Tov writes that the day after Yom Kippur, is an even greater holiday than Yom Kippur itself, a day called "Bshem HaShem" or in Yiddish "Gott's Nomen", literally "The Name of G-d."

11 Tishrei 2450 - 1312 B.C.E.:

Yitro advised Moshe Rabbeinu to appoint others to help him judge the nation. Moshe appoints judges of tens, fifties, hundreds and thousands.

11 Tishrei 2450 - 1312 B.C.E.:

The people volunteer donations to the Mishkan (Tanchuma Teruma 4)

11 Tishrei 5557 - October 13, 1796:

Censorship of Jewish books in Russia.

11 Tishrei 5658 - October 7, 1897:

The Bund, or Jewish Workers Party, convened for the first time in Czarist Russia. It was the first Jewish Socialist party in Eastern Europe. It exerted great influence on Jews in Europe and America, drawing many away from Judaism and convincing them Jews would be accepted by their non-Jewish compatriots if they only supported progressive political agendas.

11 Tishrei 5702 - October 2, 1941:

SS Chief Helmut Knochen ordered the systematic destruction of synagogues in Paris. During this time the Vichy government established other anti-Jewish measures, including the requirement that all Jews wear a yellow badge. Roundups took place in Paris where tens of thousands of Jews were arrested and handed over to the Nazis. Of an estimated 350,000 Jews who lived in France, 25 percent were murdered in the Holocaust, Hy"d. While many were sent to Auschwitz, there were also concentration camps located inside France, such as Gurs.

11 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Yahrtzeit of the Amora Mar bar Rav Ashi, (4226 - 466 B.C.E.), :who signed his name "Tavyomi" (Bava Batra12b). He learned under his illustrious father in Matha Mechasia, Babylon, and when his father was niftar, he took over the leadership of his Yeshiva.

Rav Huna bar Mar Zutra (466 CE)

Rabbeinu Yitzchak Halevi from Speyer, zt”l, (1133), talmid of Rashi.

HaRav Avraham Abish of Frankfurt, zt”l, author of Birchat Avraham (5529 / 1768).
Harav Avraham Abish was born in 5450 / 1690. His father was Harav Tzvi Hirsh, Rav of Mezeritch. He learned under Rav Tzvi Hirsh of Halberstadt and Rav Naftali Katz, the Semichas Chachamim.
After his marriage, his wife opened a small store, while he sat and learned. It is said that he was zocheh to gilui Eliyahu during this period.
Meanwhile, in the city of Koriv, Rav Pinchas instructed before his passing that his place be filled by this tzaddik nistar.
Harav Avraham Abish was renowned for his hospitality; Rav Chaim of Volozhin said he reached the level of Avraham Avinu in hachnasat orchim. He gave away all his money to tzedakah. Although a respected Rav, he never considered it below his dignity to collect for tzedakah.
In 5516 / 1756, Rav Avraham Abish was appointed Rav of Frankfurt.
On his first Shabbat as Rav, Rav Avraham Abish said in his drashah that he had three questions to ask. Of himself: How could he dare take up this position in a city that had had Rabbanim like the Shelah, the Pnei Yehoshua and others? Of the kehillah: How could they appoint him Rav?
And, k’vayachol, of Hashem: Could He not have found a more worthy Rav for Frankfurt?
Rav Avraham Abish wrote numerous sefarim, including Birchat Avraham, on Shas; Emek Hamelech, on the Rambam; Kaneh Avraham, on the Torah and the Megillot; Machazeh Avraham, on Haggadah shel Pesach.
He was niftar on 11 Tishrei 5529 / 1768, at age 78. He was survived by his sons: Rav Elazar, Rav of Shvell; Rav Yaakov, Rav of Kariv; Rav Aryeh Leib of Kari; Rav Yosef of Kalish; Rav Tzvi Hirsh of Frankfurt; and Rav Ozer of Mezeritch; and a son-in-law, Rav Asher Lemel Hakohen.

HaRav Tzvi Aryeh of Alik, zt”l, (5572 / 1811).

HaRav Dovid (ben Shmuel) HaLevi of Stepin, zt"l, (1810).

HaRav Alexander Yom Tov of Zidichov, zt”l, (5644 / 1883).

HaRav Yosef Zecharya Stern of Shval, zt”l, author Zecher Yehosef (1904).
At the age of 13, he lost his father. Before the age of 18, he married and at 20, he was appointed rabbi in Jasionówka. After 10 years he was appointed rabbi in Ula a role he held for 43 years until his death. (1831-1904 or 1903)

HaRav Pinchas Chaim Taub of Rozla, Zy”a, (5696 / 1935).
Harav Pinchas Chaim Taub was the son of Rav Yehudah Tzvi of Rozla. He was born on Shemini Atzeret in 5627/1866.
In his youth, Reb Pinchas Chaim knew his maternal great-grandfather, Rav Yitzchak Eizik of Kaliv, but was closer to his other grandfather, Rav Eliezer Tzvi of Komarna.
Reb Pinchas Chaim married the daughter of Harav Avraham Chaim Horowitz of Linsk, a descendant of Harav Naftali Tzvi of Ropshitz. Following his marriage, Reb Pinchas Chaim settled in Linsk.
After the huge fire that broke out in Linsk in 5646/1886, Reb Pinchas Chaim returned to his father’s home in Rozla.
That year, Reb Yehudah Tzvi was niftar, and Reb Pinchas Chaim was appointed Rav of the city in his place. He was only 19 years old at the time.
As Rav, Reb Pinchas Chaim continued to travel to the court of his grandfather and, after the latter’s petirah, to Rav Yechezkel Shraga of Shinev.
With the outbreak of World War I in 5674/1914, Reb Pinchas Chaim fled to Margareten, where he lived for the next eight years. In 5683/1923, he returned to Rozla.
Tragedy struck again in 5686/1926, when a fire broke out and his house was destroyed along with many valuable possessions. The Chassidim built him a new, larger house.
He was niftar on 11 Tishrei, Motzoei Yom Kippur 5696/1935. In accordance with his tzavaah, his son Rav Yehudah Yechiel was appointed his successor.
His other sons were Rav Naftali Betzalel, Rav Dovid Shlomo of Stry, and Rav Moshe Ezra of Samvishuer. His son-in-law was Harav Yechiel Michel Zukerberg of Stry.

HaRav Menachem Mendel Friedman of Bohush, zt”l, (5703 / 1942).
HaRav Mikatz Aryeh Chadad, zt”l, (1980), rabbi in Libya and author of Asbia Lechem.
HaRav Shmuel Tovias, zt”l, (1984), Rosh Yeshivat Ber Chaim Mordechai.
HaRav Asher Freund, zt”l, (1990), founder of Yad Ezra.
HaRav Gedalia Schneider, zt”l, (1998), Rosh Yeshivat Torat Emet, London.
In 1957, he published Sefer Zicharon L'Chvodo Shel Hagaon Rav Moshe Yehuda Schneider (Founder of Yeshivat Torat Emet known as Schneiders Yeshiva in London).


























12 Tishrei
12 Tishrei

12 Tishrei 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.:

Today was Shlishi lemila (third day after circumcision) of Avraham Avinu when the Malachim (angels) visited him (according to Pirkei d'Rabi Eliezer).
As we are taught in the beginning of Parshat Vayera, Hashem took the sun out of its sheath, causing it to shine very intensely so that Avraham Avinu, who was recovering from his brit, would not be troubled with guests.
However, when Hashem Himself came to be mevaker choleh (visit the sick) and saw how desperate Avraham Avinu was for guests, He sent three malachim in the form of humans. One was Refael, who healed Avraham Avinu; another brought Sarah Imeinu the good tidings that she would give birth to Yitzchak within the year, and the third went from there to overturn Sodom and Amorah.

12 Tishrei - 1492:

Columbus discovered America. Louis de Torres, a Spanish Marrano, was the first white man to set foot in the Western Hemisphere when he landed in the West Indies on Christopher Columbus’s first voyage.

12 Tishrei 5508 - September 16, 1747:

Pope Benedict XIV prohibited Jewish converts to Christianity from giving their wives gittin (a Jewish divorce).

12 Tishrei 5724 - September 30, 1963:

The Fair Sabbath Law went into effect, permitting Shabbat-observant Jews in New York City to do business on Sunday. Throughout much of the 20th century, one of the biggest barriers to Shabbat observance in America was a work week that included Saturday, yet precluded Sunday. New York, with the largest concentration of Jews outside of Israel, has innovated numerous laws designed to accommodate religious expression for all faiths.

12 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Avraham (ben Dov Ber) HaMalach, zt”l, (5501 / 1741 - 5537 / 1776). Son of the Maggid of Mezeritch. Rav Avraham learned Kabbalah from the Maggid and the revealed Torah from Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the teacher chosen by the boy’s father.
The madreigot of the talmidei Baal Shem Tov are beyond our comprehension. Yet in this generation of great and holy masters, the “Malach” was known by this unique title because of his exceptional level of holiness. He had virtually no contact with the material world.
It is told that the Malach was once seen looking out of a window for hours, staring toward the horizon at a hill in the distance. When asked why he was doing this, he responded, “I am looking [in amazement] at how a lowly piece of earth can hold itself so high.”
The late Kopyczynitzer Rebbe, Reb Moshe Mordechai, zt”l, a descendant of the Malach, told the following story, heard from his father:
When Rav Avraham's first wife passed away, he married the daughter of Rav Feivel of Kremenitz, author of Mishnat Chachomim. Reb Feivish was so consistent and devoted to his Torah studies that he declined to attend his own daughter’s wedding, to avoid bittul Torah. Later, however, when he heard of the illustriousness of his mechutan, the great Maggid, he decided to pay him a visit. He arrived on a Friday afternoon, hoping to be invited for the Shabbat meals. The Maggid instructed his son the Malach to invite his father-in-law for the Friday night seudah.
As the Malach entered the house with his father-in-law and began singing Shalom Aleichem, welcoming the malachim that escort Yidden home from shul on Friday evening, Rav Feivish fainted. After he was revived, the Malach turned to him and said, “You saw your malachim. If you had seen my malachim, if you had seen my
Chassidim understood this to mean that Rav Feivish actually saw the malachim that escorted him home from shul that week. Were he to have seen the malachim that escorted his son-in-law home, the people might not have been able to revive him…
About a half a year before his petira, the Malach, at the urging of the Me’or Einayim of Chernobyl, accepted the position of maggid in the kehilla of Chovastov; however, he rarely revealed himself to the public eye. Many tzaddikim of the generation traveled to him, among them Harav Baruch of Mezhibuzh and the Me’or Einayim. He wrote Chesed L'Avraham, a commentary on the Torah, Talmud, Mishna and holidays.  
The Malach was niftar at just 36 years of age, leaving two sons: Harav Yisrael Chaim of Ludmir and Harav Shalom Shachna of Prohobich, the father of Harav Yisrael of Ruzhin.

HaRav Yaakov Yisrael (ben Eliyahu) HaTzarfati of Fẻz, Morocco, zt”l, (5596 / 1835).His father was was the main talmid of the Or HaChayim HaKadosh.

HaRav Yechiel Michel (ben Moshe) of Zhvil, zt”l, the second Zhviller Rebbe (5548 / 1787 - 5615 / 1854). His father, Rav Moshe, the first Zhviller Rebbe, was one of the five sons of the Zlotschover Maggid, R' Yechiel Michel.
The family were descendants of the Zlotchov dynasty, and he was named after Harav Yechiel Michel, the Zlotchover Maggid.
Reb Yechiel Michel married the daughter of Harav Yisrael Chaim of Ludmir, who was the son of Harav Avraham Hamalach, son of the Maggid of Mezeritch.
Following the petirah of his father on 10 Iyar 5591/1831, Reb Yechiel Michel was named Rebbe in Zhvil.
Reb Yechiel Michel was renowned for his ahavat Yisrael, his love and concern for every Jew, and most of his divrei Torah were on the topic of ahavat Yisrael. He worked hard on behalf of those who were in trouble with the government (pidyon shevuyim).
Reb Yechiel Michel was niftar on 12 Tishrei (the yahrtzeit of his wife’s grandfather, Harav Avraham Hamalach; see above), and buried in Zhvil. His sons were Rav Mordechai of Zhvil, Rav Yitzchak Shlomo of Zelichov and Rav Moshe. His son-in-law was Rav Yaakov Mordechai, Rav of Valkobisk.

HaRav Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky, zt"l, (5627 / 1867 - 5709 / 1948), Also known as the Maharitz, the first Rebbe of Dushinsky, Av Beit Din of Chust and Yerushalayim.
Harav Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky was born on 25 Tammuz 5627 / 1867 in Paks, Hungary, to Harav Yisrael Dushinsky.
In his youth, he was a prized talmid of Harav Simchah Bunim Sofer (the Shevet Sofer, son of the Ktav Sofer), and of Harav Moshe Pollack, Rav of Bonyhad.
His first marriage was to the daughter of Rav Mordechai Yehuda Winkler, Rav of Mahd and author of Livush Mordechai. He became the Rav of Galanta, Slovakia. Sadly, he and his rebetzen were not zocheh to have children despite the blessings of many tzadikim. His rebetzen passed away during an epidemic in World War I. His then married Esther, the daughter of Rav Yoel Tzvi Neuhaus.
Relocating to the town of Chust, he assumed the position of Rav. He founded a yeshivah in Chust that was one of the leading yeshivot in Hungary.
In 5681/1921, on the 21st of Kislev, an only son, Yisrael Moshe, was born.
A talmid chacham and a posek, Reb Yosef Tzvi waged war against the Reform movement and the Neologue group in Hungary.
In Adar 5692/1932, Reb Yosef Tzvi visited Eretz Yisrael, where he was greeted with honor. When he visited Harav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld — who was ill at the time — Reb Yosef Chaim said, “The Chuster Rav will remain here.” Two days later, on 19 Adar, Reb Yosef Chaim was niftar.
After the levayah, the leaders of the community approached Reb Yosef Tzvi and asked him to remain there and take the post of Rav, seeing it was decreed from Heaven. Reb Yosef Tzvi settled in Eretz Yisrael on 7 Elul 5693/1933, upon his appointment as Gaavad of the Eidah Hachareidit.
He founded the Yeshiva  Yosef Tzvi, known today as Yeshivat Dushinsky. He supported the Agudat Yisroel. He established a community of Hungarian Jews in Yerushalayim affiliated with the Perushim section of the Eidah Hachareidit. This community later developed into a Chassidic dynasty, today headed by his grandson, the Dushinsky Rebbe, shlita, who was named after him.
Reb Yosef Tzvi was niftar on Erev Sukkot. He was buried in the Shaare Zedek cemetery.
He was succeeded by Harav Zelig Reuven Bengis as Gaavad of the Eidah Hachareidit.
His work, the Responsa called Shu't Maharitz was published in two volumes posthumously. His son, Rabbi Moshe Yisroel, inherited his place as the Rosh HaYeshiva and also served later as Gaavad of the Eidah Chareidit.. (others 13, others 14 Tishrei).

HaRav Yehoshua Gutman, zt”l, (2008). Rebbi in Denver for over 30 years and Rav of Khal Lev Avraham in Lakewood for the last seven years of his life.

































13 Tishrei
13 Tishrei

13 Tishrei 2048 - 1714 B.C.E.: :

After Avraham Avinu was unable to find ten righteous people in whose merit S'dom could be saved, S'dom, Amora, Admah and Tzvoyim were totally destroyed by Hashem. Tzoar, a "younger" city with less of a history of evil, was saved, after Lot and his daughters insisted on taking refuge there.

13 Tishrei 5641 - September 18, 1880:

Religious freedom was granted to the Jews of Morocco.

13 Tishrei 5747 - October 16, 1986:

Ron Arad, Israeli Air Force navigator, is captured in Lebanon.

13 Tishrei 5761 - October 12, 2000:

Lynching of Israeli reservists in Ramallah. At the start of the Palestinian intifada, two Israeli reserve soldiers were brutally lynched at a Palestinian police station in Ramallah. The two had taken a wrong turn and ended up in the West Bank town where they were set upon by a crowd. Palestinian police officers stood by -- and some participated -- as the crowd beat, mutilated, burned and disemboweled the Israelis. The image of one young man, waving to the crowd with bloodied hands, came to symbolize the vicious wave of terror that would claim over 1,000 Israeli lives, Hy"d.

13 Tishrei 5761 - October 12, 2000:

Destruction of the Shalom al Yisrael Shul in Yericho / Jericho.

13 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Moshe Yosef Mordechai Meyuchas, zt’l, (1738-1805). Served as the Rishon Letzion (Chief Rabbi of Israel) from 1802-1805, and Head of the Beit Din. He is the author of Sha’ar hashamayim (Salonika, 1768,) Berachot Mayim (Salonika, 1789,) and Mayin Shaal (Salonika 1799.)

Rav Meir Anshel Rothshild of Papadam, patriarch of the famous Rothschild family (1812)

HaRav Akiva Eiger of Posen, zt"l, (5521/ 1761 - 5598 / 1837), outstanding Talmudist and Halachic authority. A descendent of the Eshel Avraham, he was born in Eisenstadt. He married the daughter of Reb Itzik Margolies, one of the wealthiest Jews of Lisa. Because of a fire in 1791, his father-in-law lost all of his possessions, and Rav Akiva Eiger was forced into the rabbinate. In 1814, he took the position in Posen, a position he kept for the rest of his life. He was the father-in-law of the Chatam Sofer. He wrote close to 1000 responsa, half of which have been published.

HaRav Shmuel, the Rebbe Maharash, zt”l, (1834 - 5643 / 1882). Harav Shmuel Schneerson was born on 2 Iyar 5594/1834, the seventh and youngest son of the Tzemach Tzedek. He was named after the water carrier of Polotsk, a lamed-vav tzaddik
Rav Shmuel was renowned for his kedushah and his asceticism.
He was very close with his father, the Tzemach Tzedek, and would learn with him both nigleh and Chassidut.
His first wife, whom he married in 5608/1848, was his niece, the daughter of his brother, Rav Chaim Shneur Zalman. Unfortunately, she was niftar right after their marriage. His zivug sheini, whom he married in 5609/1849, was Rebbetzin Rivkah.
He became the fourth Rebbe of Lubavitch after the passing of his father in 5626 / 1866.
In 5628/1868, Rav Shmuel journeyed to France to meet with community leaders. In 5629/1869, he established a fixed committee in St. Petersburg to supervise community affairs.
Rav Shmuel’s tradition, like that of all the Lubavitcher Rebbes, was to travel every so often to the kever of his father, the Tzemach Tzedek, in Lubavitch. None of his chassidim were allowed to join him on this excursion; only the gentile attendant who came to assist him with various needs.
The Chassidim were very curious to know how the Rebbe conducted himself at his father’s tziyun, and pressed the attendant for details. However, the attendant kept quiet and would not say a word.
Once some Chassidim gave him large amounts of wine to drink, and he got drunk. His mind was befuddled, and he finally opened up.
“When he enters the tziyun, he becomes so full of fright that his whole body trembles and shudders. I have never seen someone overcome with such terrible fright. The only thing I can compare it to is the reaction of chickens in a coop when a wolf comes in to prey on them for his dinner.”
All his life Rav Shmuel was ill, and tried to find a cure for his pains, but never succeeded. During the summer of 5642/1882, his ailment got worse.
He was niftar on 13 Tishrei, 5643/1882 at a young age, and was buried in Lubavitch, near his father’s kever.
Many of his sichot, divrei Torah and letters were published.

Harav Menachem Mendel Paneth, zt”l, of Dezh, (5645 / 1884), author of Avnei Tzedek and Maaglei Tzedek.(others 1885)

HaRav Yisrael Friedman, zt”l, the Sadigerer Rebbe (1853 - 5667 / 1906). After Reb Yisrael was niftar, all 5 of his sons became Rebbes: Reb Aharon (the Kedushat Aharon), Reb Shalom Yosef of Chernovitz, Reb Avraham Yaakov (the next Rebbe of Sadigerer), Reb Yitzchak of Rimanov and Reb Shlomo Chaim (Reb Shlomenu).

HaRav Chaim Berlin, zt"l, (5592 / 1832 - 5673 / 1912), Rav of Moscow and Yerushalayim. Born on 5 Shevat 5592/1832 in Volozhin to Rav Naftali Tzvi Yehuda Berlin (the Netziv).
He learned under his father in his formative years.
In 5608/1847, he married and settled in Shklov, where he resided until 5625 / 1865.
He was appointed Chief Rabbi of Moscow in Adar 5625 / 1865. In 5642 / 1882, his wife passed away; two years later he remarried and settled in Biala, where he lived until his second wife passed away in 5649 / 1889.
In 1889, he returned to Volozhin, where he served as Av Beit Din and also served as Rosh Yeshivah alongside Harav Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk.
The yeshiva was forced to close in 5652 / 1892 and Rav Chaim moved to Kobrin, where he was appointed Rav.
Later he also served as Rav in Elizavetgrad until 5666 / 1906, when he left Russia and settled in Yerushalayim.
. After the petira of Harav Eliyahu Dovid Rabinowitz Teomim, the Aderet, in 5665 / 1905, and through the efforts of Harav Shmuel Salant, Rav Chaim was elected co-Chief Rabbi of the rabbinate of the Ashkenazi community, assisting Rav Shmuel. The two had been close friends early in their lives and corresponded frequently over the years.
Rav Shmuel Salant was niftar in 5669 / 1909; Rav Chaim Berlin then stood alone at the helm of the rabbinate in Yerushalayim.
He was niftar on 13 Tishrei 5673/1912 and was buried on Har Hazeitim.
The yeshiva now known as Yeshiva Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin, established in Brooklyn, New York, in 1904, was renamed for him in 1914.
A collection of his letters and responsa were published as She’eilot U’teshuvot Rav Chaim Berlin.




























14 Tishrei
14 Tishrei

14 Tishrei 2936 - 826 B.C.E.:

Shlomo Hamelech completed Chanukat Habayit festivities for the first Beit Hamikdash.

14 Tishrei 1354:

Casimir the Great of Poland renews the Charter of Boleslav, granting Jews freedom of residence in all areas of the kingdom. This document proves to be instrumental in spurring Jewish flight from Germany further east.

14 Tishrei 5417 - October 2, 1656:

Jews allowed to worship in peace in Amsterdam. Neighbors who saw Jews holding secret Yom Kippur services thought they were secret Catholic papists and reported them to the Dutch authorities. The Jews were arrested on suspicion of insurgency. Once it was explained that the community was Jewish, the leaders were released and given freedom of worship.

14 Tishrei 5702 - October 5, 1941:

Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), one of the most respected Supreme Court Justices in United States history died on this day. Brandeis was the first Jew to serve on the Supreme Court, a post he held for 23 years. His "Brandeis Brief" became the model for future Supreme Court presentations. He was known as "attorney for the people" who championed many social and economic reforms. Brandeis was also a leader of the American Zionist movement, heading the Provisional Executive Committee for Zionist Affairs during World War I. Today, the Univ. of Louisville Law School, as well as Brandeis University in Massachusetts, bears his name.

14 Tishrei 5711 - Sept. 25, 1950:

Last of 378 flights which comprised Operation Magic Carpet, which brought over 40,000 Yemenite immigrants to Israel.

14 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Shalom Shachna of Prohovitch, zt”l, (1760 - 5563 / 1802), son of Rav Avraham HaMalach and father of Harav Yisrael of Ruzhin, author of Mashmea Shalom.

HaRav Yehudah Leib of Anipole, zt”l, (5567 / 1806), author of Or Haganuz.

HaRav Yisrael Hopstein, zt"l, the Maggid of Kozhnitz (1737 - 5577 / 1816). The son of Shabsi, a poor bookbinder, Rav Yisrael became a disciple of four great chassidic rebbes - Rav Shmuel Shmelke of Nikolsburg, the Maggid of Mezritch, Rav Elimelech of Lizhensk, and Rav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev. For nearly 50 years he led the Kozhnitz community. Most popular among his many books is Avodat Yisrael, thoughts on the weekly parsha. He also wrote Beit Yisrael on the Talmud; Nezer Yisrael and Ohr Yisrael, both on the Zohar; and Tehillot Yisrael on Psalms. He was succeeded by his son Rav Moshe Elyakim Beriah. (others 5575 / 1814).

HaRav Mordechai of Zhvil, zt”l, (5661 / 1900). A great grandson of R’ Avraham Ha-Malach (the son of the Maggid of Mezrich), Rav Mordechai became the third Zhviller Rebbe. He left two sons, the elder R’ Yechiel Michel, who was succeeded by R’ Yaakov Yisrael, and the younger R’ Shlomo, who was succeeded upon his death in 1945 by R’ Gedaliah Moshe.

HaRav Shalom Halevi Segal of Podheits, zt”l, (5678 / 1917).

HaRav Chanoch Heinich Gad Justman of Piltz, Hy”d, (5703 / 1942).

HaRav Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky of Yerushalayim, zt”l, (5709 / 1948), See 12 Tishrei

HaRav Chaim Elazar Bentzion Bruk, zt”l, (5746 / 1985), Rosh Yeshiva of Novardok-Yerushalayim. A talmid of Rav Avraham Yoffen, he was one of the 600 Novardok students who were secretly taken out of Communist Russia to Poland in the Summer of 1922. Rav Bruk left Grieve, Poland, for Yerushalayim in 1934, and founded the Bais Yosef Novardok Yeshiva. Rav Hillel Goldberg, executive editor of the Inmtermountain Jewish News in Denver, learned with Rav Bruk from 1972 to 1985.

HaRav Yitzchak Mordechai Schapiro of Gvodzitz-Sadigura, zt”l, (1934 - 2005). Born in Vienna, he was a descendent of the Maggid of Mezritch, the Noam Elimelech, the Berditchever Rebbe, and the Kozhnitzer Maggid. He moved to New York with his family in 1949. He attended Torah Vodaath. In 1962, he married the grand-daughter of Rav Yeruchim Leiner, the Radziner Rebbe of Boro Park.


























15 Tishrei
15 Tishrei

15 Tishrei 2256 - 1506 B.C.E.:

Some say Yaakov Avinu died today; others say on this day he was brought to Eretz Yisroel for burial in Maarat Machpelah.

15 Tishrei - 1451:

Jews of Arnhem (Holland) were ordered to wear the Jew-badge by the city's cardinal.

15 Tishrei 5655 - October 15, 1894:

Alfred Dreyfus was first arrested for treason. A French army officer, Dreyfus was the victim of a frame-up; falsified documents were exposed in a famous open letter entitled J'accuse! (I Accuse!). This scandal, which came to be known as the Dreyfus Affair, bitterly divided French society for many years. Dreyfus was stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil's Island. (Five years later, he was released and later pardoned.) Theodor Herzl, a Jewish journalist reporting on the trial, was so affected by the anti-Semitism and injustice, that he committed his life to vigorously pursuing the cause of Zionism.

15 Tishrei 5659 - October 1, 1898:

A decree by the Russian Czar Nicholas II explicitly bars Jews from living in major Russian cities. The action follows laws issued the previous May, restricting Jewish settlement to the Pale of Settlement. In Kiev, alone, some 7000 Jews are forced to relocate.

15 Tishrei 5699 - October 10, 1938:

Shechita banned in Italy.

15 Tishrei 5704 - October 14, 1943:

Led by Alexander Pecherski and a few other Jewish members of the Red Army, a revolt breaks out in the Sobibor death camp when a number of SS guards are killed. Of the 170 Jews who tried to escape, only 30 find their way to freedom and the remaining are captured and shot, Hy"d.

15 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Some say Yaakov Avinu died today; (2256 - 1506 B.C.E.:). Others say on this day he was brought to Eretz Yisroel for burial in Maarat Machpelah.

HaRav Yosef Shlomo Delmedigo, zt”l, the Yashar of Candia (1591 - 5416 / 1655). His forefathers moved to Crete from Germany in the early 15th century. As a youth, he excelled in his Torah studies as well as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and mastered several languages, all before he was 15. He then traveled to Padua to enroll in the University, where he studied under Galileo. After graduation, he returned to Candia. He married and began to practice medicine, by which he earned his acronym, “Yashar” (Yosef Shlomo Rofeh). He wrote an encyclopedic treatise entitled Bait Yaar HaLevanon, a summary of all branches of knowledge studied in his days (never published). He also amassed a library of over 7000 volumes. He became the personal physician of Prince Radzivil of Lithuania while he lived in Vilna. While there, he replied at length to a series of deep questions on philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy. His treatise is called Mayan Ganim, but the reference is sometimes called by the name of the book of the questions, Sefer Eilim. Rav Yosef became Rav of Hamburg, where he wrote Matzreif LaChachmah, a defense of the study of kabalah. In 1628, he became Sephardic Rav of Amsterdam, where his sefer Novlot Chachmah, was published.
HaRav Yitzchak Eizek of Koritz, zt”l, (1787).

HaRav Meshulam Katz, zt”l, (1799), author of Ikar Tosefot Yom Tov.

HaRav Mordechai of Lechovitch, zt”l, (1810), disciple of Rav Shlomo of Karlin. He was exceedingly charitable, particularly toward the poor of Eretz Yisrael.

HaRav Meir ben Aaron Judah Arik of Tarnow, Galicia, zt”l, (1855 - 5687 / 1926). He was the teacher the Maharsham, Reb Yehuda (Yeedle’le) Horowitz of Dzikov, and Rav Meshulam Roth; author of Teshuvot Imrei Yosher, Tal Torah and more. (others 1925).

HaRav Mordechai Leifer of Nadvorna, zt”l, (1835-1894). The great-grandson of Rav Meir “The Great” of Premishlan, Rav Mordechai was orphaned early and raised by his uncle, Reb Meir’l of Premishlan. His teachings are collected in Gedulat Mordechai.


















16 Tishrei
16 Tishrei

16 Tishrei - 1349:

The Jewish population of Krems, Germany, was massacred in the Black Death riots. In the Middle Ages, people were unaware that lack of hygiene caused the spread of bacteria, and the bubonic plague ("Black Death") spread quickly -- killing 25 million people, half the population of Europe. Rumors spread that Jews were poisoning the well water, and riots broke out across Europe. In some cities, Jews were burned alive. Hy"d.

16 Tishrei 5660 - September 20, 1899:

Alfred Dreyfus was released from prison on Devil's Island. See 15 Tishrei.

16 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Moshe Zacuto (the Ramaz), zt”l, (1625-1697). One of the foremost kabbalists of his generation, he was the author of Kol Haramaz, a commentary on the Zohar, as well as Shorshei HaShemot, on the names of G-d. He taught Rav Moshe Chaim Luzzato (the Ramchal) when the latter was still quite young.

HaRav Yitzchak Dov Halevi Bamberger, zt”l, (1807 – 1879), Av Beit Din of Wurzburg, 19th century posek.
HaRav Shimon of Yareslov, zt”l, (1849).
HaRav Tzvi Hirsch Shapiro of Munkacs, zt”l, (5610 / 1850 - 5674 / 1913), author of Darkei Teshuva on Yoreh Deah. He was the great-grandson of Rav Zvi Elimelech of Dinov (the Bnei Yissoscher) and the father of Rav Chaim Elazar Shapiro (the Minchat Elazar), who published the final volume of Darkei Teshuva.

HaRav Nachman Kahana of Spinka in Bnei Brak, zt”l, (1976).
























17 Tishrei
17 Tishrei

17 Tishrei 5628 - October 16, 1867:

Blood Libel charges triggered anti-Jewish riots in Romania. Blood libels became a common feature in Europe during the Middle Ages: if a Christian baby was found dead, Jews would be charged with having kidnapped the baby and draining its blood. Accusers claimed that blood was the chief ingredient in matzah, and thus prior to every Passover Jews required a large supply. Ironically, Jewish law prohibits the consuming of blood (kosher meat is carefully washed and salted to remove all traces of blood). Yet this didnt stop the Blood Libel accusation, which over the centuries resulted in the death and torture of thousands of Jews. Hy"d.

17 Tishrei 5728 - October 21, 1967:

The Israeli destroyer, INS Eilat, was sunk by Egyptian missile boats near Port Said; 47 Israeli crew members were lost, Hy"d.

17 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Moshe Rosen, zt”l, (5631 / 1871 – 5718 / 1957), author of Nezer Hakodesh. Rav of Chavidan, Latvia. During the First World War he was very active on behalf of his brethren in Latvia. In 1928 he immigrated to the U.S., became the Rav of a number of important congregations and served as the Head of Agudat HaRabbanim.

HaRav Dovid Kahana Shapira of Piorda, zt”l, (1970).

Rebbetzin Batsheva Kanievsky a”h, (5772 / 2011), wife of Maran HaRav Chaim Kanievsky shlit”a and oldest daughter of Maran HaRav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv zt”l.



























18 Tishrei
18 Tishrei

18 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Meshulam Igra, zt"l, (1742 - 5562 / 1801). He taught Rav Naftali Tzvi Ropshitz during the latter’s early years. He authored Shu't Rav Meshulam Igra. He was highly respected by the Gaonim of his age, Rav Nosson Adler, among others.

Reb' Nachman of Breslov, zt"l, (5532 / 1772 – 5571 / 1810), founder of the Breslov chasidic movement. Born to Feige, a grand-daughter of the Ba’al Shem Tov, and Simcha, a son of R' Nachman of Horodenka, the Ba’al Shem Tov’s close friend, in Mezhbizh. During his youth he acquired expertise in all the holy works and was accustomed to meditate in solitude. At the age of six he authored one of his major works, the  Sefer HaMidot. His Torah was very powerful but he faced many Rabbis who opposed him. Reb' Nachman lived in Poland and the Ukraine, where he inspired thousands of Jews to greater love of G-d. Though he contracted tuberculosis at some point between 1806 and 1810, and suffered the loss of his son, daughter, and wife, Reb' Nachman said: "You may fall to the lowest depths, heaven forbid, but no matter how low you have fallen, it is still forbidden to give up hope."
A few of his most famous teachings are: "It's a great mitzvah to always be happy," and "All the world is a narrow bridge -- but the main thing is not to be afraid" (now a popular Hebrew song, Kol Ha-Olam Kulo).
He moved from Breslav to Uman on May 9, 1810, and died there October 16.
His works include: Likutei Moharan, Sefer HaMidot, and the Sippurei Ma’asiyot. He revealed the Tikkun Klali - General Remedy to rectify the blemish of the Covenant and made many miraculous deliverances. He promised his followers: “My fire will burn until the coming of the Messiah.”
Every year on Rosh Hashana, tens of thousands of Jews travel to Uman (Ukraine) to pray at the gravesite of Reb' Nachman.

HaRav Betzalel Regensburg, zt"l, (5581 / 1820), author of the notes known as Hagaot Harav Regensburg on the lateral columns of the Vilna Shas.

HaRav Yona Mertzbach, zt"l, (1900 - 5741 / 1980), Mashgiach of Yeshiva Kol Hatorah, and a central figure in the redaction of the Encyclopedia Talmudis. He was also renowned as an authority on the Hebrew grammar and language, and also on the authentic German minhagim.
The Nazis assumed power in Germany on the 3rd of Shevat (January 30), 1933. Darmstadt, the city where Rav Mertzbach was then rav, was the first city in the country where the Nazis closed all Jewish shops for an entire day, on the 28th of March. Their pretext was that the opening of the Jewish stores, “endangered communal order and tranquility.”
Approximately 300,000 Jews left Germany before the war and another 150,000 managed to escape after the war started, whereas approximately 160,000 perished in concentration and forced labor camps. Four months after Kristallnacht, the family arrived in Eretz Yisrael on Shushan Purim, 1939.

HaRav Ahron HaLevi Soloveitchik, zt"l, (1917 - 5762 / 2001), a scion of the great Soloveitchik family, son of Rav Moshe Soloveitchik, and grandson of Rav Chaim Soloveitchik, the famed Rosh Yeshiva of Volozhin and Rav of Brisk.
Rav Ahron was born in Khaslavichy, a city in western Russia. When the communists invaded Khaslavichy in 1919, the Soloveitchiks escaped to Poland.
As a young man Rav Ahron gained from such Torah giants as the Chofetz Chaim and the Imrei Emet. When the Soloveitchik’s moved to New York in 1928 with Rav Moshe assuming the position of Rosh Yeshiva in Yeshivat Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchonon, young Reb Ahron continued learning under the tutelage of his father who gave him semicha.
He was taught English by Rav Avigdor Miller, who later would serve as the Mashgiach at Yeshivat Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin.
In the early 1950s he became a magid shiur in Yeshivat Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin under the leadership of Rav Yitzchak Hutner. After the petira of his father in 1941, Reb Ahron lived in Washington Heights to aid his mother.
In 1966, he came to Chicago as Rosh Yeshiva of Beit Medrash LaTorah, Hebrew Theological College in Skokie, a post he held until 1974. He eventually left that institution and started Yeshivat Brisk of Chicago.
In 1983, a debilitating stroke left Rav Ahron partially paralyzed. His body racked with pain, his mind was still sharp and he continued his shiurim, despite tremendous physical difficulties. After the passing of his brother Rav Yosef Ber he would travel each week to Yeshivat Rabbeinu Yitzchak Elchanan to give shiurim in his late brother’s stead.

HaRav Yeshaya Schneelbalg, zt"l, (2002), Rav of Bnei Brak Re'em.
































19 Tishrei
19 Tishrei

19 Tishrei 5666 - October 18, 1905:.

A week-long pogrom marking one of the bloodiest periods in Russian Jewish history begins, spreading to dozens of towns and villages throughout Russia. Hundreds of Jews are killed, Hy"d, thousands are wounded and over forty thousand homes and shops are destroyed in the rioting.

19 Tishrei 5699 - October 14, 1938:

Nazi plan for ghettoizing Jews in all big cities announced by Goering.

19 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman Kramer, zt"l, (5480 / 1720 – 5558 / 1797), known as the 'Vilna Gaon" ("the genius from Vilna"). He is regarded as the greatest rabbi of the past 500 years. The Vilna Gaon possessed a photographic memory: At age three he already knew the entire Bible by heart, and by age seven he knew several tractates of Talmud by heart and gave his first public discourse. By the time he was ten he had advanced to the point where he no longer needed a teacher. Legend says that by age 12 he was able to kabbalistically create a Golem (life out of formless mass). At the age of 35 he was approached by one of the leading sages of that time, Rav Yonaton Eybschutz, to act as an intermediary in the conflict between him and another great sage, Rav Yakov Emden.
The Gaon’s son testified that for fifty years his father did not sleep for more than two hours in a twenty-four hour period, in six 20-minute intervals. His breadth of knowledge was amazing. He was capable of stating from memory the number of times any sage was mentioned in any particular book of the Talmud. His knowledge of both the revealed and the hidden parts of the Torah was beyond compare. He wrote commentaries on all the classical Jewish works -- Bible, Talmud, Code of Jewish Law, plus various Kabbalistic works. Among his many writings are Biur HaGra on Shulchan Aruch and on Talmud, and Aderet Eliyahu, a commentary on Chumash.
He was also a renowned expert in mathematics and astronomy and was knowledgeable in almost all secular fields as he considered secular knowledge to be a vital adjunct to Torah study. He authored books on grammar and mathematics.
There is a statue of him and a street named after him in Vilnius, Lithuania. The Vilna Gaon set out for Eretz Yisrael in 1783, but for unknown reasons did not attain his goal. He inspired his disciples to make the move, however, and in 1809 a group of 70 became pioneers of modern settlement in Eretz Yisrael.
Rav Eliyahu was the leading figure in the opposition to the Chassidic movement in its early years.

HaRav Yaakov Yitzchak, zt”l, the Yid Hakadosh of P'shischa (5526 / 1766 – 5574 / 1813). A talmid of the Chozeh of Lublin, he was the rebbi of Rav Simcha Bunim of P'shischa. Other important disciples of his included Rav Menachem Mendel of Kotzk, Rav Yitzchak Meir of Ger, Rav Chanoch Heinich of Alexander, Rav Yitzchak of Vorki and Rav Yissachar Ber of Radoshitz. Rav Yaakov Yitzchak initiated a new path in Chassidut, the service of G-d through Torah study together with prayer. He thus founded a Polish version of Chassidut, which assigned a greater importance to Torah study and the role of scholars, and started to campaign against the superficiality and ignorance which had developed within Chasidism.  

HaRav Aaron, the Sadigerer Rebbe, the Kedushat Aharon, zt”l, (1877 – 1912 ? 13). Son of Rav Yisrael of Sadiger;  father of Reb Mordechai Shalom Yosef. He died tragically, just six years after his father’s petira, at the age of 36.

HaRav Naftoli (Herman) Neuberger, zt”l, long time administrative head of Yeshivat Ner Yisrael of Baltimore (1918-2005). As the public representative of not only the yeshiva, but much of Baltimore 's Orthodox community for many years, Rav Neuberger met often with Jewish and government figures. Born in Hassfurt, a small Bavarian town along the Main River, Rav Neuberger was the youngest of Meir and Bertha Neuberger's three children. Four weeks after his bar mitzvah, his father died. In 1935, he left home to study at the Mirrer yeshiva in Poland. In 1938, he immigrated alone to the United States at 20, speaking only German and Yiddish. He enrolled at Ner Yisrael, which had opened 5 years earlier. In 1940, he began working in the yeshiva office. In 1942, Rav Neuberger married Judith Kramer, the youngest of Mrs. Ruderman's four sisters. By the mid-1950s, he was responsible for fund-raising and the yeshiva's physical operation and was responsible for moving the Yeshiva to its current campus. After Rabbi Ruderman's death in 1987, Rabbi Neuberger assumed the title of president. Through his efforts, beginning in 1975, over 800 Iranian immigrants attended Ner Israel -- on full scholarship. The eldest of his five sons, Rav Sheftel Neuberger, is vice president of the Yeshiva and was his father's right hand. Besides Sheftel, his other sons are: Isaac, a Pikesville attorney; Rav Shraga Neuberger, a Ner Israel rebbe; Yaakov, a Greenspring attorney; and Rav Ezra Neuberger, a Ner Israel rebbe and dean of its kollel.



























20 Tishrei
20 Tishrei

20 Tishrei - 1348:  
Jews of Zurich were charged with perpetrating the Black Death epidemic. Some were burned to death; Hy"d, the rest were expelled. Riots against Jews spread to Bern , and in the Castle of Chillon on Lake Geneva, Jews under torture admitted to being given poison to place in wells around Venice.

20 Tishrei 5701 - October 14, 1940:

6,300 Jews of Baden deported by the Nazis.

20 Tishrei 5734 - October 16, 1973:

Israeli forces crossed to the western side of the Suez Canal in a decisive battle of the Yom Kippur War.
A division led by Ariel Sharon had attacked a weak point in the Egyptian "seam line" between the Egyptian second Army in the north and the Egyptian third Army in the south. In some of the most brutal fighting of the war, the Israelis opened a hole in the Egyptian line and reached the Suez Canal. A small force crossed the canal and created a bridgehead on the other side. A few days later, Israeli troops trapped the Egyptian Third Army, leaving it without any means of resupply, thus effectively ending the Yom Kippur War.

20 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

 HaRav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel of Crakow, zt’l, (1596-1663), son of Rav Yaakov Lubliner and the grandson (through his mother) of Rav Meir Katzenellenbogen.

HaRav Eliezer Papo, zt”l, (1785-1828), author of the Mussar Classic (Jewish ethics) Peleh Yoetz and Damesek Eliezer. Born in Sarajevo, he led the community of Selestria, Bulgaria, and died early at the age of 41. He is considered the exemplary spokesman of the Sephardic mussar tradition of the eighteenth century. He promised in his will that, “Whoever comes to my grave in purity after immersing in a mikveh, and prays with a broken heart, I guarantee him that his prayer will be accepted.” As such, his kever in Silestra, Bulgaria, is the destination of hundreds of visitors annually. His talmid muvhak was Rav Yoshiyahu Pinto. (Others 18 Elul).

HaRav Yaakov Yosef ben Yehuda Leib, zt”l, (1791), (”Reb Yaybi Saba”), the Maggid of Ostra.

HaRav Shimon of Skrenovitz, zt”l, (1926).

HaRav Yosef Moshe Addess, zt”l, (1923-1991). Born to Rav Yaakov Addess, he learned at the Porat Yosef yeshiva in the Old City during his youth. There he became very close to the rosh yeshiva, Rav Ezra Attia. In 1952, he began to teach in the Tzofiof shul in the Bucharian neighborhood of Yerushalayim. On Friday mornings, he always taught mussar, mainly from the sefer Peleh Yoetz (interesting that its author shared his yahrtzeit). These mussar shiurim were published later by a student, under the title Kochvei Or. He became Rosh Yeshiva, Porat Yosef, Yerushalayim. He son, Rav Yaakov, became rosh kollel of Maalot Yosef, and his son Aaron heads the various chessed projects started by Rav Yosef. He died on the same date that he was born. (others 19 Tishrei).

HaRav Avraham Yissachar Englard, zt”l, (1906-2005), the Sosnovtza Rav / Radziner Rebbe of Eretz Yisrael. Born in Krimelov to Rav Yeshaya, a grandson (and great-grandson) of the Shach, who served as Rav and Av Beit Din in Mondziuv and Sosnovitz (Sosnovtza). He became the son-in-law of the Radziner Rebbe, the Tiferet Yosef. When his father-in-law was niftar, the Rebbe’s son, Rav Shmuel Shlomo became Rebbe. During World War II, he escaped to the forest and joined the partisans; there in the forest, he wore the same clothes for almost two years. After the War, he returned to Sosnovitz, where he served as Rav and Av Beit Din. In 1948, he moved to Brooklyn, and in 1952, he accepted an invitation to join Chassidim of Radzin in Eretz Yisrael. He founded Radziner batei medrash in Bnei Brak, Tel Aviv, Haifa, Yerushayalim, Netanya, Petach Tikva, and Holon, and the Sod Yesharim Yeshiva in Yerushalayim. He moved to Crown Heights in 1954, but moved back to Bnei Brak in 1971.


























21 Tishrei
21 Tishrei
Hoshana Rabba

21 Tishrei 2936 - 932 B.C.E.:

Shlomo Hamelech finishes the dedication ceremonies of the Beit Hamikdash.

21 Tishrei 3409 - 351 B.C.E.:

Haggai delivers prophecy to encourage Zerubavel and Yoshua Kohen Gadol to build the Second Beit Hamikdash

21 Tishrei 5668 - September 29, 1907:

Bar Giora, a Palestinian Jewish self-defense organization was formed to protect the settlements from raiders. Two years later it was reorganized into Hashomer (the watchman) and finally became the Hagana, Israel 's pre-State defense forces.

21 Tishrei 5702 - October 12, 1941:

3,400 Jews of Galicia executed by Nazis, Hy"d.

21 Tishrei 5707 - October 16, 1946:

Following the Nuremberg trials, 10 major Nazi war criminals were hanged. Among them was Ernst Kaltenbrunner, an S.S. leader who was a friend of Adolf Eichmann and collaborated in the development of the death camps. As the end of World War II approached, he insisted on continuing the annihilation of the Jews until the last possible moment.
The hanging of the 10 Nazis eerily echoed the 10 sons of Haman who were hanged in the Purim story. Incredibly, this day on the Jewish calendar is Hoshana Raba, the traditional day of judgment for the nations of the world.

21 Tishrei 5734 - October 17, 1973:

Arab oil producing states announce 10 percent reduction in oil production and impose total embargo on U.S. and Netherlands.

21 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Yaakov Yosef HaKohen of Polnayah (Polonnoye), zt”l, (1669?1710 - 1781?1784), author of Toldot Yaakov Yosef. (See 24 Tishrei).
The Toldot, as he is commonly known, was born to the pious Rav Tzvi Hakohen, who was a descendant of Harav Shimshon of ­Ostropoli, and Rav Yomtov Lipman Heller, the Tosefot Yomtov. .
Harav Yaakov Yosef, even prior to becoming a close disciple of the Baal Shem Tov, was an outstanding Gaon. He served as Rav in Rashkov and in Sharirgrad. Initially, Reb Yaakov Yosef was an opponent of Chassidut, but that eventually changed and he became one of the Baal Shem Tov’s closest disciples and one of the leading proponents of Chassidut.
Disapproving of the Toldot’ joining the new movement of Chassidut, his congregants forced him to relinquish the rabbanut of Sharirgrad, after which he returned to his prior position as Rav of Rashkov. In 5512 / 1752 he became Rav of Nemirov and, in 5530 / 1770, he assumed the rabbanut of Polnoya, where he succeeded Harav Aryeh Leib, the Moshiach of Polnoya. Finally, in Polnoya, Ukraine, the Toldot served Hashem with menuchat hanefesh until his petirah in 5543 / 1782.
The Toldot was attached to his Rebbe, the Baal Shem Tov, heart and soul and, in effect, his Rebbe, who was younger than he, bestowed upon his talmid a full measure of spiritual gifts. He revealed to him many secret facets of the Torah, and held him in high regard. The Baal Shem Tov would refer to the Toldot as “theKohen Hagadol,” and once told his talmidim that, when Moshiach comes, the Toldot will serve as Kohen Gadol!
His sefer, Toldot Yaakov Yosef, is the first Chassidic sefer ever published, and it came to be the cornerstone of all chassidic writing. In it he reveals a glimpse of his vast knowledge, and expounds on the basic foundations of Chassidut, based on the weekly parshiyot. The sefer  is a major source of the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov, repeating the phrase, “I have heard from my teacher,” 249 times, and quoting him about another 40 times.
One of the central themes of the Toldot is that learning Torah in and of itself does not suffice as service to Hashem. Oddly, he said, mere Torah learning could serve as a barrier, since it could bring a person to haughtiness, and as a result create a distance between himself and his Creator. Rather, he taught, one should also engage in tikkun ­hamiddot and hachna’ah.
Reb Yaakov Yosef traveled widely to disseminate Chassidut and sell his sefarim. While the Chassidim eagerly embraced his sefer and drank its every word with thirst, on the other hand it caused a great uproar. The sefer Toldot Yaakov Yosef was subjected to derision and was even placed in cherem by opponents of Chassidut.
Other sefarim written by the Toldot are Ben Porat YosefTzafnat Paanei’ach and Kesonet Pasim.
According to most reports, the Toldot was niftar at the age of 110. This advanced age is accepted by Chassidim in light of the fact that the Baal Shem Tov compared him to Yosef Hatzaddik, who also lived to 110.
He was niftar on 24 Tishrei and is buried in Polnoya, where his kever is visited to this very day.

HaRav Menachem Mendel of Premishlan, zt”l, (1777). A disciple of the Baal Shem Tov as well as of the Maggid of Mezritch. He settled in Eretz Yisrael in 1768. The actual year of his death is unknown. However, it was probably before 1777, since a large contingency of Chassidim that arrived that year apparently found him no longer living. His yahrtzeits date, however, is well-established.

HaRav Dovid Moshe Friedman, zt”l, (1828-1903), the first Chortkover Rebbe, the 5th son of Rav Yisrael of Ruzhin. He moved to Chortkov in 1865 to become Rav, a position he kept for over 40 years. He is the author of Divrei Dovid. Upon his death in 1904, his son Reb Yisrael succeeded him.

HaRav Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer, zt”l, (1961), the Cheshev Sofer.

HaRav Yaakov Aryeh Twersky, zt”l, (1979), the Trisker Rebbe.































22 Tishrei
22 Tishrei
Shmini Atzeret/Simchat Torah in Eretz Yisroel
hmini Atzeret in Chutz La’aretz

22 Tishrei - 825 B.C.E.:

Shlomo Hamelech (King Solomon), bid farewell to the Jewish people who had come to Yerushalayim / Jerusalem for a 14-day ceremony dedicating the First Beit HaMikdash (1-Kings 8:66). (See 8 Tishrei).

Dovid Hamelech (King David) had brought the Aron (Ark of the Covenant) up to Yerushalayim's Har HaMoriah (Mount Moriah), but as a warrior he was not permitted by Hashem to erect the Beit HaMikdash. However, his son Shlomo did so. The Beit HaMikdash was the most important site in Eretz Yisroel -- a spiritual magnet for the Jewish nation's yearnings. The magnificent structure took seven years to build, and stood for 410 years before being destroyed by the Babylonians under Nevuchadnetzar.

22 Tishrei 5386 - October 23, 1625: 
Jews of Rome prohibited by Urban VIII (1623-44) to erect matzeivot (monuments).

22 Tishrei 5386 - October 23, 1904:

Death of Dr. Marcus Jastrow (1829-1904). Born in Rogasen, Posen, Marcus Jastrow was thirty-seven-years-old when he was called to Philadelphia 's Congregation Rodeph Shalom, where he served as senior rabbi until his retirement in 1892. "A Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Babli, Talmud Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature" evolved into, and was published as a two-volume work in 1903.

22 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Aharon Halevi Hurvitz of Stroshel, zt”l, (1828), primary student of the Alter Rebbe of Lubavitch, author of Avodat Halevi and Shaar Hayichud.

HaRav Shraga Feivel of Gritza, zt”l, (1848).

HaRav Moshe Shmuel Glasner, zt”l, (1857-1924). Rav Moshe, a great-grandson of the Chatam Sofer, was born in Pressburg and later moved with his family to Klausenberg, where his father served as Rav. Rav Moshe succeeded his father in that post in 1878 and filled it until 1923, when he settled in Yerushalayim. Rav Moshe’s best known work is Dor Revi’i on Mesechet Chullin. His other works include responsa and a Torah commentary.

HaRav Dovid Shapiro of Sonik-Dinov, zt”l, (1933).

HaRav Moshe Yaakov Hakohen Revikov (Ribikov), zt”l, (1966), tzadik nistar, the “sandlar (shoemaker) of Tel Aviv.”

Nadvorna Rebbe of Petach Tikva, zt”l, (2002).




























23 Tishrei
23 Tishrei
Simchat Torah in Chutz La’aretz

23 Tishrei - 67 C.E.:

Roman soldiers captured Gamla, a fortress in Israel's Golan region, and killed all its inhabitants. The ancient historian Josephus Flavius, a leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome, fortified Gamla as a main stronghold in 66 CE. The Romans attempted to take the city by means of a siege ramp, but were turned back by the defenders; only on the second attempt did they succeed in penetrating the fortifications and conquering the city. Thousands of inhabitants were slaughtered, while others chose to jump to their deaths from the top of the cliff. The location of ancient Gamla was discovered in archeological excavations during the 1970s; the remains have been preserved as a national park.

23 Tishrei - 1555: 
Hundreds of Jews in Cracow killed during hakafot, Hy"d.

23 Tishrei 5741 - October 3, 1980:

A bomb placed outside of a shul on the Rue Copernic in Paris explodes killing 3 people, Hy"d. The terrorists are never apprehended, nor was it ever determined whether the perpetrators belonged to a Palestinian movement or the radical French right.

23 Tishrei 5746 - October 8, 1985:

Palestinian terrorists hijack the Italian cruise ship, Achille Lauro, and murder American Jew Leon Klinghoffer, Hy"d..

23 Tishrei 5749 - October 4, 1988:

Members of the dissolved Lebanese parliament ratify the Taif Agreement. Although the agreement calls for the "disbanding of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias," Hezbollah remains active.

23 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Rabbeinu Chanoch ben Rabbeinu Moshe of Cordova, zt"l, (1000), one of the four Shevuyim (Captives).
The famous story of the "Four Captives" occurred, in which four premier Torah scholars from Babylonia were captured and redeemed in different centers in the Mediterranean Basin, where they became the leaders of important communities.
The four set sail from southern Italy to raise money for poor brides. They were set upon by pirates, who offered them to various communities. Three of the four are known. HaRav Shmaryohu ben Elchonon was redeemed in Alexandria, Egypt; HaRav Chushiel was redeemed in Tunisia; Rabbeinu Moshe ben Chanoch and his son Chanoch were redeemed in Cordoba, Spain.
They were first sold as slaves there and later redeemed by the community. Rabbeinu Moshe became rav of Cordoba, and was succeeded in this position by his son after he was niftar in about 965 (4725). His halachic rulings were considered to be on the level of the geonei Bavel of his time, as were Rabbeinu Chanoch's. They established Spain as a center of Torah. Rabbeinu Chanoch's main talmid was Shmuel Hanoggid.

HaRav Dovid Jungreis, zt”l, (1898 - 5731 / 1971), Rosh Av Beit din Yerushalayim. Rav Dovid’s grandfather was Rav Moshe HaLevi Jungreis, a student of the Ktav Sofer and the av beit din of Kashoi, while his father was Rav Baruch Reuven Shlomo, the founder of the Eidah HaChareidit.
He married Rebbetzin Miriam Pu’ah, a daughter of Rav Asher Zussman. In 1931, at the age of 33, he was appointed dayan in the Eidah HaChareidit beit din, joining Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld. His knowledge was so vast, the Satmar Rav once said, “If Rav Dovid is here, I don’t need any sefer.” Although he was childless, Rav Dovid’s insightful drashot, which were compiled by his students into a sefer, entitled Or Dovid.

HaRav Menachem Mendel of Linsk, zt”l, (1802), father of Rav Naftali Tzvi of Ropshitz.

























24 Tishrei

24 Tishrei

24 Tishrei 3415 - 347 B.C.E.:

The Anshei Knesset Hagedolah annulled the yetzer hara of idol worship after intense fasting and prayer. Jews under Nechemia cried out to Hashem and made a new covenant with Him. (Yoma 69b). See 27 Tishrei.

24 Tishrei 5031 - 1270:

Eighth and last Crusade led by Louis IX of France. It was diverted to Tunisia where Louis IX died, and after that the west lost interest in supporting the Crusades against the Muslims. When Acco fell to the Mamelukes in 1291, the Crusader kingdom came to its final end after close to 3 centuries.

24 Tishrei 5700 - October 7, 1939:

Germany decreed that passports of Jews were to be marked with a J.

24 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Harav Simchah Nosson Eilenberg, zt”l, (5219/1458), Rav of Lvov.

HaRav Yaakov Yosef HaKohen of Polnayah (Polonnoye), zt”l, (1669?1710 - 5542 / 1781 ?1784 others 5543 / 1782), author of Toldot Yaakov Yosef. (See 21 Tishrei).
The Toldot, as he is commonly known, was born to the pious Rav Tzvi Hakohen, who was a descendant of Harav Shimshon of Ostropoli, and Rav Yomtov Lipman Heller, the Tosefot Yomtov. .
Harav Yaakov Yosef, even prior to becoming a close disciple of the Baal Shem Tov, was an outstanding Gaon. He served as Rav in Rashkov and in Sharirgrad. Initially, Reb Yaakov Yosef was an opponent of Chassidut, but that eventually changed and he became one of the Baal Shem Tov’s closest disciples and one of the leading proponents of Chassidut.
Disapproving of the Toldot’ joining the new movement of Chassidut, his congregants forced him to relinquish the rabbanut of Sharirgrad, after which he returned to his prior position as Rav of Rashkov. In 5512 / 1752 he became Rav of Nemirov and, in 5530 / 1770, he assumed the rabbanut of Polnoya, where he succeeded Harav Aryeh Leib, the Moshiach of Polnoya. Finally, in Polnoya, Ukraine, the Toldot served Hashem with menuchat hanefesh until his petirah in 5543 / 1782.
The Toldot was attached to his Rebbe, the Baal Shem Tov, heart and soul and, in effect, his Rebbe, who was younger than he, bestowed upon his talmid a full measure of spiritual gifts. He revealed to him many secret facets of the Torah, and held him in high regard. The Baal Shem Tov would refer to the Toldot as “the Kohen Hagadol,” and once told his talmidim that, when Moshiach comes, the Toldot will serve as Kohen Gadol!
His sefer, Toldot Yaakov Yosef, is the first Chassidic sefer ever published, and it came to be the cornerstone of all chassidic writing. In it he reveals a glimpse of his vast knowledge, and expounds on the basic foundations of Chassidut, based on the weekly parshiyot. The sefer  is a major source of the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov, repeating the phrase, “I have heard from my teacher,” 249 times, and quoting him about another 40 times.
One of the central themes of the Toldot is that learning Torah in and of itself does not suffice as service to Hashem. Oddly, he said, mere Torah learning could serve as a barrier, since it could bring a person to haughtiness, and as a result create a distance between himself and his Creator. Rather, he taught, one should also engage in tikkun ­hamiddot and hachna’ah.
Reb Yaakov Yosef traveled widely to disseminate Chassidut and sell his sefarim. While the Chassidim eagerly embraced his sefer and drank its every word with thirst, on the other hand it caused a great uproar. The sefer Toldot Yaakov Yosef was subjected to derision and was even placed in cherem by opponents of Chassidut.
Other sefarim written by the Toldot are Ben Porat YosefTzafnat Paanei’ach and Kesonet Pasim.
According to most reports, the Toldot was niftar at the age of 110. This advanced age is accepted by Chassidim in light of the fact that the Baal Shem Tov compared him to Yosef Hatzaddik, who also lived to 110.
He was niftar on 24 Tishrei and is buried in Polnoya, where his kever is visited to this very day.

HaRav Eliyahu Guttmacher, zt”l, (1796- 5635 / 1874), Av Beit din Greiditz. Born near Posen (Poznan) in eastern Germany (today, Poland) he became, at age 19, a student of R’ Akiva Eiger for four years. R’ Guttmacher published several pamphlets describing his ideas about the Redemption and the return to Eretz Yisrael. He also left behind many manuscripts on “traditional” Torah subjects, and some of his commentaries are published in the back of the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud.

HaRav Avraham Yehuda Leib Hacohen Schwartz, zt”l, (1824-1883), the Kol Aryeh.

HaRav Elchonon Sorotzkin, zt”l, (5754 / 1993), Chairman of Vaad Hayeshivot; son of Rav Zalman Sorotzkin (Oznayim Le-Torah). He was the author of Leman Achai VeRai and leader of Chinuch Atzmai.

HaRav Yaakov Moshe bar Yehuda Toledano, zt”l,  (5639 / 1879 -  5721 / 1960). At the age of 19 he was ordained as a Rav in Tverye, where his family had moved to from Morocco. During the First World War his family was exiled from Eretz Yisrael to Corsica where he served as a Rav for the exiles. In 1920 he returned to Tverye and re-established the community. In 1926 he was appointed to the Association of Rabbis in Tangiers; three years later he became the Assistant Chief Rabbi in Cario, and then the Chief Rabbi in Alexandria in 1937. In 1942 he was called to be the Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv where he served until his death. He served as the Minister of Religion in 1958. He studied the history of Eretz Yisrael and wrote bibliographies. His works include the Ner HaMa’arav and the Yam HaGadol.

HaRav Chaim Zanvil Abramowitz, zt”l, (5756 / 1995), the Ribnitzer Rebbe, Monsey. He attended Kishinev Yeshiva in the 1920s and sat at the court of Rav Avraham Matisyahu of Sthefanesht in Romania. After emigrating from Russia in 1973, he lived in Yerushalayim and Monsey, NY. It is known that from the 1930s until the end of his life he fasted on all days when it is permitted to do so under Jewish law.

HaRav Chaim Shaul Kaufman, zt”l, (1938-2005), Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Tiferet Yaakov of Gateshead. Born in Berlin just before the outbreak of World War II. His father, Rav Moshe, moved the family to Gateshead when Chaim Shaul, the youngest of 8 children, was two years old.
As a child, Chaim Shaul became known as an exceptional matmid.
In his twenties he went off to Lakewood where he spent several months learning and attending the shiurim of Harav Aharon Kotler, zt”l.
During this period he married his Rebbetzin, the former Leah Nagel of Antwerp. They had two daughters and a son.
In Elul 5735/1975, Rav Chaim and, ybl”c, the Rosh Yeshivah, Harav Ezriel Yaffeh, founded Yeshivat Tiferet Yaakov in Gateshead, and Rav Chaim taught there for the next 30 years.
Rav Chaim served as an example of Torah, tefillah and gemilut chassadim for his thousands of talmidim. He provided secretly for many in need, and had a friendly word for everyone.
Devoted to his talmidim, Rav Chaim was willing to spend hours and hours listening to them and advising them, with patience and never a stern word.
Gaining wide renown as a gifted speaker, he was regularly invited to speak around the world.
At the last siyum of the Daf Yomi cycle, despite his poor state of health, he spoke both in the U.S. and at large gatherings in England and in Eretz Yisrael.
The close connection Rav Chaim maintained with Gedolei Torah and Chassidut are well known. Rav Chaim once traveled by boat to Eretz Yisrael with the Satmar Rebbe, zy”a, to be able to spend time with him. He was also very close to the previous Rachmastrivka Rebbe, zy”a.
His pilpulim were written down by talmidim and later compiled into Rav Chaim’s two-volume work, Mishchat Shemen. They are organized according to the order of parshiot hashavua.
Lucid until his final moments, Rav Chaim was honored as chassan Torah on his last Simchat Torah. A sefer Torah was brought to his home, and he was given an aliyah. The following day, 24 Tishrei 5766 / 2005, he was niftar.
Rav Chaim’s levayah set out from his home to the Gateshead yeshivah, from where it continued to Manchester and London.
Kevurah was on Har Hamenuchot.




























25 Tishrei
25 Tishrei

25 Tishrei - 1348:

Pope Clement VI issued a bill denouncing the Black Plague libel against the Jews stating that they were suffering just like the rest of Europe. Other rulers issued like denunciations but they were only marginally effective.

25 Tishrei 5700 - October 8, 1939: 
Nazi pogrom against the Jews of Lodz, Hy"d.

25 Tishrei 5701 - October 27, 1940:

Belgium bans ritual slaughter.

25 Tishrei 5702 - October 16, 1941:

First mass deporting of German Jews to Eastern European ghettos.

25 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Yehudah Leib of Polna’ah, zt”l,  (5520 / 1759) 

HaRav Binyamin of Zaloshitz, zt”l(5554 / 1803), author of Turei Zahav.

HaRav Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev, zt"l, (5500 / 1740 - 5571 / 1810), a beloved chassidic leader in Poland and the Ukraine. He was the son of a family of Rabbis that had produced a continuous line of Rabbis for 26 generations. He laid the foundation for Chassidut in central Poland, Lithuania and the Ukraine. At the suggestion of his mentor, Reb Shmelke of Nikolsburg, he traveled to Mezeritch and became a close disciple of the second leader of the Chassidic movement, Rav DovBer, the Maggid of Mezeritch..
Following posts at Zelichov and Pinsk, he spent the last 25 years of his life in Berditchev where he served as the Head of the Beit Din.
The important foundation of his Torah was the love of one’s fellow Jew and his striving to judge the Jewish people favorably at all times and always interpreting people's actions in the best possible light, for which he earned the appellation, "defense attorney of the Jewish people." He used to say: “No one may speak badly about the Jewish people, one may only search for the way to judge them favorably…only one who speaks of the righteousness of the Jewish people is fitting to be their leader.”
His teachings are contained in the posthumously published popular commentary of the Torah, Kedushat Levi, considered to be a fundamental text in Chassidut.. (others 5570 / 1809).

 HaRav Tzvi Hersh Heller, zt”l, (5595 / 1834), author of Tiv Gittin.

HaRav Shmuel Landau of Prague, zt”l, (5598 / 1837), second son of the Noda BeYehuda and author of Shivat Tziyon. (others 28 Tishrei).

HaRav Moshe Sofer of Pressburg, zt"l, (5523 / 1762 or 5526 / 1766 - 5600 / 1839), a leader of European Jewry known as the "Chatam Sofer" after his work of Rabbinic respona. He was born in Frankfurt Am Mein. His parents were Harav Shmuel and Gittel Sofer of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Reb Shmuel invested all his energies into his son’s chinuch, realizing that he was grooming a future leader of Klal Yisrael.
When Reb Moshe was 10, he became a student of Rav Nosson Adler of Frankfort and Rav Pinchas Halevi Horowitz, the Baal Haflaah (a talmid of the the maggid of Mezeritch).
At 16, he returned to Frankfurt, where he opened a yeshivah.
His first position was as a Rav in Boskovitz in Moravia. He married the daughter of the Rav of Prosnitz and was supported by his brother-in-law, Rav Hirsch. Unfortunately, Rav Hirsch eventually lost all his money, and Reb Moshe saw that his wife sold her own clothing to support them, he reluctantly agreed to serve as Rav in the Moravian city of Dresnitz.
After five years in Dresnitz, Rav Moshe moved to Mattersdorf.
Many communities in Europe vied to have to the Chatam Sofer serve as their Rav. Neustadt agreed to the Chatam Sofer’s strict conditions regarding support for his yeshivah.
The Chatam Sofer’s planned transition to Neustadt was derailed due to a huge fire that broke out in Mattersdorf. He remained in Mattersdorf to help restore the city.
The Chatam Sofer was appointed Rav of Pressburg in Tishrei of 1806, and he occupied that position for 33 years. In Pressburg he founded a Yeshiva that became the most famous in Western Europe. His yeshivah eventually had hundreds of talmidim.
The Kehilla of Pressburg was a spiritual fortress in Hungary against the “Enlightenment” movement and the Reformers.
The Chatam Sofer was active during his entire life to strengthen the Rabbinate and teach Torah. He encouraged the settlement of the Land of Israel. After the petira of his first wife, Rav Moshe married the daughter of Rav Akiva Eiger. She bore the previously childless Chatam Sofer 7 daughters and 3 sons. Rav Moshe was an outstanding Halachic authority and community leader, and was at the forefront of the battle to preserve the integrity of traditional Judaism in the face of the various "reformist" movements of his time.
During Sukkot of 5600 / 1839, the Chatam Sofer became ill. On the night of Hoshana Rabbah, he overcame his agonizing pains and began to learn Torah with amazing hasmadah. In the morning, he went to shul forShacharit. But in the middle of the davening, he was forced to return home.
On Simchat Torah, a minyan was held in his home.
On 25 Tishrei, he was niftar.
The Chatam Sofer wrote many Halachic Responsa, and at his funeral his students carried 90 manuscripts, which were published posthumously.

HaRav Yom Tov Lipman Halperin, zt”l, author of Kedushat Yom Tov. (1816 - 1879)

HaRav Dr. Mordechai Zeev (ben Aryeh Leib) Braude, zt”l, (1870-1949). Born in Brest Litovsk, he was the son of Rav of Lvov. His mother, Chana, was the daughter of Rav Tzvi Hirsch Orenstein, Rav of Brest Litovsk, Rzeszow and Lvov. He was a delegate to the First Zionist Congress. He served as a Rav in Stanislawow and Lodz, as well as a fighter for the rights of the Jews in Austria and Poland, and their representative in legal bodies. He moved to Eretz Yisrael and lived in Yerushalayim.

HaRav Dovid Matisyahu Rabinowitz, zt”l, (5758 / 1997), Biala Rebbe of Bnei Brak.
Rav Dovid Matisyahu was born in Shedlitz, Poland. His father was Harav Yechiel Yehoshua, later Rebbe of Biala. He was named Dovid after his great-grandfather, Harav Nosson Dovid of Shidlovtza, and “Matisyahu” was added because his brit was on the seventh day of Chanukah.
During World War II, when their father was exiled to Russia, young Dovid Matisyahu, along with two of his brothers and a sister, escaped to Teheran, Iran. They came to Eretz Yisrael on the special Israeli transport known as “Yaldei Tehran — the children of Tehran.”
When Harav Yosef Shlomo Kahaneman, the Ponevezher Rav, heard that the children of the Biala Rebbe had come to Eretz Yisrael, he made a special effort to place them where they would be able to lead Torah lives. Dovid Matisyahu attended the Ponevez Yeshivah. Later, he got married and received semicha from Harav Yosef Tzvi Kalish of Skernovitz, the Rav of Bnei Brak.
Rav Dovid Matisyahu’s father, Harav Yechiel Yehoshua, arrived in Eretz Yisrael in 5707/1947 and was reunited with his children. Having survived the Holocaust, he made it his mission to rebuild the Biala dynasty.
After his father’s petirah in 5742/1982, Reb Dovid Matisyahu continued his father’s mission, leading Biala Chassidim in Bnei Brak, where he spread Torah and Chassidut with passion and fire. He was known for his total absorption in tefillah.
Reb Dovid Matisyahu would spend one Shabbat every year, during the Three Weeks, in the Old City of Yerushalayim, near the Kotel.
He was niftar 25 Tishrei, a day after Simchat Torah (in Eretz Yisrael).
Some of Reb Dovid Matisyahu’s divrei Torah were published under the titles Orchot Dovid and Lahavat Dovid.























26 Tishrei

26 Tishrei

26 Tishrei - 1337:

In Deckendorf, Bavaria, desecration of the wafers used in churches was alleged and violence spread to 51 communities, including Bohemia and Austria. To this day people come on pilgrimages to the church where paintings show Jews in medieval dress desecrating the "wafers".

26 Tishrei 5569 - October 17, 1808:

With Napoleon's arrival at the Duchy of Warsaw, the new state parliament calls for equal rights for non-Jews. The parliament states that emancipation for the Jews "would be postponed for 10 years in the hope of eradicating all their distinctions which set them apart."

26 Tishrei 5569 - October 17, 1808:

The Jews who resided in Warsaw were stripped of all their political rights.

26 Tishrei 5734 - October 22, 1973:

Mount Hermon is recaptured by the parachute and Golani brigades during the Yom Kippur War. Fearing an Israeli advance, the Syrians immediately agree to a UN-sponsored cease-fire.

26 Tishrei 5734 - October 22, 1973:

A cease-fire resolution was passed by the U.N. Security Council to halt the Yom Kippur War. Shuttle diplomacy by Henry Kissinger compelled Israel and Egypt to accept the cease-fire. Fighting, however, would continue for another four days. In the war, Israel suffered the loss of 2,600 soldiers and 800 tanks. Four years later, Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat would visit Jerusalem and announce his readiness to forge a permanent peace deal.

26 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Aharon of Zhitomir, zt”l, (5577 / 1816), author of Toldot Aharon. Son of Harav Mordechai, he was recognized at a young age as an iluy and an outstanding  talmid chacham. Despite this, he supported himself by working, rather than by assuming a Rabbinical position. He gave fiery drashot to be mechazek limud haTorah.
In the shaar of his sefer, Toldot Aharon, he is identified as one of the leading talmidim of Harav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev. After the petirah of Harav Zev Wolf of Zhitomir, the Ohr Hameir, Harav Levi Yitzchak appointed Reb Aharon as his successor. Reb Levi Yitzchak warned the community of Zhitomir to heed his every word.
The Ohev Yisrael of Apta, zy”a, Harav Yisrael of Pikov, zy”a, son of Harav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev, and Harav Mordechai of Chernobyl, zy”a, all wrote warm haskamot to Toldot Aharon, attesting to the great tzidkut and high madreigot of its author. Reb Aharon was considered a k’dosh elyon.
He was the maggid in Zhitomir for three years, then he moved to Hungary, where he was active in spreading Torat Hachassidut, especially in the cities of Krali and Ashver where he lived. He was zocheh to see the fruits of his labor, with many doing teshuvah after hearing his drashot, and some even becoming his Chassidim.
Harav Aharon was niftar on 26 Tishrei, a day after the yahrtzeit of his Rebbe, Harav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev, and buried in Zhitomir.
When his talmidim saw that his end was near, they began to cry.
“Why are you crying?” Reb Aharon asked them. “The end of every person is death.”
“How can we not cry when our Rebbe is leaving us?” they answered. “We will be left a flock without a shepherd. The other tzaddikim of the generation are more hidden in their avodat Hashem, unlike our Rebbe, to whose derech in avodat Hashem we have become accustomed.”
“Know,” said Reb Aharon, “that before Moshiach comes there will be tzaddikim who will be greater than me, and with what they do, they will be meyached more yichudim than we accomplished, even with our learning and davening!”
One of his closest talmidim, Harav Levi of Zhitomir, wrote down his divrei Torah after every Shabbat and Yom Tov. Reb Aharon himself edited these notes. Toldot Aharon was first printed in Berditchev, shortly after his petirah in 5577, by his son-in-law Rav Mordechai and Rav Mordechai’s father, the nagid Reb Yakir Shimshon of Zhitomir. Other divrei Torah of Reb Aharon are printed in Pisgamin Kaddishin.

Harav Asher of Stolin, zt”l, (1760 - 5587/1826), the Stoliner Rebbe son of Harav Aharon Hagadol of Karlin. When his father passed away, he was raised by his successor Rebbe Shlomo Karliner who became one of his main influences. Reb’ Asher later settled in Stolin..

Harav Dovid Shapiro, zt”l, of Sonik-Dinov, (5693/1932).
Born in 5637/1877, Harav Dovid Shapiro was the son of Harav Yosef of Dinov, who was also his first teacher.
He married a relative, the daughter of Harav Yehudah Meir Shapiro of Bukovsk.
While his father reigned in Dinov, Reb Dovid held court in Sanok. His court attracted many Chassidim, even those who weren’t close with the Dinover court.
He was renowned for greatness in Torah and fine middot. With his powerful voice, his tefillot were rousing and inspiring.
In the winter of 5692/1931, Reb Dovid was diagnosed with a life-threatening disease. As was the custom in those days, he went to Vienna for a surgical procedure. During his stay in Vienna, his father was niftar, and Reb Dovid was appointed Rebbe in Dinov.
Reb Dovid was warmly welcomed to the city. He was still weak, but managed to daven the selichot of Erev Rosh Hashanah at the amud. Later, he collapsed and returned to Sanok.
Reb Dovid was niftar less than a month later, on 26 Tishrei 5693/1932, at age 55. Harav Meir Shapiro of Lublin came to deliver a hesped.
Reb Dovid’s three sons, Rav Menachem Mendel, Rav of Dinov; Rav Elazar, Rebbe of Dinov-Sanok; and Rav Yisrael all perished in the War. Hashem yinkom damam.
The divrei Torah of Reb Dovid published in 5699/1939 were all destroyed or lost during the war. (Others 5694/1933)

HaRav Yehuda Yudel Rosenberg, zt”l, (1859 - 5696 / 1935). Born in Skaraschev, a small town near Radomsko, Poland. He served as Rav in Tarlow, and age 25, he was appointed Av Beit Din. In 1903, he published Yadot Nedarim, a commentary on Rashi and Ran to mesechet Nedarim. In 1905, he published Shaarei Zohar Torah, an attempt to organize for the verses of the Torah what the Zohar said on that verse. In 1913 he moved to Toronto where he was a Rav until 1917, when he was appointed the Chief Rabbi of Montreal. He wrote 30 Seforim in Halacha, Kabbala and Chassidut.

HaRav Yitzchak Leib Kirzner, zt”l, (5753 / 1992), prominent Torah dissemenator and personality in kiruv rechokim.

HaRav Dovid Matisyahu Rabinowitz, zt”l, (5689 / 1928 - 5758 / 1997), the Biala Rebbe of Bnei Brak. Born in Shedlitz, Poland. His father was Harav Yechiel Yehoshua, later Rebbe of Biala. He was named Dovid after his great-grandfather, Harav Nosson Dovid of Shidlovtza, and Matisyahu was added since his brit was on the seventh day of Chanukah.
As a small child, he woke up early to learn Torah, and he davenedwith fiery intent.
During the difficult years of the war, his father was exiled to Russia. Young Dovid Matisyahu, along with two of his brothers and his sister, escaped to Tehran, Iran. The children came to Eretz Yisrael on the transport known as Yaldei Tehran, the children of Tehran.”
When Harav Yosef Shlomo Kahaneman, the Ponevezher Rav, heard that the children of the Biala Rebbe had come to Eretz Yisrael, he made a special effort to arrange placements for them that would ensure they would lead Torah lives. Dovid Matisyahu went to the Ponevezh Yeshiva, where he was noted for his constant learning and his warm tefillot; he was often asked to lead the tefillot on Yamim Tovim.
Dovid Matisyahu got married and later received semichah from Harav Yosef Tzvi Kalish of Skernevitz, the Rav of Bnei Brak, a scion of the Vorka dynasty.
Harav Yechiel Yehoshua arrived in Eretz Yisrael in 5707 / 1947 and was reunited with his children. He began rebuilding the Biala dynasty after the Holocaust.
After the petira of his father on 21 Shevat 5742 / 1982, Reb Dovid Matisyahu founded his court in Bnei Brak, where he spread Torah and Chassidut with passion and fire. He had great dveikut in tefilla and avoda.
Reb Dovid Matisyahu would spend one Shabbat every year, during the Three Weeks, in the Old City of Yerushalayim, near the Kotel.
His sons, ybl”c, are Harav Yaakov Menachem, the Biala Rebbe in Bnei Brak; Harav Shmuel Yair, who serves as Rav in his brother’s beis medrash in Bnei Brak; Harav Avraham Yerachmiel, the Rebbe of Ostrova-Biala in Yerushalayim; Harav Yirmiyahu, the Rebbe of Biala-Lentchna in Beit Shemesh; and Harav Aharon Shlomo Chaim Elazar, the Biala Rebbe in Boro Park.
His sons-in-law are Harav Yehudah Zev Volf Kornreich, the Shidlovtza Rebbe in Yerushalayim, and Harav Yaakov Hager, son of the Seret-Vizhnitzer Rebbe, shlita.
Some of Reb Dovid Matisyahu’s divrei Torah were published with the titles Orchot Dovid and Lahavat Dovid.





























27 Tishrei

27 Tishrei

27 Tishrei 3415 - 344 B.C.E.:

The Anshei Knesset HaGedolah weakened the yetzer hara of arayot after three days of prayer. (Yoma 69). See 24 Tishrei.

27 Tishrei 5331 - 1570:

The wealthy Jewish community of Venice was sacked and impoverished.

27 Tishrei 5688 - October 23, 1927:

The Israeli city of Netanya was founded in Palestine on a plot of empty land.
Netanya has since grown to become the fourth-largest city in Israel, with a population of 165,000. Netanya has one of the most beautiful stretches of beach in Israel, with white sands and inviting waters.
Netanya was named for Nathan Straus (1848-1931), a Jewish American merchant and philanthropist. Straus was a co-owner of R.H. Macy & Co., yet he never amassed personal wealth because he was always using his money to help people. For example, in New York's winter of 1893, he gave away more than two million five-cent tickets good for coal, food or lodging. His greatest devotion, however, was to Israel. He gave more than two-thirds of his fortune and devoted the last 15 years of his life to this cause.

27 Tishrei 5704 - October 26, 1943:

Three thousand Lithuanian Jews of Kaunas, were deported to the Klooga murder camp in Estonia.

27 Tishrei 5709 - October 30, 1948:

Operation Chiram was successfully completed, giving Israel effective control of the Galil.

27 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Rabbeinu Yitzchok — the R”I Hazakein, zt”l, of the Baalei Tosfot (the commentary of the Talmud) (1120 - 1200), (Others 4949 / 1188).
One of the greatest of the Baalei haTosafot, the R”I of Danfir, (as he was known), is very often quoted in their commentary to the Gemara.
He was the son of Rabbeinu Shmuel, son of Rabbeinu Simcha of Vitri, author of Machzor Vitri, who was a talmid of Rashi. His mother was Miriam, a sister of Rashbam and Rabbeinu Tam, all of whom were children of Rabbeinu Meir ben Shmuel, the son-in-law of Rashi Hakadosh.
Rabbeinu Yitzchak was married to the daughter of Rabbeinu Yehudah ben Rabbeinu Yom Tov. (According to another opinion, he was married to the daughter of the Riva”m.)
He was a disciple of his uncle, Rabbeinu Tam, and succeeded him as Rosh Yeshiva in Romrog (Ramerupt) after Rabbeinu Tam moved to Troyes. There he disseminated Torah to Klal Yisrael. Thereafter, he founded the yeshiva at Dampierre. He was always careful not to argue with his uncle/Rebbe and always showed the highest regard for him; he obeyed his commands and asked for his decisions in letters, and nullified his own opinion to that of Rabbeinu Tam.
Most of the Baalei Tosafot were his talmidim. The Study Hall of Rabbi Yitzchak is considered to be the source of the main body of the Tosfot commentary.
Sixty Torah scholars studied before him; each had mastered a specific masechta of Shas. Using this system and learning together, they clarified numerous difficult concepts throughout Shas.
Rabbeinu Yitzchak was a kabbalist who lived an ascetic life, davened at great length, and was always the last to leave shul. For Yom Kippur he would fast two days due to sfeika d’yoma — the reason that we in the Diaspora observe two days of each Yom Tov.
Among his students were Rav Shimshon of Sens (who edited many of our Tosefot, wrote important works in his own right, and led 300 families to settle in Eretz Yisrael in 1211), the Ros”h of Shantz, Rav Yitzchak ben Avraham (the Ritzba), his son Rabbeinu Elchanan, and Rabbeinu Baruch Baal HaTerumah, who went to live in Eretz Yisrael.
Ri had at least two sons, both of whom died in his lifetime: Rabbeinu Elchanan and Rabbeinu Shlomo.
The R”I was buried in Ramerupt, Germany. Through the efforts of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Gabbai, an ohel was built in recent years at the site believed to be the beit hachaim of many of the Baalei Tosafot, including the R”I.

HaRav Efraim Zalman Shor, zt”l, (5394 / 1633), author of Tevuot Shor. (Others 28 Tishrei). He was the son of Harav Naftali Hirsh Shor, a direct descendant of Rabbeinu Yosef Bechor Shor, one of the Baalei Tosafot. He was also the son-in-law of the famous Harav Shaul Wohl (Katzenellenbogen).
Reb Efraim Zalman became Rav first in the city of Shebarshin, and later in Horodna. After the petira of his father-in-law, he was appointed Rav of Brisk. He subsequently became Rav and Rosh Yeshiva in Lublin.
He authored Tevuot Shor, a brief summary of the Beit Yosef on all four sections of the Shulchan Aruch, adding the sources for many rulings not brought by the Beit Yosef himself.
Rav Efraim Zalman was niftar on 27 or 28 Tishrei 5394/1633. He was survived by his son Harav Yaakov, who also served as Rav in Brisk.

HaRav Elazar Rokeach of Amsterdam, zt”l, (1741), the Maaseh Rokeach.

HaRav Nosson Tzvi Kenig, zt”l, rosh kolel Breslav in Bnei Brak. (1997), author of Torat Nosson.

Harav Shraga Shmuel Schnitzler of Bekesh-Tchaba, zt”l, (5740 / 1979).


























28 Tishrei

28 Tishrei

28 Tishrei 4176 - 415:

The Romans removed the last Nasi, Rabban Gamliel (the fourth), from office, destroying the last vestiges of Jewish self-government after the churban

28 Tishrei 4946 - 1185:

Saladin. with his Moslem army, captured Yerushalayim from the Crusaders and allowed Jews to return to the city after an absence of 88 years.

28 Tishrei 5127 - 1366:

King Frederick III of Sicily forbade decorating the outside of shuls.

28 Tishrei 5691 - October 20, 1930:

The British White Paper restricting Jewish rights in Palestine and which caused the Jewish people untold trouble, was published.
The British government issued the Passfield White Paper, a formal statement of policy in Palestine. The paper was an attempt to appease the Arabs in the aftermath of the 1929 riots: During six days of Arab rioting in Yerushalayim, Gaza, Chevron and Tzefat, 135 Jews were killed and more than 300 wounded. The White Paper criticized the Jewish Agency for promoting Jewish employment opportunities, claiming that it damaged economic development of the Arab population. Further, the paper required that Jews obtain permission from the British authorities to purchase land. The result was that Jewish immigration was greatly curtailed.

28 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

Harav Avraham Kara, zt”l, (5303 / 1542), Rav of Prague.

HaRav Efraim Zalman Shor, zt”l, (5394 / 1633), author of Tevuot Shor. (see 27 Tishrei).

HaRav Nachman Tzvi HaLevi of Kolomaya, zt”l, (1829), son of Rav Yitzchak, Rav of Kolomaya.

HaRav Shmuel Landau of Prague, zt”l, (5598 / 1837), second son of the Noda BeYehuda and author of Shivat Tziyon. (others 25 Tishrei).

HaRav Avraham Eiger, the Lubliner Rebbe, zt”l , (5674 / 1914 – 5761 / 2000, others 1916 – 5763 / 2002). He was born into a home of Torah luminaries. His father was Reb Shlomo Eliezer, a direct descendant of the famed Rav Akiva Eiger, zt”l. Reb Avraham was born on Erev Rosh Chodesh Iyar 5674 / 1914, three months after the petirah of his great-grandfather, Harav Avraham Eiger of Lublin, zt”l, the Shevet Yehudah, after whom he was named. His older twin brother was named Reb Leibele after the Lubliner Rebbe, the Torat Emet, zt”l.
He  joined a long line of admorim stretching back through his grandfather, R’ Shlomo Eiger, and his great-grandfather, the great R’ Akiva Eiger, all the way to the founder of the dynasty, R’ Leibele Eiger, also known as the Torat Emet.
Before the outbreak of World War II, his grandfather, Reb Ezriel Meir, commanded him and his cousin to flee quickly from Poland, telling them that if he had the strength he, too, would try to escape. In the course of their wanderings, they miraculously escaped to Shanghai.
During Pesach in Shanghai, the other survivors noticed that he subsisted on a handful of potatoes.
After the war Reb Avraham traveled to France, where he married Rebbetzin Sima, a”h, the daughter of Reb Dovid Anilowitz of Mondzhov, z”l. (Rebbetzin Sima passed away on 7 Tishrei 5738 / 1977. The Lubliner Rebbe later married his second Rebbetzin, tbl”c, the daughter of Reb Yosef Ozer Yanovsky of Lodz, z”l.
In 1949, Reb Avraham went to Eretz Yisrael, settling in Yerushalayim for a year. At that time there was a Lubliner shtiebel in Tel Aviv, and the Chassidim begged him to move to their city and don the mantle of Rebbe. Reb Avraham sought the counsel of Gedolim. The Gedolim, including the Beit Yisrael, the Belzer Rebbe, the Chazon Ish, the Tchebiner Rav and others, persuaded him to assume the position.
So the Lubliner Rebbe moved to Tel Aviv, where he stood at the helm of his beit medrash on Ha-Aliyah Street.then setting up the Lubliner Beit Chassidim in Tel Aviv.
In 5715 / 1955, the Lubliner Rebbe relocated to Bnei Brak, and in 1963, he set up his Beit Midrash in the center of Zichron Meir.





























29 Tishrei

29 Tishrei

29 Tishrei 5211 - 1450:

The Jews of Lower Bavaria were expelled.

29 Tishrei 5631 - October 24, 1870:

France grants Algerian Jews citizenship. Previously, Jews living in the French colony were required to make individual requests for naturalization.

29 Tishrei 5700 - October 12, 1939:

The Nazis ordered that all Jewish areas in occupied Poland must establish "Jewish Councils." The stated purpose of the councils was to be the liaison between the Jewish community and the Nazis.

29 Tishrei 5700 - October 12, 1939:

First Jewish deportees left Vienna and Bohemia.

29 Tishrei 5701 - October 31, 1940:

This was the last day for Jews to leave their homes and move into the Warsaw ghetto.

29 Tishrei 5703 - October 10, 1942:

Four thousand Jews from Stanislavov, Poland were deported to the Belcez murder camp.

29 Tishrei 5703 - October 10, 1942:

Last transport of Austrian Jews left for Theresienstadt.

29 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

the Tanna Shimon Hatzaddik, (3449 / 313 B.C.E.), Kohain Gadol (High Priest) at the beginning of the days of the Second Beit HaMikdash, and the last of the Anshei Knesset Hagdolah. (Men of the Great Assembly).
As one of the first of the Sages mentioned in the Mishna (Oral Law), the Tradition came through him from the Anshei Knesset Hagdolah, which was lead by Ezra HaSofer (the Scribe). He served as the Kohain Gadol for 40 years. When Alexander the Great came the Land of Israel in 318 B.C.E. with the intention of conquering Yerushalayim, Shimon Hatzaddik went out to greet him wearing the garments of the Kohain Gadol. When the Emperor saw him he got off his chariot and bowed to the ground before him, saying, “The image of this man appeared before me whenever I went to battle victoriously, and if not, I was not victorious.” In this way a threatening danger passed from the Jewish people.
The Sages relate the story of the circumstances of his death: In the year he passed away Shimon Hatzaddik said, “This year I shall die.” They asked, “How do you know?” He answered: “Every Yom Kippur an old man appears dressed in white who accompanies me into the Holy of Holies and departs with me, this year an old man dressed in black appeared who entered with me but didn’t leave with me.” Seven days later he passed away.
Our Sages relate of seven open miracles that appeared in the Beit HaMikdash during his reign as Kohain Gadol.
He used to say (Pirkei Avot / Ethics of Our Fathers, Chapter 1): “The world was created for three things: Torah, Divine Service, and Acts of Kindness.”

HaRav Don Yitzhak Abrabanel (1437-1508), a leader during the Golden Age of Spanish Jewry. After having served as treasurer to the king of Portugal, Abrabanel became a minister in the court of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. In 1492, Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews who refused to convert to Christianity. In the Inquisition, an estimated 32,000 Jews were burned at the stake and another 200,000 were expelled from Spain. Abrabanel reportedly offered Queen Isabella the astronomical sum of 600,000 crowns to revoke the edict. Abrabanel was unable to prevent the expulsion and was exiled along with his people. Most of his rabbinic writings were composed in his later years when he was free of governmental responsibilities.

HaRav Meir Derbarmdiger of Berditchev, zt”l, (5566 / 1805).
Harav Meir was the son of Harav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev, the Kedushat Levi.
He was the son-in-law of Rav Eliezer, the Rav of Karlin, who was the father of Harav Moshe of Botoshan (father-in-law of Harav Yisrael of Ruzhin).
Reb Meir was a Chassid of his father; he writes in the introduction to his sefer that most of his works were inspired by what he heard from his father.
He would also travel to Harav Nachum of Chernobyl.
Reb Meir was niftar young, in his father’s lifetime, on 29 Tishrei 5566/1805. He was laid to rest in the family plot, where his father and brothers were later buried as well. It is related that Rav Levi Yitzchak escorted his son’s mittah with simchah, inspired by the fact that he was returning the soul of his son to its Creator in as pure a state as he had received it.
Rav Aharon of Chernobyl said that had Reb Meir lived on, he would have surpassed his father.
Reb Meir authored Kesser Torah on the Torah and Shas, of which one part was printed while he still lived. The Avnei Nezer quotes the sefer numerous times, praising it highly. Other divrei Torah in his name are found in the works of his father and brothers.
Reb Meir’s sons were Rav Yosef Yisrael Isser and Rav Eliezer. His sons-in-law were Rav Dovid Leib of Nadvorna; Rav Yechezkel Landau; and Rav Yitzchak of Neshchiz.

HaRav Avraham David, zt”l, (5601 / 1840), Rav of Butchach and author of Daat Kedoshim.

HaRav Menachem Mendel Hager of Vizhnitz, zt"l, (5590 / 1830 - 5645 / 1884), author of Tzemach Tzaddik.
Harav Menachem Mendel of Vizhnitz was born to Harav Chaim of Kossov,author of Torat Chaim, and named for his grandfather, Rav Menachem Mendel Hager of Kossov (1768-1825), founder of the Vizhnitz dynasty.
“Reb Mendele” proved to be an unusual genius, able to recite from memory the entire piece of the Shach on Shulchan Aruch Choshen Mishpat 66. That allayed any doubts the Ruzhiner Rebbe had about the qualifications of this young 6 year old illuy as a shidduch for his daughter Miriam.
And so in 5604 / 1844, at the age of 14, Reb Menachem Mendel married Rebbetzin Miriam. The wedding took place in Kishinev, Russia, where the Ruzhiner Rebbe’s family was then living.
As a young married man in the home of his father-in-law, Reb Mendel grew in Torah and middot. In addition to the generous allowance he received from his father, he also received a large share of support from his father-in-law, since the Ruzhiner court was known for its royalty.
He absorbed much of the vast spiritual richness of the Ruzhiner court, where he lived until his father-in-law’s petirah. After that, he moved back to his father’s home in Kossov. Later yet, when Reb Menachem Mendel was Rebbe in Vizhnitz, he often repeated divrei Torah he had heard from his father-in-law.
When Reb Chaim of Kossov was niftar in 5614 / 1854, each of his sons became Rebbe in a different location, the youngest, Reb Menachem Mendel, who was only 25, moved to Vizhnitz (Wischnitza), a small town at the foot of the Carpathian mountains, 30 miles from the Romanian border, in the Marmorosh area of Romania. He among his brothers attracted the majority of his father’s Chassidim.
Two of his major teachings were ahavat Yisrael and assisting a friend in distress. He stressed to his Chassidim the importance of brotherhood and friendship and demanded they give tzedakah generously. Indeed, the flow of his own charity giving was limitless. Reb Menachem Mendel especially drew close the youth.
His excellence in Torah was recognized by contemporary Gedolei Hador who, in their Torah correspondence, spoke of him with the highest regard. His diligence in Torah was tremendous. After Maariv, he learned until 10 o’clock, when he would receive his Chassidim. Afterward, he continued learning until four in the morning. In the summer, when the sun rose early, this meant that he could still be found learning at sunrise. After his very short nightly rest, he would learn Mishnayot, recite Tehillim, immerse in the mikveh, then daven, and resume his learning.
In 5644 / 1884 he traveled to a health resort in an attempt to recuperate from illness, but to no avail. That Sukkot the ailing Reb Menachem Mendel davened at home with a small minyan.
The Rebbe’s suffering was great, and a few days before his petirah, due to the pain, he could no longer speak above a whisper. On Leil Shabbat Bereishit, Erev Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan, as a storm raged outside and he sat in his chair dressed in his Shabbat attire, his soul soared Heavenward.
He was buried in Vizhnitz. His Torah thoughts are published in Tzemach Tzaddik.
He was succeeded by his son Rav Baruch (1845-1893).

HaRav Avraham Chaim Horowitz, zt”l, (5610 / 1850 - 5679 / 1918), the Plantcher Rav. His father was Harav Moshe of Rozvadov, the son of Harav Eliezer of Dzhikov, son of Harav Naftali Tzvi of Ropshitz. His mother was the daughter of Harav Yekusiel Yehudah Teitelbaum, the Yetev Lev of Sighet. Reb Avraham Chaim learned with his brother-in-law, Harav Shalom David Ungar. He was once tested by the Divrei Chaim of Sanz, who advised him to learn a lot of Shach as “it sharpens the mind.”
He married the daughter of Harav Betzalel Weinberger of Gorlitz. He became Rav in Plantch; following his father’s petira, he was named Rebbe there. Many thousands flocked to his court.
When Congress Poland expelled all foreigners, Reb Avraham Chaim had to move away, and he resettled in Radomishla. In 5671 / 1911, he moved to Reisha. During World War I he fled to Budapest, returning after the war to Reisha.
Reb Avraham Chaim was renowned for his hasmada. He davened with a bren, which gave everyone around him a spiritual lift. He had a sweet voice, and at his tischen he would sing niggunim that he composed.
Reb Avraham Chaim was niftar on 29 Tishrei 5679/1918, in Reisha at the age of 68.
His sons were Harav Shlomo, Rav in Pakshivnitz (he was niftar young); Harav Elazar, Hy”d, of Grodzhisk, martyred in 5703 / 1943; and Harav Dovid, Hy”d, Ravin Pshetzlav and later Rav in Reisha, martyred in 5702 / 1942.
His sons-in-law were Harav Elimelech Rubin, Hy”d, Rav in Zaslow; Harav Yoel Teitelbaum, the Divrei Yoel, zt”l, and Harav Efraim Horowitz, zt”l, the son of Harav Hershel of Rozvadov.

HaRav Shmuel Tzvi Danziger, zt”l, (5684 / 1923), the Tiferet Shmuel of Alexander. He was born in Turchin in 5620/1860. The son of Rav Yechiel Danziger, the first Rebbe of Alexander. and brother of Rav Yerachmiel Yisrael Yitzchak Danziger (1853-1910). .
As a youth, Reb Shmuel Tzvi reached exalted levels in Torah learning and in avodat Hashem, although he skillfully concealed his great achievements, mingling with people as if he were one of them. His father said of him, “He is a nistar [unrecognized Gadol].”
After the petirah of his father in 5654/1894, when his older brother Harav Yerachmiel Yisrael Yitzchak, the Yismach Yisrael, (1853-1910), was named Rebbe, Reb Shmuel Tzvi subordinated himself to him.
On 29 Tevet, Erev Rosh Chodesh Shevat 5670/1910, the Yismach Yisrael was niftar. Since he had no children, the obvious choice for successor as Rebbe was his brother, Reb Shmuel Tzvi. As Rebbe, Reb Shmuel Tzvi began revealing his true strengths as leader and Torah giant; qualities that were in him all the years, just hidden from the public eye, now came into full use.
As Rebbe, the Tiferet Shmuel led his Chassidim as his father had, in the tradition of the Vorka dynasty. He bore in his heart the burdens of each Chassid; he was more concerned for them than he was for himself. His tearful davening was infused with his vast yirat Shamayim, and his powerful voice brought all who heard him to teshuvah.
The Tiferet Shmuel took the initiative to build a Chassidic yeshivah in Poland in prophetic response to the great needs that would arise in his time, when the haskalah movement would gain strength and World War I would destroy the stability of the Jewish communities.
In Poland at the time, Torah was studied in shtieblach, and there were hardly any structured yeshivot. People would come to learn when they wished for as long as they wished, studying whatever they wished. The Alexander Yeshivah changed that system entirely. It provided a structure and a system that was so successful, it was adopted all over Poland.
The Alexander Yeshivah enjoyed brilliant but tragically short success curtailed by the Second World War.
During the Yamim Nora’im of 5684/1923, the Rebbe took ill and began to hint that his time was drawing near. On Tuesday, 29 Tishrei, Erev Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan, he left this world, leaving his Chassidim bereft. The Rebbe was buried in Alexander the next day. No hespedim were said at his levayah, as he had requested, and no elaborate titles were written on his matzeivah.
The Tiferet Shmuel was succeeded by his son Harav Yitzchak Menachem Mendel, (1880-1943), the Akeidat Yitzchak, Hy”d, who was martyred in Treblinka by the Nazis.
The Akeidat Yitzchak published his father’s work, Tiferet Shmuel, on the Torah.

HaRav Yisrael Shapiro, zt”l, (5703 / 1942), the Grodzisker Rebbe.

HaRav Akiva Glasner, zt”l, (1956). A descendant of the Chasam Sofer and of Rav Akiva Eiger, Rav Glasner succeeded his father, Rav Moshe Shmuel Glasner, as Chief Rabbi of Klausenberg, Rumania, in 1922, and served there until the deportation of the Jews in 1944. He was deported to Bergen-Belsen, but was saved from there on the famous "Kastner train."
(Rudolf Kasztner was a non-religious Hungarian Zionist who struck a deal with Adolf Eichman to save some 1,700 Jews in exchange for trucks. Years later, an Orthodox Israeli journalist accused Kastner of acting improperly, and Kastner sued for libel. After a celebrated trial, Kastner lost. He was exonerated on appeal, but only posthumously, having been murdered in 1957. Among those saved by Kastner was Rav Yoel Teitelbaum, the Satmar Rebbe)
After the War, Rav Glasner lived in Zurich until his death at age 71. His works include: Dor Dorim and Ikvei Hatzon.






























30 Tishrei

30 Tishrei
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

30 Tishrei 2936 - 826 B.C.E.:

The building of the first Beit Hamikdash was completed. Shlomo Hamelech postponed the Chanukat Habayit until the eighth of Tishrei a year later.

30 Tishrei 5719 - October 14, 1958:

The cornerstone of the Israel's Knesset building was laid in Yerushalayim / Jerusalem. The Knesset is composed of 120 members, the same size as the Great Assembly ("Knesset HaGedola") that served as the rabbinical body during the Second Temple era. (The Great Assembly redacted the biblical books Ezekiel, Daniel and Esther, and composed many prayers such as the Amidah.) Today, the Israeli Knesset is known as a bastion of democracy in the Middle East, with women, Arabs, and other minorities represented.

30 Tishrei 5734 - October 26, 1973:

Israeli forces under General Ariel Sharon trapped the Egyptian third Army on the eastern side of the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War.

30 Tishrei Yahrtzeits

HaRav Moshe from Shershov, zt”l, (1826).

HaRav Avraham Dovid Wahrman of Butchatch (1771-1840). Born in Nadvorna, Galicia (today, in the Ukraine). In addition to his father, Avraham Dovid also studied under his uncle Rav Yehoshua Charif. At age ten, Avraham Dovid became engaged to the daughter of Rav Zvi Hirsch Kara of Butchatch, and he moved to that town to study under his future father-in-law.
Beginning in 1791, Rav Avraham Dovid served as rabbi of Yazlowitz for 24 years. In 1814, Rav Zvi Hirsch Kara died, and Rav Avraham Dovid was offered the rabbinate of Butchatch in his place. It was there that he spent the remainder of his days.
His best known works are Da'at Kedoshim on parts of Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Deah, and Eishel Avraham on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim. The latter work is printed in the back of standard editions of the Shulchan Aruch.

HaRav Tzvi Hirsh Chiyus, zt"l, the Maharatz Chiyus (or Chayes or Hayot) ), Rav of Zolkov (5966 / 1805 - 5616 / 1855). Born on 28 Cheshvan 5566 / 1805 in Brody to Rav Meir Chiyus who was the son of Harav Menachem Manish Chiyus and a scion of the distinguished and noble Chiyus family, which included many esteemed Rabbanim. He was a descendent of Rav Yitzchak Chiyus, the Zera Yitzchak. The family could trace their lineage back to Dovid Hamelech.
Reb Tzvi Hersh was a notably talented youth as well as an extraordinary masmid. His rebbeim were Harav Ephraim Zalman Margulies, the venerated Rav of Brody, and Harav Elazar Landau of Brody, and Harav Zanvil Margulies of Przemysl.
He received smicha at the age of 21 from Rav Ephraim Zalman Margulies. Two years later, he was appointed Rav of Zolokova. In 5614 / 1854, he became Rav of Kalisch.
Reb Tzvi Hersh was very wealthy, embodying Torah u’gedulah b’makom echad — both Torah and wealth. He was a revered figure even among gentiles and governmental figures, and his closeness to ministers and influential personalities greatly benefited the frum community.
Reb Tzvi Hersh authored numerous sefarim, including Sheilot U’teshuvot Maharatz, Atreret Tzvi, Divrei Horaah, Mevo haTalmud and others. His thoughts on Shas are printed in the back of Gemaras used today.
In Minchat Kenaot he expresses strong opposition to even the slightest “reform” of traditional Yiddishkeit. Fearless as a lion, in this sefer he reveals the true, wicked intent of the maskilim who tried, unsuccessfully, to lure him into their trap.
Tragically, Reb Tzvi Hersh passed away at the age of 51. His son, Rav Yitzchak, author of Siach Yitzchak on Masechet Makkot and She’eilot U’teshuvot Sdei Yitzchak, was a gadol in his own right.

HaRav Yitzchak Meir Hazenpertz, zt”l, (5677 / 1916), author of Ohr Yakar, a commentary on the Ohr Hachaim Hakadosh al HaTorah.

HaRav Chaim Hager of Kossov, Hy”d (5703 / 1942), Son of Harav Moshe of Kossov, a descendant of the Torat Chaim of Kossov (founder of the Kossov-Vizhnitz dynasty). His maternal grandfather, Harav Avraham Menachem Steinberg, Rav of Brod, gave him semichah in 5680 / 1920.
Reb Chaim married the daughter of Harav Meshulam Feivish Wahrman of Yassi. After the petira of his father on 6 Tammuz 5685 / 1925, Reb Chaim became Rebbe in Kossov. Among his famous chassidim was Harav Dovid Sperber, the Brashover Rav and author of Afarkaste D’Anya.
In 5695 / 1935, Reb Chaim visited Eretz Yisrael. On his return he wanted to move there, but his chassidim begged him to stay on. In World War II, Reb Chaim moved to the ghetto in Kolomai. His Rebbetzin and his daughter (a kallah at the time) were killed there in 5702 / 1942. The chassidim worked on an escape plan for the Rebbe and asked him to return to Kossov for that. Hiding in a bunker, he escaped an aktzia, and decided to return to Kolomai. The Yidden who had paid a fortune to Hungarian guides asked them to wait another few days until they could bring Reb Chaim back. They refused, but said they would return on September 12.
Two days earlier, a group of chassidim set off for Kolomai to return the Rebbe to Kossov; however, the Rebbe refused to travel, as it was Shabbat. On Motzoei Shabbat, the Nazis conducted a thorough aktzia in Kolomai and took the Rebbe and his sons to Lelov. The Rebbe couldn’t tolerate the heat and the lack of air and water in the transport and he was niftar on 30 Tishrei, the first day of Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan, 5703 / 1942. All his sons were killed during the War. Hashem yinkom damam.





















31 Tishrei

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